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Encyclopedia > Baptism of Jesus
Major events in Jesus' life in the Gospels

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In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. In these accounts, John the Baptist preaches repentance before the coming judgment, baptism for the forgiveness of sins, and the imminent arrival of one far greater than he. Jesus comes to the Jordan River and is baptised there by John. After the baptism, the heavens open, a spirit like a dove descends, and God acclaims Jesus is his son. Jesus then goes into the wilderness where the devil tempts him, and when he returns he begins his ministry. In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist identifies Jesus as the Lamb of God[1], and the Spirit in the form of a dove descends on Jesus,[2] but there's no mention of Jesus' baptism. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Nativity by Caravaggio, 1609. ... The temptation of Christ in Christianity, refers to the temptation of Jesus by the devil as detailed in each of the Synoptic Gospels, at Matthew 4:1-11, Mark 1:12-13, and Luke 4:1-13. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ... The Transfiguration of Jesus is an event reported by the Synoptic Gospels in which Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Matthew 17:1-6, Mark 9:1-8, Luke 9:28-36). ... Palm Sunday is a moveable feast in the Christian calendar which falls on the Sunday before Easter. ... The narrative of Jesus and the Money Changers occurs in both the Synoptic Gospels and in the Gospel of John, although it occurs close to the end of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 11:15-19, 11:27-33, Matthew 21:12-17, 21:23-27 and Luke 19:45... For the plant species, see Ficus. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci According to the Gospels, the Last Supper (also called Lords Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his Twelve Apostles before his death. ... Look up Paraclete in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gethsemane by Wassilij Grigorjewitsch Perow The Arrest of Jesus is a pivotal event recorded in the Canonical Gospels, in which Jesus is arrested. ... The Sanhedrin Trial of Jesus is an event reported by all the Canonical Gospels, in Mark 14:53–65, Matthew 26:57–68, Luke 22:63–71 and John 18:12-24. ... Pontius Pilate (Latin Pontius Pilatus) was the governor of the small Roman province of Judea from 26 until 36? AD although Tacitus believed him to be the procurator of that province. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... Joseph of Arimathea by Pietro Perugino. ... entering into the sepulchre, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, clothed in a long white garment - an image from the Pericopes of Henry II In the Gospels, the empty tomb is the first sign of the Resurrection of Jesus. ... In the Supper at Emmaus, Caravaggio depicted the moment the disciples recognise Jesus The Resurrection appearances of Jesus are reported by the Canonical Gospels to have occurred after the discovery of the empty tomb. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... This article is about the Ascension of Jesus Christ. ... The Second Coming refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ, an event that will fulfill aspects of Messianic prophecy such as the resurrection of the dead, last judgment and full establishment of the Kingdom of God on earth (also called the Reign of God), including the... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... Forgiveness it is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[[:Template:American Psychological Association. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... Brass Agnus Dei from altar-front in the Cathedral of the Assumption, Louisville, Kentucky Lamb of God (Latin: Agnus Dei) is one of the titles given to Jesus in the New Testament and consequently in the Christian tradition. ...


Most Christian groups view the baptism of Jesus as an important event and a basis for the Christian rite of baptism (see also Acts 19:1-7). Historically, it has featured in debates about the nature of Christ (Christology). Adoptionists and other heretics considered Jesus to be a natural-born man and generally held his baptism to be the point at which he came to embody the Holy Spirit. Mainstream Christians generally associate Jesus' baptism with his human nature, rather than his divine nature. Baptism in early Christian art. ... Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian religions that trace their roots...


In Eastern Christianity, Jesus' baptism is commemorated on 6 January, the feast of Epiphany. In the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion, and some other Western denominations, it is recalled on a day within the following week, the feast of the Baptism of the Lord. In Roman Catholicism, the baptism of Jesus is one of the Luminous Mysteries of the Rosary. Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Wise Men (Magi) adoring the infant Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Baptism of the Lord is the name of a feast day observed in the Roman Catholic Church and in the Anglican (Episcopalian) Church. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary Beads. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ...


Stephen L Harris[3] has stated that historians know little about the historical Jesus but that they generally agree that he was baptised by John the Baptist. Scholars who follow the historical-critical method find this event credible because it satisfies the criteria of multiple attestation and dissimilarity, that is, multiple sources attest to its happening, and it is not the sort of detail that early Christians would make up. Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... The criterion of multiple attestation or independent attestation is a tool used by some Biblical scholars to help determine whether certain actions or sayings by Jesus in the New Testament are from Jesus or from the Church that followed. ... The criterion of dissimilarity is used by Bible scholars to mean either: A slightly more general version of the Criterion of embarrassment (B. Ehrman, N. Perrin), [1] Criterion of discontinuity (J. Meier), [2] Categories: | | ...

Contents

Location

The Jordan River
According to history and the bible, the Jordan River is the exact site of the baptism, called the Baptism site.
According to history and the bible, the Jordan River is the exact site of the baptism, called the Baptism site.
Part of the Madaba Map showing two possible Baptism locations
Part of the Madaba Map showing two possible Baptism locations

John is placed by the passage in the wilderness of Judea, which is generally taken to refer to the region of Judea sloping down from the highlands to the Dead Sea, an arid area not well suited to habitation. The term normally translated as wilderness is occasionally translated as desert, although there was enough moisture to allow for pastoralism. According to Pliny this region was home to the Essenes, and John could possibly have been one of their major leaders. According to Donald Guthrie, at this time wilderness was considered much closer to God than the more corrupt cities. ImageMetadata File history File links Jordan_river. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Jordan_river. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 214 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 214 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 3. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: , translated as Sea of Salt); (Arabic: ) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Pastoralism is a form of farming, such as agriculture and horticulture. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Essenes (sg. ... Dr Donald Guthrie was a British New Testament scholar who wrote several books and worked for the London Bible College, now London School of Theology. ...


According to some traditions, Jesus meets John at the Jordan River, five miles south of the Allenby Bridge, near Qasir al-Yahud on the West Bank. This location is today the site of an Eastern Orthodox monastery. However, the area is also currently an Israeli military district closed to the public, though open areas down the river are provided for Christian pilgrims who wish to perform baptism there themselves. The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Allenby Bridge is a bridge that crosses the Jordan River, and connects Jericho in the West Bank to the country of Jordan. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Monastery of St. ...


Another site with a good tradition showing early Christian activity on the Eastern bank in Jordan in Al Maghtas (Baptism, or Immersion in Arabic), is considered by many to be the site of the baptism of Jesus following UNESCO-sponsored excavations. The location fits with John 1:28: These things took place in Bethany beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing. As well as the evidence from archaeology and early pilgrims accounts. This site was visited by Pope John Paul II in March 2000, and in 2007 a documentary film was made about it. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as... In 2007, a documentary film was made about the baptism of Jesus, locating the event on the east side of the Jordan river. ...


Both locations appear on the Map of Madaba: Madaba Map The Madaba Map is the oldest extant map of the Holy Land and is dated to the middle of the 6th century AD. It was discovered late in the 19th century, during an excavation and reconstruction of a mosaic floor in St Georges Church in Madaba, Jordan. ...

  • Western Bank as Bethabara, (House of the Ford, or of the Crossing)

This entry incorporates text from the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia with some modernisation. ... Ænon - a Greek word coming from a Hebrew term ay-yin and meaning spring or natural fountain. It was a place near Salim where John the Baptist baptized (John 3:23). ... ...

The baptismal scene

In Luke Jesus is portrayed as one of a large crowd who had come to see John and is baptised before them, while Matthew makes no mention of anyone besides John and Jesus being at the scene. The scene opens in Luke and Matthew with John delivering a polemic apparently against the Pharisees and Sadducees who are present. Luke and Matthew then re-join the account of Mark, which does not contain the polemic, by portraying Jesus as going down to John and being baptised by him. The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings...


The polemic

James Tissot's John and the Pharisees
James Tissot's John and the Pharisees

Once John has been introduced into the narrative, both Matthew and Luke have him immediately described as meeting a group of people, and calling them a brood of vipers, urging them to repent. That Mark does not contain this lecture while the other two synoptics do has led scholars to believe that this section comes from the Q document. Luke has John addressing the people that have come to see him in general, while Matthew has him address the Pharisees and Sadducees in particular. According to several scholars, the presence of the Pharisees and Sadducees does not indicate their intent to join John's movement, but rather their wish to investigate it and decide whether it is a threat to their own power. The historicity of their joint presence at this event has been questioned[citation needed], since the Pharisees and Sadducees were bitter and ancient rivals. Image File history File links John_and_the_Pharisees. ... Image File history File links John_and_the_Pharisees. ... James Joseph Jacques Tissot (October 15, 1836 – August 8, 1902) was a French painter. ... A viper is a venomous snake belonging to the Viperidae family. ... Repentance is the feeling and act in which one recognizes and tries to right a wrong, or gain forgiveness from someone that they wronged. ... The Synoptic Gospels are the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke. ... The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ... The word Pharisees comes from the Hebrew פרושים prushim from פרוש parush, meaning a detached one, that is, one who is separated for a life of purity. ... The sect of the Sadducees - from Hebrew Tsdoki צדוקי [], whence Zadokites or other variants - was founded in the 2nd century BCE, possibly as a political party, and ceased to exist sometime after the 1st century CE. The Hebrew name, Tsdoki, indicates their claim that they are the followers of the teachings...


A number of theories have been advanced to explain why Matthew directs John's attack to these groups while Luke focuses on the general multitude. Eduard Schweizer believes that since Matthew was writing for a more Jewish audience than Luke, Matthew did not want to offend all Jews and thus focused only on the religious authorities, who had become a direct threat to the Christianity of Matthew's time. Other scholars disagree with this view; some hold instead that Pharisees and Sadducees should be understood as a catch-all term for the Jews in general. Eduard Schweizer was a Swiss New Testament scholar who taught at the University of Zurich for an extended period. ...


Brood of vipers was a common expression at the time indicating those filled with malice, which RT France believes could be rooted in Jeremiah (46:22). Later in Matthew the expression is employed by Jesus himself on two occasions (Matthew 12:34 and 23:33). This insult has been borrowed by a number of other writers, including Shakespeare in Troilus and Cressida, Anthony Trollope in Barchester Towers, Somerset Maugham in Catalina, and in the title of François Mauriac's Le noeud de viperes. In Matthew and Luke, the word used for brood implies Illegitimacy, and so scholars, such as Malina and Rohrbaugh, consider a more literal translation to be snake bastards. Richard T France, MA BD PhD is a New Testament scholar and Anglican Rector. ... The Book of Jeremiah, or Jeremiah (יִרְמְיָהוּ Yirmiyahu in Hebrew), is part of the Hebrew Bible, Judaisms Tanakh, and later became a part of Christianitys Old Testament. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The History of Troilus and Cressida is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written around 1602, shortly after the completion of Hamlet. ... Anthony Trollope (April 24, 1815 – December 6, 1882) became one of the most successful, prolific and respected English novelists of the Victorian era. ... Barchester Towers is a novel by Anthony Trollope, first published in 1857. ... W. Somerset Maugham as photographed in 1934 by Carl Van Vechten. ... Catalina may refer to: In geography: Catalina, Arizona Catalina, Romania Santa Catalina, Ilocos Sur Santa Catalina, Negros Oriental Santa Catalina Island, California Santa Catalina Mountains Catalina, New South Wales Cătălina, Romania In transportation: Catalina 30, twenty nine foot 10 inch long fiberglass sailboat first produced in 1974 by... François Mauriac (October 11, 1885 – September 1, 1970) was a French author, winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature. ... // Illegitimacy is a term that was once in common use for the status of being born to parents who were not validly married to one another. ... (Malina can also be a surname. ... Serpent is a word of Latin origin (serpens, serpentis) which is ultimately derived from the Sanskrit term serp, that is normally substituted for snake in a specifically mythic or religious context, in order to distinguish such creatures from the field of biology. ...


Superficially, the implication of illegitimacy and the phrase don't think to yourselves "we have Abraham for a father" could be seen as an attack on the importance that Judaism placed on bloodlines. Some, such as France, do not support this interpretation, and instead see the phrase as a reference to the reliance of the Pharisees and Sadducees on their own religious authority to achieve salvation. Clearly, those having formal hierarchies in their church, particularly Roman Catholicism in regard to the Pope, do not support the interpretation of France. // Illegitimacy is a term that was once in common use for the status of being born to parents who were not validly married to one another. ...


John goes on to refer to future wrath, although Christians interpret this as referring to the righteous indignation of God. To avoid this wrath, John is described as stating that the fruit of repentance should be made manifest, with every tree not bearing fruit being subject to destruction. The imagery used is of God as a lumberjack cutting down trees and then burning them, much like the imagery at Isaiah 10:34 and Jeremiah 46:22, which may have been the ultimate origin of this verse. An argument for Aramaic primacy can be put forward by this since in Aramaic, the word for a tree root is ikkar, while cutting down is kar, hence in Aramaic the description is an example of punning. Scholars of the eschatological school [4] believe that this verse originally referred to an imminent last judgement, which, when it failed to occur, was re-interpreted by later Christianity as referring to individual damnation. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lumberjacks in Oregon, c. ... Aramaic primacy is the view that the Christian New Testament and/or its sources were originally written in the Aramaic language. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a figure of speech, or word play which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words within a phrase or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...


In Luke, the crowd react favourably to John's speech, but Matthew neglects to mention the reaction of the crowd.


This passage has become a source of much dispute over soteriology. While the passage could be read as indicating that good works are merely the outgrowth of internal repentance just as good fruit are the product of a healthy tree, it could also be more simply be regarded as indicating that good works are repentance. This verse thus became a part of the larger debate over the doctrine held by Protestants about justification by faith. The Augsburg Confession, for instance, states that it is taught among us that such faith should produce good fruits and good works and that we must do all such good works as God has commanded, but we should do them for God’s sake and not place our trust in them as if thereby to merit favor before God. Soteriology is the study of salvation. ... Sola fide (by faith alone), also historically known as the justification of faith, is a doctrine held by some Protestant denominations of Christianity, which asserts that it is on the basis of their faith that believers are forgiven their transgressions of the Law of God, rather than on the basis... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ...


Jesus' baptism

The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449
The Baptism of Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449

In Luke, Jesus is merely another member of the crowd that had come to see John, and is baptised by an unnamed individual who may or may not be John. Matthew and Mark report that Jesus seeks out John to be baptised by him. Jesus' words in Matthew are the first words that Matthew records Jesus as speaking. Since Matthew has traditionally been placed as the first book in the New Testament, these are consequently the first words in the Bible that are attributed to Jesus. Consequently, scholars have paid considerable attention to them, especially owing to their vagueness. Matthew has Jesus say that John should baptise him to fulfil all righteousness. The Baptism of Jesus Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Baptism of Jesus Christ, by Piero della Francesca, 1449 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Baptism of Christ, 1450 (National Gallery, London). ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ...


Righteousness is an important concept in Matthew and it is usually considered that Matthew uses it to mean obedience to God; cf. Deuteronomy 6:25. Matthew, writing primarily for Jews, who were grounded in the Old Testament, often uses the word "fulfill", usually to indicate that an Old Testament prophecy has been fulfilled by Jesus. Hence the phrase fulfill all righteousness can be interpreted as implying that Jesus fulfilled some aspect of the Old Testament Law. Righteousness is an important concept in the theology of Judaism and Christianity. ...


In the account of Jesus' baptism given in the Gospel of Luke, it is mentioned that Jesus was about 30 years old (Luke 3:23). This age requirement for priests and Levites was given in the Old Testament Law (Numbers 4:3,47). In addition a priest had to be called by God (Hebrews 5:4-10), and washed with water by an existing priest (Exodus 29:4, Leviticus 8:6). John the Baptist was a priest, inheriting the office from his father (Exodus 29:9, Numbers 25:13, Luke 1:4,13). This explains why Jesus, who according to Christianity is sinless, submitted to a ritual that signified repentance for sin. (However, Jesus was not ordained into the priesthood of Aaron, but into a superior priesthood - the Order of Melchizedek (Psalm 110:4, Hebrews 5:6, Genesis 14:18ff).) Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule, or the state of having committed such a violation. ...


Other answers are given by different Christian groups, since various branches of Christianity vary widely in their Christology. Unlike Mark and Luke, Matthew emphasizes that Jesus immediately leaves the water. Gundry believes this is because baptism would traditionally have been followed by a confessing of sins and the author of Matthew wanted to indicate that Jesus did not undergo this part of the ritual, owing to being sinless. Christology is a field of study within Christian theology which is concerned with the nature of Jesus the Christ. ... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ...


The baptism of Jesus is considered important by most Christian churches, but some Christian sects reject the baptism of Jesus outright; for example, the medieval Gnostic Bogomils saw John the Baptist as an agent of an evil deity (named Yaltabaoth), and took his ritual to be an attempt to spread the corruption of the earthly world to Jesus. Modern Christian baptismal practices are usually based not so much on the baptism of Jesus as rather on Jesus instruction to his disciples to go out and baptise (Matthew 28:19 and on the baptismal accounts in Acts. Gnosticism is a blanket term for various religions and sects most prominent in the first few centuries A.D. General characteristics The word gnosticism comes from the Greek word for knowledge, gnosis (γνῶσις), referring to the idea that there is special, hidden mysticism (esoteric knowledge... Bogomils was the name of a defunct Gnostic social-religious movement and doctrine which originated in Macedonia in X century at the time of Peter I of Bulgaria (927-969) as a reaction of the state and clerical oppression. ... In religion Evil refers to anything against the will or law of the god(s) and in ethics, evil refers to violations of an empathetic ideal which manifests as morally or ethically objectionable thought, speech, or action; behavior or thought which is hateful, cruel, violent, or devoid of conscience. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Demiurge (or Yaldabaoth, Yao, Bythos and several other variants, such as Ptahil used in Mandaeanism) refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


However, for Anabaptists and other credobaptists the baptism of Jesus is important evidence for how these baptisms should be carried out; the text clearly states that Jesus was baptised in a river, and was thus at least partially immersed. Hence, Anabaptists insist immersion is the proper procedure over against denominations that practice sprinkling or pouring. Since Luke states that Jesus was thirty years old at the time, Anabaptists also reject infant baptism. J. Murray responds to these arguments in his book Christian Baptism. Interestingly, some of the earliest Anabaptists (at the time of the Protestant Reformation) did not baptize by immersion. Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see...


Early Christian practice[4] indicates that the baptism of Jesus may perhaps have been done by only partial immersion.[5] In the New Testament, the word βαπτίζω (baptizo), meaning "baptize", is never used in a context in which it clearly means total immersion, but is twice used to mean only partial immersion or simply washing: Luke 11:38 and Mark 7:3–4a (see explanation in the article on Baptism). This is only a possibility, no more certain than speculation that Jesus' baptism was instead by total immersion. Baptism in early Christian art. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


The earliest gospel, Mark, has the simplest version of Jesus' baptism, in which only Jesus sees the spirit and John pays no special attention to Jesus. In the middle gospels, the scene is more elaborate, and in Matthew John at first refuses to baptize Jesus. After all, if baptism is for the forgiveness of sin, then whay would Jesus need to be baptized? In the last-written gospel, John, the Baptist identifies Jesus as the Son of God but does not baptize him.


Divine provenance

Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ
Francesco Albani's The Baptism of Christ

After Jesus is baptised, the narrative describes the heavens as opening, the Spirit of God descending as a dove, and a voice announcing that Jesus is God's beloved Son and that God is well pleased with him. The opening heavens echo the beginning of the Book of Ezekiel. Some ancient manuscripts read opened up to him rather than just opened up, suggesting that this event is more private, and so explaining why the crowds that Luke argues were present apparently did not notice. This, together with the symbology of the dove, is seen as one of the most Trinitarian passages in the entire New Testament, although liberal scholars of Christian history argue that the idea of the Holy Ghost as a distinct figure only became a mainstream view some centuries after Matthew was written, and prior to that Christianity was Binitarian. Image File history File links Francesco_Albani_-_The_Baptism_of_Christ. ... Image File history File links Francesco_Albani_-_The_Baptism_of_Christ. ... Francesco Albani, or (Albano) (August 17, 1578 - October 4, 1660), Italian painter, was born at Bologna. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Ezekiel the Prophet of the Hebrew Scriptures is depicted on a 1510 Sistine Chapel fresco by Michelangelo. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Binitarianism is a theology of two in one God, as opposed to one (unitarianism) or three (trinitarianism). ...


While Luke is explicit about the Spirit of God descending in the shape of a dove, the wording of Matthew is vague enough that it could be interpreted only to suggest that the descent was in the style of a dove. There was a wide array of symbolism attached to doves at the time these passages were written. While Clarke believes the symbolism pointed to Noah sending out a dove to search out new land and hence is a symbol of re-birth, Albright and Mann note that in Hosea, the dove is a symbol for the nation of Israel. In the Graeco-Roman world the dove was a symbol of purity due to its whiteness and the belief that it had no bile, it was also a symbol of Aphrodite, goddess of love, lust and beauty. Whatever the original intent of the Synoptic Gospels, the dove imagery has become a well known symbol for the Holy Ghost in Christian art. Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... Bile (or gall) is a bitter, yellow or green alkaline fluid secreted by hepatocytes from the liver of most vertebrates. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 Aphrodite (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη; Latin: Venus) (IPA: English: , Ancient Greek: , Modern Greek: ) is the classical Greek goddess of love, lust, and beauty. ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The Holy Spirit, from the Christian viewpoint, while related to Gods will, is not Gods will personified. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ...


John the Baptist in the narrative

Main article: John the Baptist

For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ...

Persona

Hieronymus Bosch's St. John the Baptist
Hieronymus Bosch's St. John the Baptist

The narrative begins with a description of a man that Matthew names John the Baptist, Luke names John the son of Zacharias, and many manuscripts of Mark refer to as John the baptiser. On this latter name, Anabaptists insist on the more emphatic translation John the Immerser. John's title reflects his practice of baptising people in the Jordan. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (589x750, 174 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (589x750, 174 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Hieronymus Bosch, (latinized; also Jeroen Bosch or his real name Jeroen van Aken) (c. ... Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ...


John is described as having sparse food and uncomfortable clothing, including the wearing of hairshirts. The description of John the Baptist has played an important role in the development of Christian monasticism, with John viewed as a model ascetic. However, Calvin wholly rejected this interpretation, seeing this description simply as an accurate portrait of anyone that was forced to live in the wilderness, and instead seeing John's holiness and popularity not because of his asceticism but despite it. Albright and Mann state that the description of John the Baptist's clothing is clearly meant to echo the similar description of Elijah in Kings. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cilice. ... The Order of Friars Minor is a major mendicant movement founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. ... The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ...


John the Baptist's diet, which the bible indicates was locusts and honey, has been the centre of much discussion. For many years it was traditional to interpret locust not as referring to the insect, but rather to the seed pods of the carob tree. Albright and Mann believe that this attempt to portray John the Baptist as eating seed pods was a combination of concern for having such a revered figure eating insects and also a belief that a true ascetic should be completely vegetarian. It is certainly the case that in Greek the two words are very similar, but most scholars today feel this passage is referring to the insects, particularly since the other 22 times the word is used in the Bible, it quite clearly refers to insects. Locusts are still commonly eaten in Arabia, and like many insects are quite nutritious. While most insects were considered unclean, Leviticus permits locusts. What is meant by honey is also a subject that has been under dispute. Aside from the obvious product of bees, scholars such as Jones believe that it refers to gum from the tamarisk tree, a tasteless but nutritional type of liquid. A jar of honey, shown with a wooden honey server and scones/biscuits. ... Desert locust Nymph of Locust Schistocera americana with distinct wing-rudiments Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria Locust from the 1915 Locust Plague For other uses, see Locust (disambiguation). ... Carob trees near Mehmetcik, Northern Cyprus Carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua) is a species native to the Mediterranean region, cultivated for its edible seed pods. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption. ... It has been suggested that Clean animals be merged into this article or section. ... Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Tamarix africana Tamarix anglica Tamarix aphylla Tamarix canariensis Tamarix chinensis Tamarix dioica Tamarix gallica Tamarix hispida Tamarix indica Tamarix juniperina Tamarix parviflora Tamarix ramosissima Tamarix tetrandra The genus Tamarix, known as tamarisk or (US) saltcedar, comprises about 50-60 species of deciduous or evergreen shrubs or small trees growing...


Message

John the Baptist in the Wilderness by Geertgen tot Sint Jans

After announcing John's existence, the Gospel of Matthew immediately goes on to portray him as delivering the message Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is nigh, a saying adopted by doom-sayers everywhere in the western world. In both Luke and Mark, however, the message is absent. Clarke notes that this is the first of twenty-nine references to the Kingdom of Heaven in the Gospel of Matthew. Luke and Mark tend to prefer the term "kingdom of God." That Matthew uses the word heaven is often seen as a reflection of the sensibilities of the Jewish audience this gospel was directed to, in this case Matthew trying to avoid using the word God. Most scholars believe the two phrases are theologically identical because of the large number of parallel passages in Matthew and Luke in which Matthew uses "heaven" and Luke uses "God." Robert Foster rejects this view, arguing that Matthew does use the phrase "Kingdom of God" in places. He asserts that the Kingdom of God represents the earthly domain that Jesus' opponents such as Pharisees thought they resided in, while the Kingdom of Heaven represents the truer spiritual domain of Jesus and his disciples. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (411x636, 636 KB)Geertgen tot Sint Jans (15th century): John the Baptist File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (411x636, 636 KB)Geertgen tot Sint Jans (15th century): John the Baptist File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... John the Baptist in the Wilderness by Geertgen tot Sint Jans Geertgen tot Sint Jans (c 1460 in Leyden, Netherlands – c 1490 in Haarlem, Netherlands, sometimes known as Gerrit Gerritsz), was a 15th century Dutch painter active in Haarlem. ... The Kingdom of Heaven (or the Kingdom of God, Hebrew מלכות השמים, malkhut hashamayim, Greek basileia tou theou) is a key concept detailed in all the three major monotheistic religions of the world — Islam, Judaism and Christianity. ...


Some scholars[attribution needed] believe that when it was written this phrase was intended to be eschatological with the Kingdom of Heaven referring to the end times. According to this theory, when the last judgement failed to occur, Christian writers gradually redefined the term to refer to a spiritual state within, or worked to justify a much delayed end time. This passage, they say, presented a difficulty in this later endeavour as the phrase translated as "at hand" or "is near" both refer to an imminent event. Albright and Mann suggest that a better translation would be, The kingdom is fast approaching. France sees it as even more immediate suggesting that the phrase should be read as referring to "a state of affairs that is already beginning and demands immediate action."; i.e., "The kingdom of God is here." Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... Image:Michelangelo - Fresco of the Last Judgment. ...


Others such as O. Cullmann interpret John (and Jesus -- Mark 1:15) to refer to an inaugurated kingdom; one which is present now but is not yet come in all of its fulness, i.e. the kingdom being here (because the king has arrived), but without being in the fullness of its glory. Oscar Cullmann (25 February 1902 Strasbourg - 16 January 1999 Chamonix) was a Christian theologian in the Lutheran tradition. ...


The word translated as repent (metanoo) is translated by R.T. France as "return to God." Albright and Mann state that at the time a general repentance was seen as necessary before the arrival of the messiah; evidence from Qumran seems to substantiate this claim [5]. Clarke notes that in the Vulgate of St. Jerome the word is translated, both here and in Matthew 4:17, as paenitentiam agite, which he interprets, not as "repent", but as "be penitent", in spite of the use of paenitentiam agere in the sense of "repent" by the late Classical Latin writers Sallust, Quintilian, Pliny the Younger and Seneca.[6] Clarke then goes on to claim that Jerome's translation played a central role in the development of the Catholic doctrine of penance. With the increased knowledge of Greek in the Renaissance this translation began to be criticized, with Lorenzo Valla first pointing out the supposed error. Erasmus' 1516 translation and commentary (in Latin) became the first to use "repentance" (in Latin, paenitentia?) rather than "penitence" (in Latin, paenitentia?). It was from the doctrine of penitence[citation needed] that the concept of indulgences had grown, and these new translations played an important role in Martin Luther's and other Protestants' reappraisal of these practices. Today the word is universally translated as repentance and the Catholic doctrine is grounded more in theology than in this passage.[citation needed] Repentance is the feeling and act in which one recognizes and tries to right a wrong, or gain forgiveness from someone that they wronged. ... The Vulgate Bible is an early 5th century version in Latin, partly revised and partly translated by Jerome on the orders of Pope Damasus I in 382. ... For other uses see: Jerome (disambiguation) Jerome (about 340 - September 30, 420), (full name Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin. ... Gaius Sallustius Crispus, simply known as Sallust, (86-34 BC). ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ... Seneca may refer to: Roman figures (any links to Seneca in Roman pages should be relinked to one of these two) Marcus (or Lucius) Annaeus Seneca also called rhetor, Roman orator and father of Seneca the philosopher and dramatist. ... Penance is repentance of sins, as well as the name of the Catholic Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession. ... Lorenzo Valla Lorenzo (or Laurentius) Valla (c. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (also Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, probably 1466 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...


The two terms can have very different meanings though. The term 'kingdom of Heaven' implies a place that god resides within; the 'kingdom of God' is what he presides over and is immanent within, our own reality.[citation needed]


Saying that "the kingdom of God is here (or 'nigh' =close)" is a statement of fact for someone who believes that God is present everywhere. "The Kingdom of God is close", means "look around you at this manifestation of God, He is nearer than you think."[citation needed]


John's purpose according to the synoptic gospels

A woodcut from the 1516 Das Plenarium oder Ewangely buoch showing John the Baptist preaching
A woodcut from the 1516 Das Plenarium oder Ewangely buoch showing John the Baptist preaching

In all three of the synoptic gospels, John the Baptist is described as completing a prophecy made by Isaiah; as the individual who would make straight the paths of him. The quote, coming from Isaiah 40:3, refers in its original context to making straight the paths of God, and specifically in reference to later escape from the Babylonian Captivity. Rather than the Masoretic text, the quote uses the wording of the Septuagint, as is usual for New Testament quotations of the Old Testament. There are actually two justifiable punctuations for the quote, the traditional one being the voice of one crying in the wilderness: Prepare ....; the other reading, pointed to by the masoretic version of Isaiah, and hence supported by most modern scholars, is the voice of one crying: In the wilderness prepare ...., which substantially changes the meaning, and is far less clearly applicable to Christian interpretations of John.[citation needed] Image File history File links John_the_Baptist_preaching_-_1516. ... Image File history File links John_the_Baptist_preaching_-_1516. ... Four horsemen of the Apocalypse by Albrecht Dürer Ukiyo-e woodcut, Ishiyama Moon by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1889) Woodcut is a relief printing artistic technique in printmaking in which an image is carved into the surface of a block of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface... // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ...


John goes on, in the narrative, to refer to his successor as separating the wheat from the chaff, via winnowing. The term winnowing fork is most likely to be the implement that the original narrative described the successor as using to do this, but older translations are very variant, for example having fan, shovel, or broom. In the Eastern Orthodox church the word was most often interpreted as broom and consequently Jesus is commonly depicted holding a broom in Eastern Orthodox iconography.[citation needed] For the same reason that John's humility in the face of Jesus is often doubted,[citation needed] John, whose movement appears to have remained far more significant at the turn of the first century than Christianity was,[citation needed] is often considered by non-Christian scholars to never to have made such a prediction about his successor, it instead being pious forgery by the authors of the synoptics.[citation needed] Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Chaff is the seed casings and other inedible plant matter harvested with cereal grains such as wheat. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


The importance of John

An illustration of John the Baptist preaching about the Kingdom of Heaven, from the 1875 Young People's Illustrated Bible History
An illustration of John the Baptist preaching about the Kingdom of Heaven, from the 1875 Young People's Illustrated Bible History

Matthew and Luke describe Jews coming from Jerusalem, all of Judea, and the areas around the Jordan River to hear John the Baptist preach. This description is considered quite historically credible as it is backed up by Josephus. In his Antiquities of the Jews he says of John the Baptist that the others came in crowds about him, for they were very greatly moved by hearing his words [6]. At the time Josephus was writing, around 97 AD, John the Baptist seems to have been an exceptionally more significant figure than Jesus - while John is frequently mentioned, hardly anyone appears to have mentioned Jesus at all, in all of Josephus' writing, there are only two very short passages which could possibly refer to Jesus, and these are heavily disputed with most scholars seeing them as forgeries. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (783x642, 276 KB)From the 1875 Young Peoples Illustrated Bible History from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (783x642, 276 KB)From the 1875 Young Peoples Illustrated Bible History from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Antiquities of the Jews was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus in the year A.D. 93. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Events Pope Evaristus succeeds Pope Clement I Tacitus advanced to consulship. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ... This article is part of the Jesus and history series of articles. ...


Unlike Luke and Mark, Matthew has John being hesitant about baptising Jesus, with John stating that Jesus should be the one baptising him, though it doesn't exactly state why. The Gospel of the Nazoraeans, a text which has very strong similarities to Matthew, adds a clarification to this story, stating that it was because of Jesus' sinlessness that John felt he was the one who should be baptised. In the environment the author of Matthew is presumed to have been writing in there would still have been many followers of John the Baptist who felt he was equal to or superior to Jesus. And while the followers of John are often presented as becoming followers of Jesus, the ancient Mandaean religion, which survives much reduced to the present day, claims to originate in a direct line from the followers of John, without being tainted by following Jesus. The Gospel of the Nazarenes is a book of the New Testament Apocrypha. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ...


Baptism and John to my mum in bed

Fra Angelico's Baptism of Christ
Fra Angelico's Baptism of Christ

The origins of John's baptism ritual are much discussed amongst scholars. While various forms of baptism were practised throughout the Jewish world at this time, only those of John the Baptist and Qumran are associated with an eschatological purpose, leading many scholars to connect John to the group that wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls. In Qumran, however, baptism was a regular ritual for individuals rather than the one-time event that the synoptics present it as. Obviously that the synoptics describe John as baptising people in the once-off form could simply be due to them putting a spin on John's historic behaviour due to being motivated to present him in accordance with Christian theology. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (569x700, 40 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (569x700, 40 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Blessed Fra Angelico, (c. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Albrecht Dürer - Four horsemen of the Apocalypse This article is about the concept of the end of the world. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet...


John the Baptist is described by Mark, Luke, and Matthew as referring to a successor, who will baptise with the Holy spirit and with fire. While John is presented as describing this successor as coming after him, the word usually translated after does not have a chronological meaning, but means instead after in sequence. It is often used to indicate that the one following is a disciple of the previous one (e.g., Matthew 4:19), but it also can simply mean behind (Matthew 16:23) or after (Luke 19:14, "after him"). At the time, the disciple of a Rabbi would be expected to perform menial chores, but as sandals were considered unclean, a view still persisting in the Middle East today, not even a disciple would deal with them, only the lowest slave. Thus when the text has John presenting himself as not worthy to carry/untie the sandals of his successor, he is presenting himself as extremely lowly in comparison. Modern multi-colored Sandalette Yoga sandals In some parts of the United States, this type of sandal is referred to in slang as the mandal in that it is worn primarily by men. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Fire was often a symbol of wrath, and so linking the Holy Spirit with it superficially appears to clash with portrayals of this Spirit elsewhere in the New Testament as a gentle thing. Some translations avoid using the word fire due to this, but when the Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered, it appeared that several of its texts make the connection between Holy Spirit and wrath, and so most scholars now see the wording here as original, and the other portrayals as misinterpreted. See also Acts 2.


It is worth noting that John baptising by water and his successor by fire has parallels with Sumerian mythology. Enki, who the Babylonians later knew as Ea, had become known as Oannes by the time of John, and Oannes is almost identical to Ioannes, which is how the name of John the Baptist is spelt in the original Greek of the New Testament. Enki/Oannes was the god of (pure) water, and although the first god, the god of creation, over time he lost significance, while the sun god grew more important. Hence in folklore of the period in the surrounding region, Oannes, god of water, was superseded by the god of the sun, the god of fire. That this folklore surrounding Oannes may have influenced a narrative built around a historic figure named Ioannes, is of course somewhat tenuous, though the connection is frequently made by those who question the Historicity of Jesus. Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... Enki ( DEN.KI lord of the earth) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief God of the city of Eridu. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the veracity of Jesus existence. ...


Non-canonical and heretical accounts

Jesus' baptism figures into noncanonical accounts and into some heretical beliefs.


Adoptionism

Adoptionism, the heresy that the man Jesus was adopted as the Son of God, was one of two popular Christologies in the 2nd century. One type of adoptionism, such as that held by the Jewish Christian Ebionites, held that Jesus became the Son of God at his baptism. The other type held that Jesus became the Son of God at his resurrection. Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... The Ebionites were a religious communal sect dedicated to following Jewish Law but through Jesus expounding of the Law, which he said to have revealed during his sermon on the mount. ...


Cerinthus

The first-century proto-Gnostic Cerinthus taught that the Christ (a spirit) came to the man Jesus at his baptism, remained distinct from him (while guiding and teaching him), and then left him at the crucifixion. Cerinthus was the leader of a late first-century or early 2nd century sect, an offshoot of the Ebionites yet similar to Gnosticism in some respects, interesting in that it demonstrates the wide range of conclusions that could be drawn from the life and teachings of Jesus. ...


Historicity

Scholars of the historical-critical method, while questioning other elements of the Gospel narratives, generally agree that the historical Jesus was baptized by John. Like the crucifixion, it meets what they call the criterion of multiple attestation and the criterion of embarrassment. Even scholars who credit very little of the Gospel narratives, such as Paula Fredriksen, affirm the historicity of Jesus' baptism. Higher criticism is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... This article is about Jesus the man, using historical methods to reconstruct a biography of his life and times. ... The criterion of multiple attestation or independent attestation is a tool used by some Biblical scholars to help determine whether certain actions or sayings by Jesus in the New Testament are from Jesus or from the Church that followed. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Paula Fredriksen is a historian, and author of two books. ...

  • Multiple Attestation: Three canonical Gospels and various non-canonical sources agree that John baptized Jesus. The fourth canonical Gospel and other canonical and non-canonical sources also attest to John's ministry of baptism. Josephus, for example, recounts John's ministry. Thus Jesus' baptism meets this criterion, while less well-attested elements of the Gospels, such as the Massacre of the Innocents, do not.
  • Embarrassment: Scholars of this method give special credence to Gospel accounts that are "dissimilar" to the image that early Christians generally portray of Jesus. This why some refer to this criterion as that of "dissimilarity". Since Jesus was said to be without sin (and not in need of baptism) and to be greater than John, early Christians would have had no motive to invent such a scene, which would have been an embarrassment to them. The last-written Gospel does not mention Jesus' baptism. Thus Jesus' baptism meets this criterion, while more glorifying elements of the Gospel narratives, such as his virgin birth, do not.

The Logia of Yeshua, by Davenport and Urrutia, footnote 2, pages 50-51, commenting on the Gospel of the Hebrews a non-canonical gospel extant only in fragments quoted by other writers, in which, according to Jerome, Jesus' family suggested that he be baptized ("The mother of the Lord and his brothers said to him, 'John the Baptist baptizes for the forgiveness of sins; let us go and be baptized by him.' But he said to them, 'In what way have I sinned that I should go and be baptized by him? Unless, perhaps, what I have just said is a sin of ignorance.'"),[7] says: "Many early Christians seem to have been embarrassed by the fact that Yeshua [ Jesus ] was baptized by Yohannan [ John the Baptist ]. The Gospel of John neglects to mention this baptism ... The Synoptics try several ploys. Yohannan says he should be baptized by Yeshua, and not the other way around. Misleading hints are given that someone else, not Yohannan, performed the Immersion. Scholars in general (except for Robert Graves and Joshua Podro ...) take for granted that the story of Mariam [ Mary ] and Yeshua's brothers persuading a reluctant Yeshua to be baptized belongs to the same category ... [but] this story would add to the embarrassment ... The idea for this very important step in Yeshua's life comes from somebody else ... Yeshua changes his mind. He admits he may be guilty of a sin after all." A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD/CE)[1], who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Flavius Josephus[2], was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Holy Innocents by Giotto di Bondone. ... The Gospel of the Hebrews (see About titles below), is a lost gospel that is only preserved in a few quotations in the Panarion of Epiphanius, a church writer who lived at the end of the 4th century AD, who goes on to say that. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the hip-hop producer with the same name, see John the Baptist (producer). ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... “Saint Mary” redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ John 1:29
  2. ^ In John 1:32 John says: "I saw the Spirit descend as a dove from heaven, and it remained on him", namely on Jesus. This echoes closely the words by which the Synoptic Gospels report the actual baptism of Jesus: "When Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him" (Matthew 3:16; cf. Mark 1:10 and Luke 3:20).
  3. ^ |Harris, Stephen L.m Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  4. ^ The baptismal pool: "Related to the later medieval baptismal font, this was an early basin often in the floor of a baptistery which allowed Early Christian baptisms to take place with a pouring of water over the person standing in the pool."[1]
  5. ^ "Their (of baptismal pools) average depth of less than three feet points to the continued prevalence of but partial immersion down to the eighth century."[2]
  6. ^ paenĭtentĭa in Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary
  7. ^ [3]

In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ...

Books

  • Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
  • Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.
  • Guy Davenport, and Benjamin Urrutia, The Logia of Yeshua. Washington, DC: Counterpoint, 1996.
  • France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
  • Gundry, Robert H. Matthew a Commentary on his Literary and Theological Art. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1982.
  • Guthrie, Donald. The New Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970.
  • Hill, David. The Gospel of Matthew. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1981
  • Hurtago, Larry W. "Generation of Vipers." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
  • Jones, Alexander. The Gospel According to St. Matthew. London: Geoffrey Chapman, 1965.
  • Malina, Bruce J. and Richard L. Rohrbaugh. Social-Science Commentary on the Synoptic Gospels. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2003.
  • Murray, John. Christian Baptism. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Pub., 1962.
  • Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975

William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... The Anchor Bible Series is a scholarly and commercial co-venture that has been setting a high standard since the early 1960s, when individual volumes of the series began publication. ... The cover of Apples and Pears by Guy Davenport Guy Mattison Davenport (November 23, 1927 – January 4, 2005) was an American writer, translator, painter, illustrator, intellectual, and teacher. ... Benjamin Urrutia (1950-), international author and scholar, was born in Guayaquil, Ecuador. ... Robert Horton Gundry is a noted Biblical scholar. ... The Context Group is a working group of international biblical scholars who promote research into the Bible using social-scientific methods such as anthropology and sociology. ... Eduard Schweizer was a Swiss New Testament scholar who taught at the University of Zurich for an extended period. ...

External links

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