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Encyclopedia > Baptism
Representation of baptism in early Christian art.
Representation of baptism in early Christian art.

Baptism, from Greek βαπτίζω (baptízô), is a religious act of purification by water usually associated with admission to membership or fullness of membership of Christianity. Look up baptism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Baptism_-_Marcellinus_and_Peter. ... Image File history File links Baptism_-_Marcellinus_and_Peter. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...


The pen15Greek-English Lexicon of Liddell and Scott gives the primary meaning of the word βαπτίζω, from which the English word baptism is derived, as dip, plunge, but indicates, citing Luke 11:38, that it was used also to mean perform ablutions.[1] A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ...


By analogy, the English word "baptism" is used of any ceremony, trial, or experience by which one is initiated, purified, or given a name.[2] See Other initiation ceremonies below. This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


The periodically repeated Jewish purification rite of mikvah is not normally spoken of as baptism, largely because of the Christian associations of the word "baptism". Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ...


This article will mainly consider the practices and beliefs of Christians with regard to this rite and in particular the forms in which they hold that it should be administered.

Contents

Meaning of the Greek word βαπτίζω

Liddell and Scott is not the only authority to point out that the Greek word βαπτίζω did not mean exclusively, dip, plunge, immerge. Scholars of various denominations[3] point to two passages in the New Testament as indicating that the word was used of something much less than the total immersion of the person. Luke 11:38 recounts that, when Jesus ate at a Pharisee's house, "the Pharisee was astonished to see that he did not first wash (βαπτίζω - literally, "be baptized" or "baptize himself") before dinner." Those who point to this passage say that the Pharisee will not have expected Jesus to immerse himself fully before having a meal and that his surprise will have been at Jesus' omission of the customary ritual washing of the hands.[4] The other New Testament passage pointed to is Mark 7:3–4a: "The Pharisees ... do not eat unless they wash (νίπτω, the ordinary word for washing) their hands thoroughly, observing the tradition of the elders; and when they come from the market place, they do not eat unless they wash themselves (literally, "baptize themselves" - βαπτίζω)". This article is about the Christian scriptures. ...


History

Background in Jewish ritual

Main article: Mikvah

Although the term "baptism" is not used to describe the Jewish rituals, the purification rites (or mikvah - ritual immersion) in Jewish laws and tradition have some similarity to baptism, and the two have been linked[5] although their relationship is disputed. In the Jewish Bible and other Jewish texts, immersion in water for ritual purification was established for restoration to a condition of "ritual purity" in specific circumstances. For example, Jews who (according to the Law of Moses) became ritually defiled by contact with a corpse had to use the mikvah before being allowed to participate in the Holy Temple. Immersion is required for converts to Judaism as part of their conversion to cleanse them from former practices. Immersion in the mikvah represents purification and restoration, and qualification for full religious participation in the life of the community, because the cleansed person will not impose uncleanness on property or its owners. (See Numbers Chapter 19, and Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Chagigah, page 12). Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Ger tzedek (Hebrew: righteous proselyte or proselyte [of] righteousness) or Ger (stranger or proselyte) is a gentile (i. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... The first page of the Talmud, in the standard Vilna edition. ... The lost key [The story from Middle East] One night a neighbor strolling by Nasrudins house found him outside under th street lamp brushing through the dust. ...


The mikvah is a rite that is meant to be carried out repeatedly, and is thus essentially different from baptism, which has an unrepeatable character.


Apostolic period

See also: Apostolic Age

The Bible gives accounts of baptisms performed before this period, in the lifetime of Jesus, by John the Baptist in the Jordan River,[6] and by Jesus, not personally but rather through his disciples.[7] The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ... St. ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ...


In the apostolic period, it reports baptisms of about 3,000 persons in Jerusalem within a single day, that of Pentecost,[8] of men and women in Samaria,[9] of an Ethiopian eunuch,[10] of Saul, who was later called Paul,[11] of the household of Cornelius,[12] of Lydia's household,[13] of the Philippi jailer's household,[14] of many Corinthians,[15] of certain Corinthians baptized by Paul personally.[16]


None of these accounts gives an exact description of the method(s) by which baptism was administered in the apostolic period, whether by immersion, by pouring water on someone standing in a stream or pool, or in some other way.[17] However, the idea of washing implicit in the word βαπτίζω (see above) implies the use of water, though there is only one explicit mention (Acts 8:38) of the use of water in apostolic times.[18]


Some claim that the mentions of baptisms by John in the River Jordan and that of the spring or pool of water found on the desert road from Jerusalem to Gaza (Acts 8:26 and 8:36-38) imply the use of immersion.[19] They also seek support in the figure of speech of "burial" used in connection with baptism in both Romans 6:3-4 ("Do you not know that all of us who have been baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? Therefore we have been buried with him by baptism into death, so that, just as Christ was raised from the dead by the glory of the Father, so we too might walk in newness of life.") and Colossians 2:12 ("When you were buried with him in baptism, you were also raised with him through faith in the power of God, who raised him from the dead"). They take this as implying baptism by full immersion to symbolise burial.[20] Additionally, some take the figure of speech used in John 3:3-5 of how a Christian is "born again" by being "born of water" as implying a baptism of complete immersion in water from which the person baptised comes out from under the water as if being born again.[21] A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ...


Others, while not denying that immersion may have been the usual form of baptism in apostolic times, claim that there is no evidence that no other form was used. They point to physical problems in supposing that total immersion was used when, for instance, 3,000 people were baptized in Jerusalem, which only had mikvahs for immersion, in a single day, as recounted in Acts 2:41, or when the whole household of the Philippi jailer were baptized immediately during the night of the earthquake (Acts 16:33); they also point to the explicit recognition in early Christian writings, one of which, the Didache, may even date from apostolic times, that other forms of baptism were valid.[22] The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ...


Many scholars believe immersion, whether partial or complete, was the dominant mode of baptism in the early church.[23][24][25][26][27] Other forms were also admitted in certain circumstances, as today in the East, where immersion continues to be prevalent. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity...


In imitation of the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan, early Christians preferred rivers for performing baptisms, and this was also suitable for the baptism of large crowds.[28] Since rivers were not available everywhere, some important writers of the second and third centuries (Justin, Clement, Victor I, and Tertullian) remarked that seas, lakes, ponds and springs are equally proper baptismal sites.[28] In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... Pope Clement I, the bishop of Rome from roughly 88-98 AD who is also called Clement of Rome and Clemens Romanus, is considered to be the fourth pope, after Anacletus, according to Catholic tradition. ... Saint Victor I was pope from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ...


Outside of the Bible, probably the earliest known written instructions for administering baptism is that of the anonymous book of 16 short chapters known as the Didache, or Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, which most scholars date to about the year 100.[29] It gives the following instruction: "Concerning baptism, baptize this way: Having first said all these things, baptize into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, in living water [that is, in running water, as in a river]. But if you have no living water, baptize into other water; and if you cannot do so in cold water, do so in warm. But if you have neither, pour out water three times upon the head into the name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit."[30] The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ...


On the separate but related question of whether early Christians baptized infants, see the article on infant baptism. Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ...


Early Christianity

The following period of Early Christianity seems to have introduced little or no changes. Immersion continued to be the usual method of baptism, and there is no evidence to suggest that the practice of the first century differed in any way from what is known more precisely from the second and third centuries. "In the case of the sick or dying, where immersion was impossible, the sacrament was then conferred by one of the other forms. This was so well recognized that infusion or aspersion received the name of the "baptism of the sick" (baptismus clinicorum), because it was hardly an "immersion" or "dipping" in water. Cyprian's Epistle 75 (third century) declared this form to be valid. From the canons of various early councils we know that candidates for Holy orders who had been baptized by this method seem to have been regarded as irregular, but this was on account of the culpable negligence supposed to be manifested in delaying baptism until sick or dying. That such persons, however, were not to be rebaptized is an evidence that the Church held their baptism to be valid."[27] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... This page is about Cyprian, bishop of Carthage. ...


Middle Ages

In the period between the twelfth and the fourteenth centuries, affusion (pouring) became the usual manner of administering baptism in Western Europe, though immersion continued to be found in some places even as late as the sixteenth century.[27] Throughout the Middle Ages, there was therefore considerable variation in the kind of facility required for baptism, from the baptismal pool large enough to immerse several adults simultaneously of the 13th century Baptistery at Pisa,[31] to the half-metre deep basin in the 6th century baptistery of the old Cologne Cathedral.[32] The Baptistry of the Cathedral Built in Pisa, Italy. ... The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ...


Both East and West considered washing with water and the Trinitarian baptismal formula necessary for administering the rite. Scholasticism referred to these two elements as the matter and the form of the sacrament, employing terms taken from the then prevailing Aristotelian philosophy.[33] Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... This article is about the philosopher. ...


Reformation

Further information: Anabaptism

Interpretation of baptism as a sacrament was one of the points of contention between Zwingli and Luther. Anabaptists (re-baptizers, from Greek ana and baptizo; in German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the so-called radical wing of the Protestant Reformation. ... Zwinglis Successor Zwinglis successor, Heinrich Bullinger, was elected on December 9, 1531, to be the pastor of the Great Minster at Zürich, a position which he held to the end of his life (1575). ... Luther is a surname, and may refer to: Bill Luther, American politician Bobbi Sue Luther Charles Luther Frank Luther Hans Luther (15th century) Hans Luther, German politician and Chancellor of Germany Karl Theodor Robert Luther Margarethe Luther Martin Luther, German theologian and Augustinian monk who inspired and began the Protestant...


At the time of John Calvin, some held that immersion in water for remission of sins (Acts 2:38), the "burial in baptism" used as a figure of speech in Romans 6:4 and Colossians 2:12, was not required in Christianity to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. Instead, they posited a waterless "baptism in the spirit", citing Jesus on the day of his Ascension in Acts 1:5: "For John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit not many days hence." See Baptism in Hyperdispensationalism. John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Also refers to the process of gaining Enlightenment and several meditation techniques. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Modern practice

Men awaiting baptism in the Jordan River near Lake Kinneret in Israel.
Men awaiting baptism in the Jordan River near Lake Kinneret in Israel.

Today, baptism is most readily identified with Christianity, where it symbolizes the cleansing (remission) of sins, and the union of the believer with Christ in His death, burial and resurrection so that he may be called "saved" or "born again." Most Christian groups practice some form of literal water-based baptism and agree that it is important, yet strongly disagree with other groups regarding any or all of several aspects of the rite, such as: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1880x2350, 1286 KB) A line of people awaiting baptism in the Jordan River at Kinneret, Israel. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1880x2350, 1286 KB) A line of people awaiting baptism in the Jordan River at Kinneret, Israel. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about 21 km (13 miles) long, and 13 km (8 miles) wide; it... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • manner or method of the "baptism", including the necessity of using water
  • recipients of baptism
  • meaning and effects of baptism

A few Christian groups assert that water baptism has been supplanted by the promised "baptism of the Holy Spirit", and water baptism was unnecessarily carried over from the early Jewish Christian practice. Some require the explicit word "water" to be used in the text if it is to be interpreted as a literal baptism in water.[citation needed] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

A baptism in a non-traditional setting.
A baptism in a non-traditional setting.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1764 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 516 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1764 × 2048 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Manner of baptism

Today, Christian baptism takes many forms among Christian denominations, but the three basic forms are as follows: -


Aspersion

Main article: Aspersion
.

Aspersion is the sprinkling water on the head. Aspersion is the act of sprinkling with water, especially holy water. ...


Affusion

Main article: Affusion
.

Affusion is the pouring water over the head. Affusion is a method of Christian baptism where water is poured on the head of the person being baptized. ...


For Christians who baptise by pouring or sprinkling, the washing with water from above pictures the cleansing of one's sins by the blood of Christ, by the Holy Spirit, who unites the baptized person to Christ in His death, and in His resurrection from the dead. For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


Immersion

Immersion is the submerging of the entire body in water.

Family being baptized in Atlantic Ocean
Family being baptized in Atlantic Ocean

Some Christians who immerse either take the same symbol after the fact as above, and/or account it as the penitents necessary obedience to the faith from the heart (see Mark 16:16, Romans 6:17, 1Peter 4:17) by which obedience God remits sins and imparts the indwelling Holy Spirit (Acts 5:32) which will raise the body up on the last day just as the Spirit raised Jesus from the dead, Romans 8:9-11. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Biblical passages such as Romans 6:2-13 and Colossians 2:12-13 lead some Christians to believe that baptism is by full immersion in water in order to represent a death and burial (when the person being baptised is submerged under the water, like they are being buried), and a resurrection (when the person comes up out of the water, like they are rising from the grave) - a "death" and a "burial" to an old way of life focused on sinning, and a "resurrection" to the start of a new life as a Christian focused on God.[20] John 3:3-5 is also sometimes taken as implying that baptism is by complete immersion in water to represent a birth to a new life as a Christian (when the person being baptised comes out of the water).[21] It is maintained by some Christians who carry out immersion that other forms of baptism, e.g. sprinkling, fail to adequately represent these symbols of death, burial, resurrection and birth and thus are incorrect methods of baptism.[19]


Excepting Hyperdispensationalism and a few others who embrace a "faith only" position, baptism is believed to be the point at which the gift of the life-giving Spirit is received, and to portray baptism as an act not of man, but of God. Regardless of the form, baptism is usually a public rite, in testimony to others of the grace of God bestowed upon the person whose remitted sins, and as the seal of God's promises 2Corinthians 1:22, Ephesians 1:13 are received in Christ to those who believe. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hyper-dispensationalism... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity...


Meaning and effects of baptism

There are differences in views about the effect of baptism for a Christian. Some Christian groups assert baptism is a requirement for salvation and a sacrament, and speak of "baptismal regeneration." This view is shared by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, by Churches formed early during the Protestant Reformation such as Lutheran, Anglican, and Restorationist Churches such as the Churches of Christ and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). For example, Martin Luther said: In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... ... “Reformation” redirects here. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Alternate meanings: see Church of Christ (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ...

To put it most simply, the power, effect, benefit, fruit, and purpose of Baptism is to save. No one is baptized in order to become a prince, but as the words say, to "be saved." To be saved, we know, is nothing else than to be delivered from sin, death, and the devil and to enter into the kingdom of Christ and live with him forever.

For Roman Catholics, baptism by water is a sacrament of initiation into the life of children of God. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1212-13). It configures the person to Christ (CCC 1272), and obliges the Christian to share in the Church's apostolic and missionary activity (CCC 1270). The Catholic Tradition holds that there are three types of baptism by which one can be saved: sacramental baptism (with water), baptism of desire (explicit or implicit desire to be part of the Church founded by Jesus Christ), and baptism of blood (martyrdom) (see topic below : Catholic baptism and salvation). Luthers Large Catechism was written by Martin Luther and published in April of 1529. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ...


By contrast, Baptist and Calvinist groups espouse baptism as a worthy practice, but say that baptism has no sacramental power, and only testifies outwardly to the invisible and internal operation of God's power, which is completely separate from the rite itself. Calvin may refer to: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes) Calvin College, a college in Grand Rapids, Michigan People with the surname Calvin: John Calvin, theologian Melvin Calvin, American chemist Susan Calvin, fictional robopsychologist People with the given name Calvin: Calvin Coolidge, American President Calvin Cheng, fashion mogul Calvin Klein, fashion designer...


Baptism in most Christian traditions

The baptistry at St. Raphael's Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa. This particular font was expanded in 2005 to include a small pool to provide for immersion baptism of adults. Eight sided font architectures are common symbology of the day of Christ's Resurrection: the "Eighth Day."
The baptistry at St. Raphael's Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa. This particular font was expanded in 2005 to include a small pool to provide for immersion baptism of adults. Eight sided font architectures are common symbology of the day of Christ's Resurrection: the "Eighth Day."

The liturgy of baptism in the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Lutheran, Anglican, and Methodist traditions makes clear reference to baptism as not only a symbolic burial and resurrection, but an actual supernatural transformation, one that draws parallels to the experience of Noah and the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea divided by Moses. Thus baptism is literally and symbolically not only cleansing, but also dying and rising again with Christ. Catholics believe that baptism is necessary for the cleansing of the taint of original sin, and for that reason infant baptism is a common practice. The Eastern Churches (Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy) also baptize infants on the basis of texts such as Matthew 19:14, which are interpreted as supporting full Church membership for children, and so baptism is immediately followed by Chrismation and Communion at the next Divine Liturgy regardless of age. Orthodox likewise believe that baptism removes what they call the ancestral sin of Adam.[34] Anglicans believe that Baptism is also the entry into the Church and therefore allows them access to all rights and responsibilities as full members, including the privilege to receive Holy Communion. Most Anglicans agree that it also cleanses the taint of what in the West is called original sin, in the East ancestral sin. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Saint Raphaels Cathedral Saint Raphaels is the cathedral parish for the Archdiocese of Dubuque, in Iowa. ... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Dubuque Incorporated 1833 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Roy D. Buol  - City manager Michael C. Van Milligen Area  - City 71. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


Eastern Orthodox Christians usually insist on complete threefold immersion as both a symbol of death and rebirth into Christ, and as a washing away of sin. Latin Rite Catholics generally baptize by affusion (pouring); Eastern Catholics usually by immersion, at least partial. However immersion is gaining in popularity within the Latin Catholic Church. In newer churches, the baptismal font may be designed to expressly allow for baptism by immersion. Older church building may feature this as well by either building a new baptismal font or expanding an existing one. Anglicans baptize by immersion, affusion or sprinkling. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ...


Baptists argue that the Greek word βαπτίζω, though, as mentioned above, it is used in the New Testament in other senses, originally meant "to immerse"; as also mentioned above, they interpret some Biblical passages concerning baptism as requiring an immersion of the body in water. They also state that only immersion reflects the symbolic significance of being "buried" and "raised" with Christ (see Romans 6:3-4).


Comparative summary

Comparative Summary of Baptisms of Denominations of Christian Influence.[35] [36] [37]

Denomination Beliefs about Baptism Type of Baptism Baptize Infants? Baptism Regenerates, Gives Spiritual Life Standard
Anglican Communion A sign of profession and a mark of separation which, received rightly, affirms the forgiveness received by a believer through faith. By immersion or pouring. Yes. Yes. (Except for the Diocese of Sydney) Trinity
Apostolic Brethren Necessary for salvation because it conveys spiritual rebirth. By immersion only. Also stress the necessity of a “second” Baptism of a special outpouring from the Holy Spirit. [[2]] No. Yes. Jesus [[3]]
Baptists A divine ordinance, a symbolic ritual, a mechanism for publically declaring one's faith, and a sign of having already been saved, but not necessary for salvation. See Baptist - Believer's Baptism. By immersion only. No. No. Trinity
Christadelphians Baptism is essential for the salvation of a believer.[38] It is only effective if somebody believes the true gospel message before they are baptised.[39] Baptism is an external symbol of an internal change in the believer: it represents a death to an old, sinful way of life, and the start of a new life as a Christian, summed up as the repentance of the believer[20] - it therefore leads to forgiveness from God, who forgives people who repent.[40] Although someone is only baptised once, a believer must live by the principles of their baptism (i.e. death to sin, and a new life following Jesus) throughout their life.[41] By immersion only[42] No[42] Yes Jesus
Churches of Christ Baptism is a must for salvation as commanded by Jesus, Mark 16:16; Matt. 28:19. One receives forgiveness of sin, the gift of the Holy Spirit, and addition to God's church. Acts 2:38-41. This is done after one has expressed their faith in Jesus Christ as the Son of God and repented from their sins. Immersion only No Yes Trinity
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints An ordinance essential to enter any degree of heaven and preparatory for receiving the Gift of the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands. By immersion performed by a person holding proper priesthood authority. No Yes Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost (The LDS church doesn't believe in the general notion of the trinity)
Eastern Orthodox Church The old man dies the "New Man" is born free from ancestral sin. A new name is given. All previous commitments and sins are null and void. By 3-fold immersion (other forms only in emergency, must be corrected by priest if possible). Yes. Confirmation and communion immediately follows. Yes Trinity
Jehovah’s Witnesses Baptism is necessary for salvation as part of the entire baptismal arrangement: as an expression of obedience to Jesus' command (Matthew 28:19-20), as a public symbol of the saving faith in the ransom sacrifice of Jesus Christ (Romans 10:10), and as an indication of repentance from dead works and the dedication of one's life to Jehovah. (1 Peter 2:21) However, baptism does not guarantee salvation. By immersion only; typical candidates are baptized at district and circuit conventions. No Yes Jesus
Denomination (Continued) Beliefs about Baptism Type of Baptism Baptize Infants? Baptism Regenerates, Gives Spiritual Life Standard
Lutherans Baptism is how God miraculously delivers a person from sin, death, and the devil; gives new life; and brings one into Christ’s kingdom forever (Titus 3:5). By sprinkling, pouring, or immersion. Yes Yes Trinity
Methodists (Arminians, Wesleyans) Baptism not necessary to salvation, since it is an outward sign of one’s membership in the Christian community. By sprinkling, pouring, or immersion. Yes No Trinity
Pentecostal (Various “Holiness” groups, Christian Missionary Alliance, Assemblies of God) Water Baptism is an ordinance, a symbolic ritual used to witness to having accepted Christ as personal Savior. By immersion. Also stress the necessity of a “second” Baptism of a special outpouring from the Holy Spirit. No Varies Trinity
Presbyterians An ordinance, a symbolic ritual, and a seal of the adult believer’s present faith. By sprinkling, pouring, or immersion. Yes, to indicate membership in the New Covenant. No Trinity
Quakers (Religious Society of Friends) Only an external symbol that is no longer to be practiced. Do not believe in Baptism of water, but only in an inward, ongoing purification of the human spirit in a life of discipline led by the Holy Spirit.
Revivalism A necessary step for salvation. By full immersion, with the expectation of receiving the Holy Spirit. No Yes Father, Son, Holy Ghost
Roman Catholic Church "Necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1257) Usually by pouring in the West, by immersion in the East; sprinkling admitted only if the water then flows on the head. Yes Yes Trinity
Seventh-day Adventists Not stated as the way to salvation, but a prerequisite for salvation since it symbolizes the acceptance of Jesus as your savior. A time for person to express personal faith in Christ. By immersion only. No No Trinity
United Church of Christ (Evangelical and Reformed Churches and the Congregational Christian Churches) One of two sacraments. Baptism is an outward sign of God's inward grace. It is not necessary for membership in a local congregation. However, it is a common practice for both infants and adults. By sprinkling, pouring, or immersion. Yes, to indicate membership in the New Covenant. No Trinity

Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Sydney Diocese of the Anglican Church of Australia is unique in Western Anglicanism in that the majority of the diocese is Evangelical (low church) in nature, and committed to Reformed and Calvinist theology. ... The Apostolic Brethren (sometimes referred to as Apostolici, Apostoli, Apostles) were a Christian sect founded in northern Italy in the latter half of the 13th century by Gerard Segarelli, a native of Alzano in the territory of Parma. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a Christian denomination which developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... “Church of Christ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Jehovahs Witnesses (JWs) are members of a worldwide Christian religion. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... Logo of The Wesleyan Church For the former Wesleyan Methodist Church of Great Britain, see Methodist Church of Great Britain The Wesleyan Church is a religious denomination associated with the holiness movement that has roots in Methodism and the teachings of John Wesley. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal can... The Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) is an Evangelical Protestant denomination within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Assemblies of God (disambiguation). ... Presbyterianism is a tradition shared by a number of Christian denominations which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... “Quaker” redirects here. ... “Quaker” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Great Awakening be merged into this article or section. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The Evangelical and Reformed Church was an American Protestant denomination formed by the merger (1934) of the Reformed Church in the United States and the Evangelical Synod of North America. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...

Ecumenical statement

The ecumenical paper Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry, prepared by representatives across a spectrum of Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestants traditions of Christianity, attempts to express a common understanding of baptism, as it is derived from the New Testament. Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, more or less broadly defined. ...

" ... according to Acts 2:38, baptisms follow from Peter's preaching baptism in the name of Jesus and lead those baptized to the receiving of Christ's Spirit, the Holy Ghost, and life in the community: "They devoted themselves to the apostles' teaching and fellowship, to the breaking of bread and the prayers" (2:42) as well as to the distribution of goods to those in need (2:45). Those who heard, who were baptized and entered the community's life, were already made witnesses of and partakers in the promises of God for the last days: the forgiveness of sins through baptism in the name of Jesus and the outpouring of the Holy Ghost on all flesh (2:38). Similarly, in what may well be a baptismal pattern, 1 Peter testifies that proclamation of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and teaching about new life (1:3-21) lead to purification and new birth (1:22-23). This, in turn, is followed by eating and drinking God's food (2:2-3), by participation in the life of the community — the royal priesthood, the new temple, the people of God (2:4-10) — and by further moral formation (2:11 ff.). At the beginning of 1 Peter the writer sets this baptism in the context of obedience to Christ and sanctification by the Spirit (1:2). So baptism into Christ is seen as baptism into the Spirit (cf. 1 Corinthians 12:13). In the fourth gospel Jesus' discourse with Nicodemus indicates that birth by water and Spirit becomes the gracious means of entry into the place where God rules (John 3:5)."[43]

In Christianity, the First Epistle of Peter is a book of the New Testament. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... Nicodemus (Greek: Νικόδημος) was a Pharisee and a member of the Sanhedrin, who, according to the Gospel of John, showed favour to Jesus. ...

Baptism and salvation in Catholic teaching

In Roman Catholic teaching, baptism plays an essential role in salvation.[44] This teaching dates back to the teachings and practices of first-century Christians, and the connection between salvation and baptism was not, on the whole, an item of major dispute until Martin Luther's teachings regarding grace. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states:"Baptism is necessary for salvation for those to whom the Gospel has been proclaimed and who have had the possibility of asking for this sacrament."[45] Accordingly, a person who knowingly, willfully and unrepentantly rejects baptism has no hope of salvation. This teaching is based on Jesus' words in the Gospel according to John : "Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God."[46] As stated earlier, three forms of baptism are acknowledged by the Church. Baptism by water refers to the traditional baptism whereby the individual is immersed water or has water poured over his head in the name of the Trinity. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ...


Catholics are baptized in the name (singular) of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit[47] — not three gods, but one God subsisting in three Persons. While sharing in the one divine essence, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are distinct, not simply three "masks" or manifestations of one Person. The faith of the Church and of the individual Christian is based on a relationship with these three Persons of the one God. This article is about the Christian Trinity. ...


It is claimed that Pope Stephen I, St. Ambrose, and Pope Nicholas I declared that baptisms in the name of "Jesus" only as well as in the name of "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" were valid. The correct interpretation of their words is disputable.[48] Current canonical law requires the Trinitarian formula and water for validity[49]. Stephen I, pope (about March 12, 254 to August 2, 257). ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... Nicholas I,(Rome c. ... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ...


The Church recognizes two other forms of non biblical baptism: "baptism of blood" and "baptism of desire." Baptism of blood refers to unbaptized individuals who are martyred for the Faith, while baptism of desire generally refers to catechumens who die before they can be baptized. The Catechism of the Catholic Church describes these two forms: Baptism by desire (Latin Baptismus Flaminis) is a Roman Catholic teaching explaining that those who desire baptism, but are not baptized with water through the Christian ritual, because of death, nevertheless bring about the fruits of Baptism, if their grace of conversion included an internal act of perfect love and... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ...

The Church has always held the firm conviction that those who suffer death for the sake of the faith without having received Baptism are baptized by their death for and with Christ. This Baptism of blood, like the desire for Baptism, brings about the fruits of Baptism without being a sacrament. (1258)

For catechumens who die before their Baptism, their explicit desire to receive it, together with repentance for their sins, and charity, assures them the salvation that they were not able to receive through the sacrament. (1259)

Non-Christians who seek God with a sincere heart and, moved by grace, try to do God's will as they know it through the dictates of conscience can also be saved without water baptism; they are said to desire it implicitly. (cf. Catechism, 1260). As for unbaptized infants, the Church is unsure of their fate; "the Church can only entrust them to the mercy of God" (Catechism, 1261).


Conditions of the validity of a baptism

Since the Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican Churches teach that baptism is a sacrament having actual spiritual and salvific effects, certain criteria must be complied with for it to be valid (i.e., to actually have those effects.) These criteria are actually broader than the ordinary practice. Violation of some rules regarding baptism renders the baptism illicit (in violation of the Church's laws) but still valid. For example, if a priest introduces some variation in the authorized rite for the ceremony, the baptism may still be valid (provided certain key criteria are met). In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ...


One of the criteria for validity is that the correct form of words be used. Latin Rite Roman Catholics and Episcopalians/Anglicans use the form "I baptize you..."; Eastern Orthodox and some Eastern Catholic Churches use the form "This servant of Christ is baptized..." or "This person is baptized by my hands...". These Churches recognize each other's form of baptism as valid to varying degrees. The Catholic Church teaches that the use of the verb "baptize" is essential.[27] The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


It is also considered essential that the Trinitarian formula ("in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit") be used; thus they do not accept as valid baptisms of non-Trinitarian churches such as Oneness Pentecostals. There was an ancient controversy over baptism using the formula that Oneness Pentecostals use, with some ancient authorities holding it to be valid. The trinitarian formula is the phrase in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit (original Greek εις το ονομα του πατρος και του υιου και του αγίου πνεύματος, eis to onoma tou patros kai tou huiou kai tou hagiou pneumatos), or words to that form and effect referring to the persons of the Holy Trinity. ... The adjective trinitarian is used in several senses: Ideas or things pertaining to the Holy Trinity A person or group adhering to the doctrine of Trinitarianism, which holds God to subsist in the form of the Holy Trinity The Trinitarian Order is a Catholic monastic order founded in 1198 by... An offshoot of the Pentecostal branch of Christianity, Oneness Pentecostals believe that there is one God with no essential divisions in His nature (such as a trinity) . He is not a plurality of persons, but He does have a plurality of manifestations, roles, titles, attributes, or relationships to man. ...


Another condition is that water be used. Some Christian groups historically have rejected the use of water for baptism, for example the Albigensians. These baptisms would not be valid, nor would a baptism in which some other liquid was used. Albigensians A name that is usually used in reference to a later group of Cathari which was a religious movement of southern France in the 12th and 13th centuries. ...


Another requirement is that the celebrant intend to perform baptism. This requirement entails merely the intention "to do what the Church does", not necessarily to have Christian faith, since it is not the person baptizing, but the Holy Spirit working through the sacrament, who produces the effects of the sacrament. Doubt about the faith of the baptizer is thus no ground for doubt about the validity of the baptism.


Some conditions expressly do not affect validity — for example, whether immersion, affusion or aspersion is used. However, if water is sprinkled, there is a danger that the water may not touch the skin of the unbaptized. If the water does not flow on the skin, there is no ablution and so no baptism.


If the water is poured, not on the head, but over another principal part of the body, such as the chest, in a case of emergency, validity is uncertain and the person will be conditionally baptized later. Roman Catholic dogma holds that it is a grave sin to baptize a person who has already been baptized. ...


In many communions it does not affect validity for a single immersion to be performed rather than a triple, but in Orthodoxy this is controversial.


According to the Catholic Church, baptism imparts an indelible "seal" upon the soul of the baptized. Thus, once baptized, an individual cannot be baptized again. This teaching was affirmed against the Donatists, who practiced rebaptism. According to the Tridentine dogmas of Catholicism, a sacramental character is an indelible supernatural mark made on a persons soul by any of three of the seven sacraments: baptism, confirmation, and Holy Orders. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber Christian Donatus Magnus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the broader Catholic community. ...


Recognition of baptism by other denominations

The Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist Churches accept baptism performed by other denominations as valid, subject to certain conditions. It is only possible to be baptized once, thus people with valid baptisms from other denominations may not be baptized again upon conversion or transfer. Such people are accepted upon making a profession of faith and, if they have not yet validly received the sacrament of confirmation, by being confirmed. In some cases it can be difficult to decide if the original baptism was in fact valid; if there is doubt, conditional baptism is administered, with a formula on the lines of "If you are not yet baptized, I baptize you...". The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Roman Catholic dogma holds that it is a grave sin to baptize a person who has already been baptized. ...


Practice in the Eastern Orthodox Church for converts from other communions is not uniform, but even a convert received without administration of baptism is considered to have his previous baptism retroactively filled with grace by whatever form is used to accept him, such as by chrismation or confession. The exact procedure is dependent on local canons and is the subject of some controversy. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... This article is about the practice of confession in the Modern confessional in the Church of the Holy Name, Dunedin, New Zealand. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Canon law is the term used for...


In the eyes of the Catholic Church, the baptism conferred by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is invalid.[50] An article published together with the official declaration to that effect gave reasons for that judgement, summed up in the following words: "The Baptism of the Catholic Church and that of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints differ essentially, both for what concerns faith in the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in whose name Baptism is conferred, and for what concerns the relationship to Christ who instituted it."


Who may administer a baptism

There is debate among Christian churches as to who can administer baptism. The examples given in the New Testament only show apostles and deacons administering baptism. Ancient Christian churches interpret this as indicating that baptism should be performed by the clergy except in extremis, i.e., when the one being baptized is in immediate danger of death. Then anyone may baptize, provided, in the view of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the person who does the baptizing is a member of that Church, or, in the view of the Roman Catholic Church, that the person, even if not baptized, intends to do what the Church does in administering the rite. Many Protestant churches see no specific prohibition in the biblical examples and permit any believer to baptize another. now. ...


In the Latin Rite Catholic Church the ordinary minister of baptism is a member of the clergy (bishop, priest or deacon),[51] but in normal circumstances only the Parish Priest of the person to be baptized, or someone authorized by the Parish Priest, may do so licitly[52]. "If the ordinary minister is absent or impeded, a catechist or some other person deputed to this office by the local Ordinary, may lawfully confer baptism; indeed, in a case of necessity, any person who has the requisite intention may do so[53] By "a case of necessity" is meant imminent danger of death because of either illness or an external threat. "The requisite intention" is, at the minimum level, the intention "to do what the Church does" through the rite of baptism. The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Parish Priest may refer to A parishs assigned clergyman A biography of Fr. ...


In the Eastern Catholic Churches, a deacon is not considered an ordinary minister. Administration of the sacrament is reserved, as in the Latin Rite, to the Parish Priest. But, "in case of necessity (in extremis), baptism can be administered by a deacon or, in his absence or if he is impeded, by another cleric, a member of an institute of consecrated life, or by any other Christian faithful; even by the mother or father, if another person is not available who knows how to baptize".[54] The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... now. ...


The discipline of the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East is similar to that of the Eastern Catholic Churches. They require the baptizer, even in cases of necessity, to be of their own faith, on the grounds that a person cannot convey what he himself does not possess, in this case membership in the Church.[55] The Latin Rite Catholic Church does not insist on this condition, considering that the effect of the sacrament, such as membership of the Church, is not produced by the person who baptizes, but by the Holy Spirit. For the Orthodox, while Baptism in extremis may be administered by a deacon or any layperson, if the newly-baptized person survives, a priest must still perform the other prayers of the Rite of Baptism, and administer the Mystery of Chrismation. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... The term Sacred Mysteries is used in the Eastern Churches to refer to what the Western Church calls Sacraments and Sacramentals. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ...


The discipline of Anglicanism is similar to that of the Latin Rite Catholic Church. For Methodists and many other Protestant denominations, too, the ordinary minister of baptism is a duly ordained or appointed minister of religion. Anglicanism commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, the churches that are in full communion with the see of Canterbury. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Newer movements of Protestant Evangelical churches, particularly non-denominational, have begun to allow those persons most instrumental in one's faith to baptize. The rationale for such a practice lies in the New Testament accounts of John the Baptist baptizing his own disciples, Christ his own,[citation needed] Phillip his own (such as the Ethiopian eunuch), etc. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to...


In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, only a man holding the priesthood office of Priest or higher office may administer baptism. For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... The office of priest is an office in the Aaronic Priesthood in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. ...


Anabaptist and Baptist baptism

A river baptism in North Carolina at the turn of the 20th century. Full-immersion baptism continues to be a common practice in many African-American Christian congregations today.
A river baptism in North Carolina at the turn of the 20th century. Full-immersion baptism continues to be a common practice in many African-American Christian congregations today.

Baptist groups derive their name either from the restrictions that they traditionally place on the mode and subjects of the ordinance of baptism or from a shortening of the term Anabaptist which means to rebaptize. Early Anabaptists were labeled such because they re-baptized persons whom they felt had not been properly baptized (having received infant baptism, sprinkling, or baptism of any sort by another denomination). Some modern Baptists do not believe baptism by immersion is the only legitimate form of baptism, they simply perform baptism by immersion for members who wish to be baptized. It does not imply that any previous form of baptism by affusion or sprinkling is invalid. Baptism is an act identifying one as having accepted Jesus Christ as Savior. And "one enters by baptism into the membership of the church which Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1104x576, 91 KB)Wade in the Water. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1104x576, 91 KB)Wade in the Water. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek...


performs it."[56]


Baptist theologians (such as John Gill) teach that baptism is only for those who can understand and profess their faith. This is called believer's baptism. Some, such as Gill, argue that the regulative principle of worship, which many paedobaptists also advocate and which states that elements of worship (including baptism) must be based on explicit commands of Scripture, is violated by infant baptism. Some would argue that according to this understanding, the re-baptisms that Baptists generally perform if a person was not regenerate when baptized also violate the Regulative Principle for Worship. Furthermore, because the New Covenant is described in Jeremiah 31:31-34 as a time when all who were members of it would have the law written on their hearts and would know God, Baptist theology teaches that only those who are born again, as indicated by a profession of faith, are members of the New Covenant. They view this text as speaking of the visible church in the present age, rather than as a prophetic text of God's New Covenant in Christ administered to all saints from Genesis to the present, which will be fulfilled when Christ returns to earth. Baptism is therefore not administered to those unable to make a credible confession of saving faith in Christ prior to being baptized; but it will be administered upon making this confession, regardless of the confessor's age. Some Baptist churches take exception to this and are very hesitant to baptize young children because they want to confirm whether or not they are regenerate. A confession alone is not enough for these churches, they want to see fruit of regeneration in the life of the person to be baptized, which some argue violates the example set forth in the book of Acts, which performed immediate baptisms. For other persons of the same name, see John Gill. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ...


Those who hold views influenced by the Baptists may perform the ceremony indoors in a baptismal font, a swimming pool, or a bathtub, or outdoors in a creek or river: as long as there is water, nothing prevents the performance of Baptism. Protestant groups influenced by these convictions usually emphasize that it memorializes the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus (Romans 6), which according to the grace of God has become the basis of repentance and new life for those who have professed belief in Him, symbolizing spiritual death with regard to sin and a new life of faith in God. They typically teach that baptism does not accomplish anything in itself, but is an outward sign or testimony, a personal act, indicating the invisible reality that the person's sins have already been washed away by the cross of Christ, and applied to their life according to their profession of faith. It is also understood to be a covenantal act, signifying entrance into the New Covenant of Christ (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12, Romans 6). This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ...


For Baptists, baptism is a requirement for church membership, rather than a necessary requirement for salvation. Once baptized, a Baptist may move their membership to another congregation by letter.


The above description applies not just to those denominations using Baptist in their names, but also to a wide variety of other Protestant denominations deriving from the Anabaptist tradition, including some Mennonites and Pentecostals. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Mennonites are a group of... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


Reformed and Covenant Theology view

Main article: Covenant Theology#Baptism

Paedobaptist Covenant theologians see the administration of all the biblical covenants, including the New Covenant, as including a principle of familial, corporate inclusion or "generational succession." The biblical covenants between God and man include signs and seals that visibly represent the realities behind the covenants. These visible signs and symbols of God's covenant redemption are administered in a corporate manner (for instance, to households), not in an exclusively individualistic manner. Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... a family of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso in 1997 Family is a Western term used to denote a domestic group of people, or a number of domestic groups linked through descent (demonstrated or stipulated) from a common ancestor, marriage or adoption. ...


Baptism is considered by the Reformed churches as the visible sign of entrance into the New Covenant and therefore may be administered individually to new believers making a public profession of faith. Paedobaptists further believe this extends corporately to the households of believers which typically would include children, or individually to children or infants of believing parents (see Infant baptism). In this view, baptism is thus seen as the functional replacement and sacramental equivalent of the Abrahamic rite of circumcision and symbolizes the internal cleansing from sin, among other things. For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... It has been variously proposed that male circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking a boys entrance into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility, as a means of suppressing sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


Baptism in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

This section is a part of a series on The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
See also: Baptism for the dead and Rebaptism (Latter Day Saints)

In the Latter Day Saint movement (Mormonism), baptism is recognized as the first ordinance of the gospel. As with many other Restorationist faiths, baptism must be by immersion for the remission of sins (meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven), and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. LDS baptism does not intend to remit any sins other than personal ones, as the LDS Church does not believe in original sin. For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... Baptism for the dead is an ordinance performed today in temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for those who have died without having been baptized by one having authority. ... This article or section is missing citation of sources. ... The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving the formation of a covenant with God. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


Latter Day Saint baptisms also occur only after an "age of accountability", or the age at which a child begins to know right from wrong, which is defined by the church as the age of eight years. Mormonism rejects infant baptism. In addition, Mormonism requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called and ordained by God with priesthood authority. Since the LDS Church has a lay priesthood, children raised in an LDS family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, which is conferred to "worthy" male members at the age of 16. A Latter Day Saint is an adherent of the Latter Day Saint movement, a group of denominations tracing their heritage to the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Coming of age is a young persons formal transition from adolescence to adulthood. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... In Mormonism, priesthood is considered to be the power and authority to act in the name of God, including the performance of sacred rites and ordinances, and the performance of miracles. ... Priest is a priesthood office in the Aaronic Priesthood of denominations within the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ...


Latter Day Saints do not believe that the gift of the Holy Spirit occurs immediately after baptism; rather, the gift is given by the laying on of hands in a separate confirmation ritual after baptism. This ritual is believed to be confirmed by Paul's actions in Acts 19:6, where, following the baptism of several followers of Christ, he "laid his hands upon" those who were baptized and they then received the Holy Ghost. A Latter Day Saint is an adherent of the Latter Day Saint movement, a group of denominations tracing their heritage to the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... The Gift of the Holy Ghost is a doctrine of the Latter Day Saint movement, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... Paul of Tarsus (b. ...


The process of repentance and sanctification continues by partaking of the sacrament every week, which Latter Day Saints consider to be a renewal of one's baptismal covenant with God. They also believe that baptism is symbolic both of Jesus's death, burial and resurrection and of the death and burial of the natural or sinful man and rebirth as a disciple of Jesus of the one baptized. In Mormonism, the Sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ... The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints encourages its members to make and keep several covenants as a part of the new and everlasting covenant of the gospel. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (or "Mormon" Church), baptism and confirmation are only the first of several ordinances believed to be required for exaltation. Membership into the LDS Church is granted only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised in the church. As Latter-day Saints do not recognize the validity of baptisms of other faiths, all who come into the church as converts are baptized, even if they have previously received baptism in another faith. The person being baptized must be at least eight years old. The church also practices baptism for the dead (along with all other ordinances) "vicariously" or "by proxy" in their temples for anyone who did not receive these ordinances while living. For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... In Mormonism, an ordinance is a religious ritual of special significance, often involving a covenant with God. ... Exaltation or eternal progression is a belief among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) that mankind, as spirit children of their Father in Heaven, can become like Him. ... Baptism for the dead is an ordinance performed today in temples of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for those who have died without having been baptized by one having authority. ... The Salt Lake Temple, operated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the best-known Mormon temple. ...


Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done in a font, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be completely immersed. In Latter-day Saint temples, where proxy baptisms are performed for the dead, the fonts rest on the sculptures of twelve oxen representing the twelve tribes of Israel, following the pattern of the "molten sea" in the Temple of Solomon (see 2 Chronicles 4:2-5). Great care is taken in the execution of the baptism; if the baptism is not executed properly it must be redone. The person administering the baptism must recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb, hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone. In addition to the baptizer, two priesthood holders witness the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly. Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses

Baptism is also practiced by Jehovah's Witnesses, who believe that it should be performed by complete immersion only when one is old enough to understand the significance of it. They teach that water baptism is an outward symbol that one has made a complete, unreserved, and unconditional dedication through Jesus Christ to do the will of Jehovah God. Jehovah's Witnesses usually baptize converts at large conventions rather than at the local Kingdom Halls. Kingdom Hall is the name of meeting places for Jehovahs Witnesses. ...


Baptism in Churches of Christ

There is no single statement of conformity on the doctrine of baptism as practiced by Churches of Christ, yet there are several similarities among the vast majority of congregations: Basically, Churches of Christ believe in the age of accountability and believer's baptism. Churches of Christ practice immersion baptism only and do not baptize infants. However, they also believe that baptism is necessary for salvation. There is no restriction upon who may perform a baptism, but it is usually done by an adult male. Adult converts are baptized, as are children who are old enough to understand that they are accountable for their sins and to understand the sacrifice of Christ and the meaning of his death, burial, and resurrection. “Church of Christ” redirects here. ... Coming of age is a young persons formal transition from adolescence to adulthood. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Scriptural Basis: Churches of Christ interpret Matthew's version of the Great Commission[57] as evidence that baptism is a command that comes straight from Jesus Christ. Romans 6:3-5 compares baptism to a "burial", in their view indicating, along with other descriptions in the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, that baptism was an immersion. They see Acts 2:38 as teaching that repentance precedes baptism and that the remission of sins occurs at baptism. Though they often cite this verse when discussing the doctrine of baptism, they disagree on what the phrase "the gift of the Holy Spirit" that comes after baptism means, but most understand it to mean the gift of salvation promised by God through the Spirit (cf. Acts 2:21, Romans 6:23, Titus 1:2). They say that Acts 8:36 ("Now as they went down the road, they came to some water. And the eunuch said, "See, here is water. What hinders me from being baptized?") and other passages assert that the baptismal burial is in water, not in some spiritual or figurative element. In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ...


Churches of Christ sites quote 1 Peter 3:21 ("Baptism doth also now save us") and take it to mean that baptism is essential to salvation. However, the same verse goes on to say, "not the removal of dirt from flesh [ie, with water], but the appeal of a clean conscience to God." Romans 6:3 states that baptism puts one into the death of Christ, and Galatians 3:27 that baptism clothes one in Christ. John 3:1-7 has also been cited to exclude salvation without baptism. The correct interpretation of these verses is disputed.


Baptism in Hyperdispensationalism

Hyperdispensationalists assert: Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hyper-dispensationalism...

  • The great commission (Matthew 28:18-20 and its baptism is directed to early Jewish believers, not the Gentile believers of mid-Acts or later.
  • The baptism of Acts 2:36-38 is Peter's call for Israel to repent of complicity in the death of the Messiah; not as a Gospel announcement of atonement for sin, a later doctrine revealed by Paul.

Water baptism found early in the book of Acts is, according to this view, now supplanted by the one baptism (1 Corinthians 12:13) foretold by John the Baptist (Luke 3:16, John 1:33, Matt 3:11, Acts 1:5). The one baptism for today, it is asserted, is the "baptism of the Holy Spirit" (Acts 11:15-16). This, "spirit" baptism, however, is unlikely given the texts and facts that the baptisms of the Eunuch (Acts 8:36) and the household of Cornelius (Acts 10:47-48) were explicitly in water. Further evidence points to the humanly administered Great Commission which was to last until the end of the world Matthew 28:19-20. Therefore, the baptism the Ephesians underwent was water by context (Ephesians 5:26; Acts 19:1-5). Likewise, Holy Spirit Baptism is recorded as only occurring twice in all the book of Acts to selected individuals (Acts 2:1-4; Acts 10:44-46). Finally, it is argued that only Jesus possessed the power to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with Fire which eliminates any mortal ever doing, Matthew 3:11, Luke 3:16. For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the...

"John answered, saying to all, "I indeed baptize you with water; but One mightier than I is coming, whose sandal strap I am not worthy to loose. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire" (Luke 3:16)

Many in this group also argue that John's promised baptism by fire is pending, referring to the destruction of the world by fire (Matthew 3:12, Luke 3:17, 2 Peter 3:10). The phrase baptism by fire or baptism of fire, known in English since 1822, is a translation of the French phrase baptême du feu and is a reference to a soldiers first experience under fire in battle. ...


John, as he said "baptized with water," as did Jesus's disciples to the early, Jewish Christian church. Jesus himself never personally baptized with water, but did so through his disciples (John 4:1-2). Unlike Jesus' first Apostles, Paul, his Apostle to the Gentiles, was sent to preach rather than to baptize (1 Corinthians 1:17) but did occasionally baptize, for instance in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:14-16) and in Philippi (Acts 16:13), in the same manner as they (cf. Math 28:19). In Romans 6:4 he also taught the spiritual significance of the submerging in baptism and how one contacts the atoning death of Christ in such.


Other initiation ceremonies

Many cultures practice or have practiced initiation rites, with or without the use of water, including the ancient Egyptian, the Hebraic/Jewish, the Babylonian, the Mayan, and the Norse cultures. The modern Japanese practice of Miyamairi is such as ceremony that does not use water. In some, such evidence may be archaeological and descriptive in nature, rather than a modern practice. Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... Miyamairi (宮参り, literally shrine visit) is a traditional Shinto rite of passage in Japan for newborns. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


Mystery religion initiation rites

Apuleius, a second-century Roman writer, described an initiation into the mysteries of Isis: Lucius Apuleius (c. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Mystery religions, or simply Mysteries, were belief systems of the Graeco-Roman world full admission to which was restricted to those who had gone through certain secret initiation rites. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ...

The priest brought me to the next baths, surrounded by the pious troop, and after I had had an ordinary bath, he prayed for the grace of the gods and cleansed me completely, sprinkling me with water from all sides.[58]

This initiation of Lucius, the character in Apuleius's story who had been turned into an ass and changed back by Isis into human form, into the successive degrees of the rites of the goddess was accomplished only after a significant period of study to demonstrate his loyalty and trustworthiness, akin to catechumenical practices in Christianity.[59] In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ...


Mandaean baptism

Mandaeans, who abhor[citation needed] Jesus and Moses as false prophets, revere John the Baptist and practice frequent baptism, a rite therefore of purification, not of initiation. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mandaeism. ... A false messiah is a person that falsely claims or others falsely claim to be the Jewish Messiah. ... St. ...


Sikh baptism ceremony

Main article: Amrit Sanskar

The Sikh initiation ceremony, which involves drinking, not washing, dates from 1699, when the religion's tenth leader (Guru Gobind Singh) initiated 5 followers of his faith and then was initiated himself by his followers. The Sikh baptism ceremony is called Amrit Sanchar or Khande di Pahul. The Sikh has taken Amrit once they have been initiated. In Sikhism, the initiated Sikh is also called an Amritdhari literally meaning Amrit Taker or one who has Taken on Amrit. The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ...


Khande Di Pahul (Amrit ceremony) was initiated in the times of Guru Gobind Singh when Khalsa was inaugurated at Sri Anandpur Sahib on the day of Baisakhi in 1699. Guru Gobind Singh asked a gathering of Sikhs, who was prepared to die for God? At first, the people hesitated, and then one man stepped forward, and he was taken to a tent. After some time, Guru Gobind Singh came out of the tent, with blood dripping from his sword. He asked the same question again. After the next four volunteers were in the tent, he reappeared with the four, who were now all dressed like him. These five men came to be known as Panj Pyares or the Beloved Five. These five were initiated into the Khalsa by receiving Amrit. These five were Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Mukham Singh, Bhai Sahib Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh and Bhai Himmat Singh. Sikh men were then given the name "Singh" meaning "lion" and the women received the last name "Kaur" meaning "princess". A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in a ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ... Anandpur Sahib is a holy Sikh city and one of the five most holy places in Sikhism. ... Traditional fervour and gaiety mark the celebrations of Baisakhi, which stands for the dawn of a new year in north India. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ... PANJ PIARE (literally the five beloved ones), name given to the five Sikhs, Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Dharam Singh, Bhai Himmat Singh, Bhai Mukham Singh and Bhai Sahib Singh, who were so designated by Guru Gobind Singh at the historic divan at Anandpur Sahib on 30 March 1699 and who... Khalsa which means Pure is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in a ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. ... Bhai Daya Singh (1661-1708) was one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved celebrated in the Sikh tradition, was the son of Bhai Suddha, a Sobti Khatri of Lahore, now in Pakistan, and Mai Diali. ... Bhai Mukham Singh (1663-1705). ... Bhai Sahib Singh was one of the Panj Pyare or the Five Beloved of revered memory in the Sikh tradition, was born the son of Bhai Guru Narayana, a barber of Bidar in Karnataka, and his wife Ankamma. ... DHARAM SINGH, BHAI (1666-1708), one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved, the forerunners of Khalsa, came of farming stock. ... Bhai Himmat Singh (1661-1705), one of the Panj Pyare, or the Five Beloved, celebrated in Sikh history, was born in 1661 at Jagannathpuri in a low-caste family of water suppliers. ...


Filling an iron bowl with clean water, he kept stirring it with a two-edged sword (called a Khanda) while reciting over it five of the sacred texts or banisJapji, Jaap, Savaiyye, Benti Chaupai and Anand Sahib. The Guru’s wife, Mata Jito (also known as Mata Sahib Kaur), poured into the vessel sugar crystals, mingling sweetness with the alchemy of iron. The five Sikhs sat on the ground around the bowl reverently as the holy water was being churned to the recitation of the sacred verses. Rajput Princess wielding a sword fights a foot-soldier armed with a Khanda. ... Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... Japji Sahib consists of the Mool Mantra, a set of 38 hymns and a final Salok which appear at the very beginning of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the Holy Book of the Sikhs. ... Bobo is a comic strip by Deliége about a prisoner of the jail Inzepocket (in the pocket with a French accent). ... Chaupai is the short name for the Sikh prayer or Gurbani whose full name is Kabiobach Bainti Chaupai. ... Anand Sahib: This Bani is part of the Nitnem or prayer which are read by Amritdhari Sikhs in the morning. ... Mata Sahib Kaur is known as the Mother of the Khalsa. She earned the distinction by instilling the first Amrit with the sweetness that balances its fierceness. ...


With the recitation of the five banis completed, khande di pahul or amrit, the Nectar of Immortality, was ready for administration. Guru Gobind Singh gave the five Sikhs five palmsful each of it to drink. A traditional portrait of Guru Gobind Singh Ji. ...


Ritual washing in Islam

Islam recommends a sort of washing called Ghusul (Arabic word means washing) which should include the washing of the whole body in special order or immersion of the whole body in a river for instance. This Ghusul is required for an adult when adopting Islam, after each sexual intercourse or a wetdream or a menstrual cycle. Also is required to be done for dead bodies. Prayers are said asking God to forgive impure thoughts and actions. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Such Ghusul is very different from practices in other religions. A person performs it alone privately, whenever it is indicated or desired.


Washing before daily prayers is essential. Muslims (or Moslems, which is the Middles East spelling) believe no one should approach God in prayer, before first asking God to forgive them their sins. Formal prayers are offered five times per day. While washing, one prays to God asking for forgiveness of the sins committed throughout the day, whether intentional or unintentional. This is a Muslim's way of reminding him/herself that the goal of this life is to please God, and to pray to attain His forgiveness and grace. It is written in the Qur'an that God promises to wash away one's sins when this ritual is performed.


Gnostic Catholicism and Thelema

The Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, or Gnostic Catholic Church (the ecclesiastical arm of Ordo Templi Orientis), offers its Rite of Baptism to any person at least 11 years old.[60] The ceremony is performed before a Gnostic Mass and represents a symbolic birth into the Thelemic community.[61] Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC), or the Gnostic Catholic Church, is the ecclesiastical arm of Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO), an international fraternal initiatory organization devoted to promulgating the Law of Thelema. ... Lamen of the Ordo Templi Orientis Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.) (Order of the Temple of the East, or the Order of Oriental Templars) is an international fraternal and religious organization founded at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Aleister Crowley wrote The Gnostic Mass—technically called Liber XV or Book 15—in 1913 while travelling in Moscow. ... Thelema is the English spelling of the Greek word Θελημα which means will or intention. ...


Non-religious initiations

Although even the use of water is often absent, the term baptism is also used for various initiations as rite of passage to a walk of secular life.

  • In the Brazilian martial art capoeira, an annual promotion ceremony is held, known as a batizado (literally "baptism"). For practitioners participating in their first batizado, it is traditional to receive their Capoeira names at that time, as a mark that they have been received in the community of Capoeiristas. The name is often given by the senior instructor or other senior students, and is largely determined by an individual way they perform a movement, how they look, or something else unique to the individual. Their Capoeira name is often used as a nom de guerre within Capoeira circles, a tradition which dates back to when practicing Capoeira was illegal in Brazil.

Hazing is an often ritualistic test and a task, which may constitute harassment, abuse or humiliation with requirements to perform random, often meaningless tasks, sometimes as a way of initiation into a social group. ... A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... A student society or student organization is an organization, operated by students at a university, whose membership normally consists only of students. ... This is a list of Belgian Dutch-speaking universities Katholieke Universiteit Leuven or or KUL, Leuven Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Afdeling Kortrijk or KULAK, Kortrijk Universiteit Antwerpen or UA, Antwerp Universiteit Gent or UGent, Ghent Vrije Universiteit Brussel or VUB, Brussels Katholieke Universiteit Brussel or , Brussels Limburgs Universitair Centrum or LUC... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catholic University of Leuven (french-speaking). ... The Université Libre de Bruxelles (or ULB) is a French-speaking university in Brussels, Belgium. ... Capoeira (IPA: ) is an Afro-Brazilian martial art, game, and culture created by enslaved Afrikans in Brazil during the 17th Century [1] Participants form a roda (circle) and take turns playing instruments, singing, and sparring in pairs in the centre of the circle. ... A Batizado (literally baptism in Portuguese) is normally an annual event for a Capoeira group in a region or country. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ...

Baptism of objects

The word "baptism" is sometimes used to describe the inauguration of certain objects for use.

  • The name Baptism of Bells has been given to the blessing of (musical, especially church) bells, at least in France, since the eleventh century. It is derived from the washing of the bell with holy water by the bishop, before he anoints it with the oil of the infirm without and with chrism within; a fuming censer is placed under it and the bishop prays that these sacramentals of the Church may, at the sound of the bell, put the demons to flight, protect from storms, and call the faithful to prayer.
  • Baptism of Ships: at least since the time of the Crusades, rituals have contained a blessing for ships. The priest begs God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He did the ark of Noah, and Peter, when the Apostle was sinking in the sea, and the ship is sprinkled with holy water.[27]

A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... Church bell from Saleby, Västergötland, Sweden containing an inscription from 1228 in the Runic alphabet A church bell is a bell which is rung in a (especially Christian) church either to signify the hour or the time for worshippers to go to church, perhaps to attend a wedding... This article is about water that has been blessed. ... A censer is a vessel for burning incense. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Baptism by Fire is Arias 9th studio album, the first of which does not feature long-time vocalist Valerii Kipelov. ...

See also

Related articles and subjects

In the synoptic gospels, Jesus is baptised by John the Baptist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Baptism by desire (Latin Baptismus Flaminis) is a Roman Catholic teaching explaining that those who desire baptism, but are not baptized with water through the Christian ritual, because of death, nevertheless bring about the fruits of Baptism, if their grace of conversion included an internal act of perfect love and... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Fra Angelicos Baptism of Christ Divine filiation is the condition of being a child of God, and thus a sharer in the life and role of Jesus Christ, who is the Son of God and Redeemer of all men, according to Christian doctrine. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Prevenient grace is a Christian theological concept rooted in Augustinian theology[1] and embraced primarily by Arminian Christians who are influenced by the theology of John Wesley and who are part of the Methodist movement. ... Roman Catholic dogma holds that it is a grave sin to baptize a person who has already been baptized. ... An emergency baptism is a baptism administered to a person in imminent danger of death by someone not normally authorized to administer the sacrament. ... The term Whitsunday may refer to: The Sunday of the feast of Whitsun or Pentecost in the Christian calendar, observed 50 days after Easter. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Anabaptists (Greek... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... Christifideles is a Latin term used to include all those who have been baptized into Christ. ... Consolamentum, known as heretication to its critics, was the baptismal sacrament of the Albigenses and other branches of Cathars. ... Jesus-Name doctrine is a slang term used to describe the Oneness doctrine, i. ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... In Christian architecture the baptistery or baptistry (Latin baptisterium) is the separate centrally-planned structure surrounding the baptismal font. ...

People and ritual objects

Baptismal font in Magdeburg Cathedral, Germany A baptismal font is an article of church furniture used for the baptism of children and adults. ... Mikvah (or mikveh) (Hebrew: מִקְוָה, Standard Tiberian  ; plural: mikvaot or mikvot) is a specially constructed pool of water used for total immersion in a purification ceremony within Judaism. ... This article is about water that has been blessed. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A godparent, in many denominations of Christianity, is someone who sponsors a childs baptism. ... St. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Resources

  • "In Defense of Infant Baptism" Issues Etc. Journal (http://www.issuesetc.org/resource/journals/v2n3.htm#In%20Defense%20of%20Infant%20Baptism)
  • Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry (Faith and order paper). World Council of Churches, 1982. ISBN 978-2-8254-0709-7
  • Jungkuntz, Richard. The Gospel of Baptism. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1968.
  • Kolb, Robert. Make Disciples Baptizing: God's Gift of New Life and Christian Witness. Fascicle Series, Number 1. St. Louis: Concordia Seminary Publications, 1997. ISBN 978-0-911770-66-7
  • Scaer, David P. Baptism. Confessional Lutheran Dogmatics, Vol. XI. St. Louis: The Luther Academy, 1999. OCLC 41004868, ASIN B0006R304U
  • Schlink, Edmund. The Doctrine of Baptism. Herbert J. A. Bouman, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1972. ISBN 978-0-570-03726-2
  • Stookey, L.H. Baptism: Christ's Act in the Church. Nashville: Abingdon, 1982. ISBN 978-0-687-02364-6
  • Ware, Timothy (Bishop Kallistos of Diokleia). The Orthodox Church (2nd ed.). London: Penguin Books, 1993, pp 277-278. ISBN 978-0-14-014656-1
  • Willimon, William. Remember Who You Are: Baptism and the Christian Life. Nashville: Upper Room, 1980. ISBN 978-0-8358-0399-1

The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Asin is a Pinoy rock and folk rock band from the Philippines. ... Bishop William Willimon William H. Willimon is a Bishop in The United Methodist Church, currently serving in North Alabama. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon, revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198642261. 
  2. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition 2000
  3. ^ For instance, The Mode of Baptism; The Sacrament of Baptism#How is Baptism to be Applied?; Baptism: Immersion Only?
  4. ^ This is the passage that Liddell and Scott cites as an instance of the use of βαπτίζω to mean perform ablutions. Jesus' omission of the rite has been compared with that by his disciples, mentioned in Matthew 15:1-2: "Then Pharisees and scribes came to Jesus from Jerusalem and said, 'Why do your disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? For they do not wash (νίπτω) their hands when they eat.'"
  5. ^ Stoltz, Eric (2005). A Christian Glossary: Baptism. The Abraham Project. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  6. ^ Matthew 3:6-16, Mark 1:4-11,Luke 3:3-23, John 1:25-33 and John 10:40. John's "baptism of repentance" was considered to be distinct from Christian baptism, and those who had received it had nonetheless to be "baptized into the name of the Lord Jesus" (Acts 19:3-5)
  7. ^ John 3:22-4:2
  8. ^ Acts 2:41
  9. ^ Acts 8:12-13
  10. ^ Acts 8:36-40
  11. ^ Acts 9:18 and Acts 22:16
  12. ^ Acts 10:47-48
  13. ^ Acts 16:15
  14. ^ Acts 16:33
  15. ^ Acts 18:8
  16. ^ 1 Corinthians 1:14-16
  17. ^ For instance, when Acts 8:38 says that "both Philip and the eunuch went down into the water, and he baptized him", the going down into the water by both Philip and the eunuch need not mean that they immersed themselves in it, and the baptism, in whatever form it took, was done after their "going down into the water".
  18. ^ There are several mentions of the use of water by John, either water in general (Luke 3:16, John 1:31, 1:33, 3:23) or specifically that of the River Jordan (Matthew 3:6, Mark 1:5, 1:9).
  19. ^ a b Twelves, H. A.. Baptism -- Essential to Salvation. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  20. ^ a b c Pearce, Fred. Why Baptism Really Matters: What must we do to be saved?. The Christadelphian Magazine and Publishing Association Ltd (UK). Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  21. ^ a b Growcott, G. V.. There Is One Baptism. Retrieved on 2007-08-17.
  22. ^ Baptism: Immersion Only?
  23. ^ "It is evident that Baptism in the early Church was by immersion" (New Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, Vol. II, p. 56)
  24. ^ "The first Christians received baptism by immersion everywhere where water was found" (Larousse du XXe Siècle, Paris, 1928)
  25. ^ "Baptism was originally administered by immersion." (Augustus Neander, History of the Christian Religion and Church, During the Three First Centuries)
  26. ^ "The majority of theologians and liturgists admit in a general manner: 1st, that there was total immersion from evangelical times until about the fourteenth century; 2nd, that from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, partial immersion of the body was used with affusion [pouring] on the head; 3rd, that from the fifteenth century affusion alone replaced affusion accompanied by immersion" (Jules Corblet, Histoire Dogmatique, Vol. 1, page 223.)
  27. ^ a b c d e Catholic Encyclopedia: Baptism
  28. ^ a b Jules Corblet, Histoire Dogmatique, Liturgique et Archéologique du Sacrement de Baptême, volume II, opening words.
  29. ^ Audet in La Didache argues for a date of 70, of which Lightfoot says "he is not likely to be off by more than a decade in either direction". Draper estimates 80 C.E.
  30. ^ Didache, chapter 7
  31. ^ Pictured in isolation, and in context
  32. ^ Baptismal Font from the Cologne Baptistery. Cologne Cathedral. Retrieved on 2007-07-31.
  33. ^ The Catechism of the Catholic Church, while teaching the necessity of both elements, nowhere uses these philosophical terms when speaking of any of the sacraments.
  34. ^ Cf. Nikodemos Hagiorites (2006). Concerning Thoughts. Exomologetarion (A Manual of Confession). Uncut Mountain Press. Retrieved on 2007-07-28.
  35. ^ Good News. Issue 3. St Louis, MO. 2003. p 18-19
  36. ^ Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England http://anglicansonline.org/basics/thirty-nine_articles.html
  37. ^ The Baptist Faith and Message (1963/1998). http://www.utm.edu/staff/caldwell/bfm/1963-1998/index.html
  38. ^ Mansfield, H. P.. Baptism. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  39. ^ Christadelphian Bible Mission (CBM). Bible Q & A. Christadelphian Bible Mission. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  40. ^ Levin, David. Forgiveness. Printland Publishers. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  41. ^ Norris, Alfred. His Cross and Yours. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  42. ^ a b Morgan, Tecwyn. Understand the Bible for Yourself. Christadelphian Bible Mission. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  43. ^ Becoming a Christian: The Ecumenical Implications of Our Common Baptism. Okoumene. Retrieved on 2007-05-13.
  44. ^ can. 849, CIC 1983
  45. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1257
  46. ^ John 3:5
  47. ^ Ordo initiationis christanae adultorum, editio typica, Vatican City, Typis polyglottis vaticanis, 1972, pg 92, cf Lateran IV De Fide Catholica, DS 802, cf Florence, Decretum pro Armeniis, DS , 1317
  48. ^ Baptism in Catholic Encyclopedia
  49. ^ can. 849, CIC 1983
  50. ^ Declaration of 5 June 2001 by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
  51. ^ (canon 861 §1 of the Code of Canon Law)
  52. ^ (canon 530
  53. ^ (canon 861 §2)
  54. ^ (canon 677 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches
  55. ^ Ware, Bishop Kallistos (Timothy) (1964), The Orthodox Church, New York: Penguin Books, pp. 285
  56. ^ Baptist Handbook For Church Members
  57. ^ Matthew 28:18-20
  58. ^ Metamorphoses, 11.23.1
  59. '^ Hartman, Lars. Into the Name of the Lord Jesus,' Baptism in the Early Church. Edinburg: T&T Clark, 1997. (p. 4)
  60. ^ [1]
  61. ^ http://www.hermetic.com/sabazius/bapadult.htm

The Very Rev. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 391 KB) Summary Pisa, Italy - Baptistry; font by Guido Bigarelli da Como Own work - photo made on 10 October 2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Campo dei Miracoli ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, referred to as The Golden Ass (Asinus aureus) by Augustine, is the only Latin novel to survive in its entirety. ...

External links

Jewish

Orthodox

  • Baptism (orthodoxwiki.org)

Catholic

Baptist

  • Baptism in the Baptist Faith and Message (1963)
  • Baptist Handbook For Church Members

Methodist

  • "By Water & the Spirit" (Official UMC Statement on Baptism)
  • FAQs about Baptism, Membership, & Salvation (United Methodist Church General Board of Discipleship)

The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination. ...

Mennonite

  • Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online: Baptism

Mormon

  • Mormon Baptism

Other Christian groups

  • Baptism according to the Church of Christ
  • Dispensational Baptism

History

  • UNESCO: The Baptismal Site (Bethany beyond the Jordan)
  • "The Baptism of Jesus Christ - Uncovering Bethany beyond the Jordan" - 47 min Documentary Film / 10,000 films

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Baptism (12807 words)
From the foregoing it is evident that not all baptism administered by heretics or schismatics is invalid.
The baptism of blood (baptismus sanquinis) is the obtaining of the grace of justification by suffering martyrdom for the faith of Christ.
Moreover, baptism can more readily be applied to infants than the rite of circumcision, and by the ancient law this ceremony had to be deferred till the eighth day after birth, while baptism can be bestowed upon infants immediately after they are born, and in case of necessity even in their mother's womb.
BIGpedia - Baptism - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (3392 words)
The choice to be baptized is made by a confessing believer (believer baptism, or credobaptism), regardless of age, as a confession of his faith; or for a child by his or her parents (paedobaptism) according to the parent's confession of faith.
The Christian explanation of baptism as the definitive rite, by which the baptized person is indicated to wish to become fully qualified for participation in the life of the Church, begins with the career of John the Baptist, who was the cousin of Jesus.
Baptism is therefore a salvific ordinance in the Churches of Christ, though no mention is made of "baptismal regeneration" as is known in the Roman Catholic Church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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