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Encyclopedia > Bantustan
Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986
Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986
Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978
Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978

Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal "homeland" for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. The term "bantustan" was first used in the late 1940s and was coined from Bantu (meaning "people" in the Bantu languages) and -stan (meaning "land of" in the Persian language, equivalent to the Latin ending -ia and the Germanic -land). It was regarded as a disparaging term by some critics of the apartheid-era government's "homelands" (from Afrikaans tuisland). Unlike the English South Africans who often referred to home, the Afrikaners regarded South Africa as home and had no where else to go. The term homeland was a logical choice of name to them. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x1234, 329 KB) Source [1] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1014x1234, 329 KB) Source [1] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2084x1586, 551 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bantustan Bantustans in South West Africa ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2084x1586, 551 KB) Summary File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bantustan Bantustans in South West Africa ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... The term Blacks is often used in the West to denote race for persons whose progenitors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... The suffix -stan or -sthan is Persian for home of and Sanskrit for place. It appears in the names of many countries and regions, especially in central Asia and the Indian subcontinent which are the areas where Persian and related languages have historically been used. ... Persian is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia with smaller numbers of speakers in Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, Zimbabwe and Zambia. ... The English are an ethnic group associated with England and the English language. ... Look up home in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ...


The word "bantustan" is often used in a pejorative sense when describing a country or region that lacks any real legitimacy or power, and that sometimes emerges from national or international gerrymandering. Look up pejorative in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Printed in 1812, this political cartoon illustrates the electoral districts drawn by the Massachusetts legislature to favor the incumbent Democratic-Republican party candidates of Governor Elbridge Gerry over the Federalists, from which the term gerrymander is derived. ...

Contents


Creation of the Bantustans

Well before the National Party came to power in 1948, South African governments had established "reserves" in 1913 and 1936 with the intention of segregating black South Africans from whites. The National Party's Minister for Native Affairs (and later Prime Minister) Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd sought to build on this, introducing a series of measures that were intended to reshape South African society such that whites would be the demographic majority. The creation of the homelands or Bantustans was a central element of this strategy because blacks were to be made involuntary citizens of these homelands, losing their original South African citizenship and voting rights. This would enable whites to remain in control of South Africa. The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Silver medal commemorating Verwoerds death. ...


Verwoerd argued that the Bantustans were the "original homes" of the native peoples of South Africa. In 1951, the government of Daniel Francois Malan introduced the Bantu Authorities Act to establish "homelands" allocated to the country's different black ethnic groups. These amounted to 13% of the country's land, the remainder being reserved for the white population. Local tribal leaders were co-opted to run the homelands, with uncooperative chiefs being forcibly deposed. Over time a ruling black élite emerged with a personal and financial interest in the preservation of the homelands. While this aided the homelands' political stability to an extent, their position was still entirely dependent on South African support. 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ...


The role of the homelands was expanded in 1959 with the passage of the Bantu Self-Government Act, which set out a plan called "Separate Development". This enabled the homelands to establish themselves as self-governing, quasi-independent states. The intention was to remove the few rights that black South Africans still had in South Africa, by making them nationals of the homelands rather than of South Africa. The homelands were encouraged to opt for independence, as this would greatly reduce the number of black citizens of South Africa. The process was completed by the Black Homelands Citizenship Act of 1970, which forcibly made blacks citizens of Bantustans, even if they had never set foot in their nominal "homeland", and cancelled their South African citizenship. 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Headline text the separation development was a plan to designate independent states. ... The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 changed the status of the inhabitants of the homelands so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


In parallel with the creation of the homelands, South Africa's black population was subjected to a massive programme of forced relocation. It has been estimated that 3.5 million people were expelled from their homes during the 1960s, 1970s and early 1980s, many being resettled in the Bantustans. The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ...


The government made clear that its ultimate aim was the total removal of the black population from South Africa. Connie Mulder, the Minister of Plural Relations and Development, told the House of Assembly on 7 February 1978: Connie Mulder, born Cornelius Petrus Mulder (5th June 1925–1988), was a South African politican and minister. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...

If our policy is taken to its logical conclusion as far as the black people are concerned, there will be not one black man with South African citizenship ... Every black man in South Africa will eventually be accommodated in some independent new state in this honourable way and there will no longer be an obligation on this Parliament to accommodate these people politically.

However, this goal was not achieved. Only about 55% of South Africa's population lived in the Bantustans; the remainder lived in South Africa proper, many in vast shanty-towns and slums on the outskirts of South African cities. This was, among other reasons, because the economy of white South Africa depended on access to a black labour force.


The Bantustans began to be given "independence" in 1976, with Transkei the first to obtain this status. However, none of them received recognition from the outside world. Their territories were broken up into numerous, non-contiguous enclaves, and the boundaries between these were very convoluted. In one instance, the South African embassy to Bophuthatswana had to be moved because it turned out that it had actually been built in South Africa rather than the homeland. 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean...


A similar policy was pursued in South African-occupied South West Africa (present-day Namibia), where ten Bantustans were created. (See Bantustans in South West Africa for more on this topic.) South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conqured from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... Beginning in 1968, homelands (or Bantustans) similar to those in South Africa were established in South West Africa (present-day Namibia). ...


Life in the Bantustans

The Bantustans were all extremely poor. Their economic deprivation was the deliberate result of government policies, as their boundaries were drawn to exclude valuable land and industries. Few local employment opportunities were available. Their single most important home-grown source of revenue was the provision of casinos and topless revue shows, which the National Party government had prohibited in South Africa proper as being "immoral". This provided a lucrative source of income for the local elite, who constructed megaresorts such as Sun City in the homeland of Bophuthatswana. The Trump Taj Mahal in Atlantic City, New Jersey. ... Line art depictions of a man and a woman designed to educate extraterrestrials about the appearance of the human body. ... Megaresorts integrate the services offered by a hotel, casino, dining, entertainment, and shopping into a single, large, and highly stylized or themed venue. ... The Bridge of Time facing the Entertainment Centre Sun City is a luxury South African casino resort, situated in the North West Province. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ...


However, the homelands were only kept afloat by massive subsidies from the South African government; for instance, by 1985 in Transkei, 85% of the homeland's income came from direct transfer payments from Pretoria. The Bantustans' governments were invariably corrupt and little wealth trickled down to the local populations, who were forced to seek employment as so-called "guest workers" in South Africa proper. Millions of people had to work in often appalling conditions, away from their homes for months at a time. – for example, 65% of Bophuthatswana's population worked outside the 'homeland'. This article is about the year. ... The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean... City motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Province Gauteng Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


Not surprisingly, the homelands were extremely unpopular among the urban black population, many of whom lived in squalor in slum housing. Their working conditions were often equally poor, as they were denied any significant rights or protections in South Africa proper. The allocation of individuals to specific homelands was often quite arbitrary. Many individuals assigned to homelands did not live in or originate from the homelands to which they were assigned, and the division into designated ethnic groups often took place on an arbitrary basis, particularly in the case of people of mixed ethnic ancestry.


Post-1994

With the demise of the apartheid regime in South Africa, the Bantustans were dismantled and their territory reincorporated into the Republic of South Africa. The drive to achieve this was spearheaded by the African National Congress as a central element of its programme of reform. Reincorporation was mostly achieved peacefully, although there was some resistance from the local elites, who stood to lose out on the opportunities for corruption provided by the homelands. The dismantling of the homelands of Bophuthatswana and Ciskei was particularly difficult, with South African security forces having to intervene in the latter in March 1994 to defuse a political crisis. The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party supported by a tripartite alliance between itself, the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) and the South African Communist Party (SACP) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ...


From 1994, most parts of the country were constitutionally redivided into new provincial governments. A map of the nine provinces of South Africa South Africa is currently divided into nine provinces. ...


List of Bantustans

The homelands are listed below with the ethnic group for which each homeland was designated. Four were nominally independent (the so-called TVBC states of the Transkei, Venda, Bophuthatswana and the Ciskei). The other six had limited self-government: The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ...

The first Bantustan that became operational was the Transkei under the leadership of Chief Kaizer Daliwonga Matanzima in the Cape Province for the Xhosa nation. Perhaps the best known one was KwaZulu for the Zulu nation in Natal Province, headed by a member of the Zulu royal family Chief Mangosuthu ("Gatsha") Buthelezi in the name of the Zulu king. The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean... The Xhosa people are a group of peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Tswana (Motswana, plural Batswana) is the name of a Southern African people. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... The Xhosa people are a group of peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gazankulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Tsonga people. ... The Shangaan (Vatsonga) are a large group of people living mainly in southern Mozambique in the provinces of Gaza and Maputo. ... KaNgwane was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Swazi people. ... Flag of KwaNdebele KwaNdebele was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Matabele people. ... The Ndebele people are three tribes or nations of people living in South Africa and Zimbabwe; there are three main groups of Ndebele: The Southern Transvaal Ndebele, who live around Bronkhorstspruit The Northern Transvaal Ndebele, who live in Limpopo Province (formerly Northern Transvaal or Northern Province) around the towns of... Flag of KwaZulu KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. ... The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are an African ethnic group of about 11 million people who live mainly in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... The Flag of Lebowa Lebowa was a bantustan located in the Transvaal in north eastern South Africa. ... Northern Sotho, or Sesotho sa Leboa, is one of the official languages of South Africa, and is spoken by 4,208,980 people (2001 Census Data), mostly in the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo Province and Mpumalanga. ... QwaQwa was a Bantustan, or homeland, in the eastern part of South Africa. ... The Sotho-speaking people have lived in southern Africa since around 15th century. ... The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 _ June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of South Africa; besides various formal titles he held, he is often thought of as Chief Matanzima, reflecting a title traditional with his ethnic group. ... Under the Union of South Africa and after that under the Republic of South Africa, the old Cape Colony became the Cape of Good Hope Province (though it was commonly known as the Cape Province). ... The Xhosa people are a group of peoples of Bantu origins living in south-east South Africa. ... Flag of KwaZulu KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. ... The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are an African ethnic group of about 11 million people who live mainly in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. ... KwaZulu-Natal, often referred to as KZN, is a province of South Africa. ... Chief Mangosuthu (Gatsha) Buthelezi (born August 27, 1928) is a South African Zulu leader, and leader of the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) which he formed in 1975. ...


Lesotho and Swaziland were not Bantustans, but independent countries, and are former British Protectorates. These countries are mostly or entirely surrounded by South African territory, and are almost totally dependent on South Africa.


Usage in non-South African contexts

The term "Bantustan" has also been used in a number of non-South African contexts, generally to refer to actual or perceived attempts to create ethnically-based states or regions. Its connection with apartheid has meant that the term is now generally used in a pejorative sense as a form of criticism:

  • "The term 'Bantustan' was used by apartheid's apologists in reference to the partition of India in 1947. However, it quickly became pejorative in left and anti-apartheid usage, where it remained, while being abandoned by the National Party in favour of 'homelands'." [1]
  • It has been used in relation to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, where critics of Israeli government policies have claimed parallels with South Africa's apartheid system.[2] (See Israeli apartheid for a fuller discussion of this controversial parallel, which is widely rejected [3]).
  • In Canada, some criticised the largely Inuit territory of Nunavut as being the country's "first Bantustan, an apartheid-style ethnic homeland." [4].
  • The increasing numbers of small states in the Balkans, following the breakup of Yugoslavia, have also been referred to as "bantustans".[6] [7]

Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Israel, the West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... It has been suggested that one solution has to be found for a series of articles including this article. ... Inuit (Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, singular Inuk / ᐃᓄᒃ) is a general term for a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic coasts of Siberia, Alaska, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador and Greenland (see Eskimo). ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut: Nunavut our strength or Our land our strength) Official languages Inuktitut, Inuinnaqtun, English, French Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson Premier Paul Okalik (independent) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 1 Nancy Karetak-Lindell 1 Willie Adams Area Total  â€¢ Land  â€¢ Water    (% of total... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,941 sq mi (28,337 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Daniel Kahikina Akaka (born September 11, 1924) is a U.S. Senator from Hawaii and a member of the Democratic Party. ... Native Hawaiians (in Hawaiian, kanaka oiwi or kanaka māoli) are the Polynesian peoples of the Hawaiian Islands who trace their ancestry back to Marquesan and possibly Tahitian settlers (starting circa 400 CE), before the arrival of British explorer Captain James Cook in 1778. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all south Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for three separate but successive political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Map of the districts of Sri Lanka claimed by LTTE as parts of Tamil Eelam Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், tamiḻ īḻam) is the name given by the LTTE and All Tamil population of Sri Lanka to the independent state which they demand in the Northern and Eastern portions of the island. ... In South Asias caste system, an untouchable, dalit, or achuta is a person outside of the four castes, and considered below them. ...

References

  1. ^ Susan Mathieson and David Atwell, Between Ethnicitiy and Nationhood: Shaka Day and the Struggle over Zuluness in post-Apartheid South Africa in Multicultural States: Rethinking Difference and Identity edited by David Bennett ISBN 0415121590 (Routledge UK, 1998) p.122
  2. ^ See e.g. "Bantustan plan for an apartheid Israel", The Guardian, London. 25 April 2004
  3. ^ The Missing Peace. Interview with Dennis Ross (Mother Jones, October 20, 2004)
  4. ^ "The Mille Lacs Treaty Case is over, but don't stop fighting for what you believe in", Ottawa Citizen
  5. ^ "Hawaiians Want Race-Based Public Policy Too", Captain's Quarters, July 12, 2005
  6. ^ "The destabilization of current "Bantustan" states either has the goal of creating a Balkan federation or the resurrection of Yugoslavia" Déjà vu?, The Center for Peace in the Balkans, August 2001. Accessed June 16, 2006.
  7. ^ "As a region where, during the last hundred years, all the modern political forms have been tried out, from empire to revolutionary republic, from multi-national federation to nation state to protectorate, a series repeated in the last century's decade as in an abridged, though not more successful edition, skipping revolutionary republic, while adding self-imposed bantustan." Mocnik, Rastko. Social change in the Balkans, Eurozine, March 20, 2003. Accessed June 16, 2006.
  8. ^ "The Tamil areas were on the one hand colonized, and on the other, by a policy of "benign neglect", turned into a backyard bantustan." Ponnambalam, Satchi. Sri Lanka : The National Question and the Tamil Liberation Struggle, Chapter 8.3, Zed Books Ltd, London, 1983.
  9. ^ "Our President should make the Americans realise that Pakistan is no Bantustan." Minhas, Moazzam Tahir. Prelude to China's containment, The Nation, July, 2005.
  10. ^ "Gaurav Apartments came up 15 years ago as the realization of the dream of Ram Din Rajvanshi to carve out secure, dignified residential space for dalit families that can afford to buy a two or three-bedroom flat rather than as a "bantustan" for low-caste people." Devraj, Ranjit. Dalits create space for themselves, Asia Times Online, January 26, 2005.

Dennis Ross served as special Middle East envoy and negotiator for Democratic and Republicans US Administrations, first under George H.W. Bush and then under Bill Clinton during both terms. ... Asia Times Online is an Internet-only publication that reports and examines geopolitical, political, economic and business issues, looking at these from an Asian perspective. ...

See also

Apartheid-era Bantustans in South Africa Flag of South Africa
Bophuthatswana | Ciskei | Gazankulu | KaNgwane | KwaNdebele | KwaZulu | Lebowa | QwaQwa | Transkei | Venda
Nominally independent Bantustans are in italics

The Black Homeland Citizenship Act of 1970 changed the status of the inhabitants of the homelands so that they were no longer citizens of South Africa. ... Beginning in 1968, homelands (or Bantustans) similar to those in South Africa were established in South West Africa (present-day Namibia). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Rex Theatre for Colored People, Leland, Mississippi, June 1937 This entry is related to, but not included in the Political ideologies series or one of its sub-series. ... Volkstaat (Afrikaans for Peoples state) is a proposal for an independent state in South Africa or Homeland by a minority of Afrikaners through cultural separatism. ... An internal passport is an identification document issued in some countries. ... A hukou (Chinese: ) is a residency permit issued in the Peoples Republic of China which officially identifies a person as a resident of an area. ... Propiska (Russian: пропи́ска; the full term is Прописка по месту жительства, The record of place of residence) was a regulation in the Soviet Union designed to control internal population movement by binding a person to his or her permanent place of residence. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Bophuthatswana as of 1977 Flag of Bophuthatswana bantustan Bophuthatswana was a former Bantustan (homeland) in the north of South Africa. ... Ciskei Flag of Ciskei Ciskei was a Bantustan in the south east of South Africa. ... Gazankulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Tsonga people. ... KaNgwane was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government to be a semi-independent homeland for the Swazi people. ... Flag of KwaNdebele KwaNdebele was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Matabele people. ... Flag of KwaZulu KwaZulu was a bantustan in South Africa, intended by the apartheid government as a semi-independent homeland for the Zulu people. ... The Flag of Lebowa Lebowa was a bantustan located in the Transvaal in north eastern South Africa. ... QwaQwa was a Bantustan, or homeland, in the eastern part of South Africa. ... The poverty-stricken but beautiful Transkei — which roughly means the area beyond the Kei River — is situated in what is now part of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, bordered by the Umtavuma River in the north and the Great Kei River in the south, while the Indian Ocean... Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, now part of Limpopo province. ...


 
 

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