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Encyclopedia > Banqiao Dam

The Banqiao Reservoir Dam (Chinese: 板桥水库大坝; pinyin: Bǎnqiáo Shuǐkù Dàbà) and Shimantan Reservoir Dam (Chinese: 石漫滩水库大坝; pinyin: Shímàntān Shuǐkù Dàbà) are among 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture of China's Henan Province that failed catastrophically in 1975 during Typhoon Nina. According to the Hydrology Department of Henan Province[3], approximately 26,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent epidemics and famine. In addition, about 5,960,000 buildings collapsed, and 11 million residents were affected. Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Pinyin is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to Roman script) for Standard Mandarin, where pin means spell and yin means sound. The most common variant of pinyin in use is called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n), also known as scheme... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Zhumadian (Simplified Chinese: 驻马店; Traditional Chinese: 駐馬店; pinyin: ) is a city in southern Henan province, China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan and Hunan Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: Hénán; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Super Typhoon Nina was short lived but intense supertyphoon that caused major damage and deaths in China, mainly from the collapse of the Banqiao Dam. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... A famine is a phenomenon in which a large percentage of the population of a region or country is so undernourished that death by starvation or other related diseases becomes increasingly common. ...

Contents

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History

Approximate location of Banqiao Dam.
Approximate location of Banqiao Dam.

The Banqiao dam was built in the early 1950s on the Ru River as part of a project to control flooding and generate electricity and as a response to severe flooding in the Huai River Basin in 1949 and 1950[4]. The dam was 118 meters high (387 feet) and had a storage capacity of 492 million m³ (398,000 acre feet), with 375 million m³ (304,000 acre feet) reserved for flood storage. Cracks in the dam and sluice gates appeared after completion due to construction and engineering errors. They were repaired with advice from Soviet engineers and the new design, dubbed the iron dam, was considered unbreakable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1078x1125, 82 KB)Map of the location of Banqiao Dam. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1078x1125, 82 KB)Map of the location of Banqiao Dam. ... The 1950s was the decade spanning the years 1950 to 1959. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Sluice gates at Teddington, on the River Thames Combination of sluice gates and canal lock under bridge Grave A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Chen Xing was one of China's foremost hydrologists and was involved in the design of the dam. He was also a vocal critic of the government dam building policy, which involved many dams in the basin. He had recommended 12 sluice gates for the Banqiao Dam, but this was scaled back to 5 and Chen Xing was criticized as being too conservative. Other dams in the project, including the Shimantan Dam, had similar reduction of safety features and Chen was removed from the project. In 1961, after problems with the water system surfaced, he was brought back to help. Chen continued to be an outspoken critic of the system and was again removed from the project. Hydrology is the study of the occurrence, distribution, and movement of water on, in, and above the earth. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ...

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Banqiao flood

Banqiao Dam after the failure.
Banqiao Dam after the failure.

The Dam was designed to survive a 1-in-1,000-year flood (306 mm {12 inches} rainfall per day). In August of 1975, however, a 1-in-2,000 year flood occurred after several days of record rainfall[1], which weather forecasts failed to predict[2], produced by the collision of Super Typhoon Nina and a cold front. Communication to the dam was largely lost due to the collapse of buildings under heavy rain and wire failures. On August 6, a request to open the dam was rejected, because of the existing flood in downstream areas. On August 7, however, the request was accepted, but the telegraphs failed to reach the dam[5]. Image File history File linksMetadata BanqiaoDamAfterFailure. ... Image File history File linksMetadata BanqiaoDamAfterFailure. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Super Typhoon Nina was short lived but intense supertyphoon that caused major damage and deaths in China, mainly from the collapse of the Banqiao Dam. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ...


The sluice gates were not able to handle the overflow of water, partially due to sedimentation blockage. On August 7, 7:30 p.m., the People's Liberation Army Unit 34450, which was deployed on the Banqiao Dam, sent the first dam failure warning through telegraph. On August 8, 12:30 a.m., the smaller Shimantan Dam, which was designed to survive a 1-in-500-year flood, failed to handle more than twice its capacity and broke upstream, 10 minutes after Unit 34450 sent a request that would open the Banqiao Dam by air strike. A half hour later, at 1:00 a.m., water crested at the Banqiao Dam and it too failed. This precipitated the failure of 62 dams in total. The runoff of Banqiao Dam was 13,000 m³/s in (10 acre feet/s) / 78,800 m³/s out (63 acre feet/s) and 701 million tons of water was released in 6 hours, while 1,670 million tons of water was released in 5.5 hours at upriver Shimantan Dam, and 15.738 billion tons of water was released in total. Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ...


The resulting flood waters caused a large wave, which was 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide, 3-7 meters (9-23 feet) high in Suiping, to rush downwards into the plains below at nearly 50 kilometers per hour (31 mph), almost wiped out an area 55 kilometers long, 15 kilometers wide, and created temporary lakes as large as 12,000 km² (4,600 square miles). Seven county seats (Suiping, Xiping, Runan, Pingyu, Xincai, Luohe, Linquan) were inundated, as were thousands of square kilometers of countryside and countless communities. Evacuation orders had not been fully delivered because of weather conditions and poor communications. Telegraphs failed, signal flares fired by Unit 34450 were misunderstood, telephones were rare, and some messengers were caught by the flood. While only 827 out of 6,000 people died in the evacuated community of Shahedian just below Banqiao Dam, half of a total of 36,000 people died in the unevacuated Wencheng commune of Suipin County next to Shahedian, and the Daowencheng Commune was wiped out from the map, killing all 9,600 citizens. Although a large number of people were reported lost at first, many of them returned home later. Tens of thousands of them were carried by the water to downriver provinces and many others fled from their homes.


To protect other dams from failure, several Flood Control Districts (蓄洪区) were evacuated and inundated, and several dams deliberately destroyed by air strikes to release water in desired directions. As the Boshan Dam, with a capacity of 400 million m³, crested, and the water released from the failures of Banqiao and Shimantan was rushing downstream, air strikes were made against several other dams to protect the Suya Lake dam, which was already holding 1.2 billion m³ of water[6]. Suya Lake only won a temporary reprieve, and both it and Boshan became targets as well. Finally, the Bantai Dam, which was holding 5.7 billion m³ of water, was bombed[7].


The Jingguang Railway, a major artery from Beijing to Guangzhou, was cut off for 18 days, as were other crucial communications lines. Although tens of thousand of PLA troops were deployed for disaster relief, all communication to and from the cities were cut off. Nine days later there were still over a million people trapped by the waters, relying on airdrops of food and unreachable to disaster relief. Epidemics and famine devastated the trapped survivors. The damage of the Zhumadian area was estimated 3.5 billion Renminbi yuan[8]. Jingguang Railway(Chinese: 京广铁路/京廣鐵路, or 京广线/京廣綫) is a major artery railway in the China connecting Beijing West Station in Beijing to Guangzhou Railway Station in Guangzhou, Guangdong. ... Beijing [English Pronunciation] (Chinese: 北京 [Chinese Pronunciation]; Pinyin: Běijīng; IPA: ), a city in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... (Simplified Chinese: 广州; Traditional Chinese: 廣州; pinyin: Guǎngzhōu; Wade-Giles: Kuang-chou; Postal System Pinyin: Canton) is the capital of Guangdong Province in southern China. ... Zhumadian (Simplified Chinese: 驻马店; Traditional Chinese: 駐馬店; pinyin: ) is a city in southern Henan province, China. ... ISO 4217 Code CNY User(s) Mainland of the Peoples Republic of China Inflation rate 1. ...


After the flood, a summit of National Flood Prevention and Reservoir Security at Zhengzhou, Henan was held by the Department of Water Conservancy and Electricity, and a nationwide reservoir security examination was performed after this meeting. Chen Xing was again brought back to the project and aided in clearing the river channels.


Many of the dams have been rebuilt, including Banqiao in 1993 and Shimantan in 1996. A documentary film about the Banqiao flood was broadcast by CCTV-1 between April 4, 2006 and April 7, 2006. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... CCTV-1 is the primary channel of the CCTV (China Central Television ) Network in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

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References

  1. ^ new records were set, at 189.5 mm rainfall per hour and 1,062 mm per day, while the average annual precipitation was about 800 mm (31 inches)
  2. ^ CCTV reports that the typhoon disappeared from radar[1]. According to Xinhua[2], the forecast was a rainfall of 100 mm by the Beijing-based Central Meteorological Observatory.
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CCTV can stand for: China Central Television Closed-circuit television This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

See also

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Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Look up flood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image:Huaihe-mapriver. ... // Introduction China is one of the most victimized countries in the world by natural disasters. ...

External links


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The Banqiao Reservoir Dam (Chinese: 板桥水库大坝; pinyin: Bǎnqiáo Shuǐkù Dàbà) and Shimantan Reservoir Dam (Chinese: 石漫滩水库大坝; pinyin: Shímàntān Shuǐkù Dàbà) are among 62 dams in Zhumadian Prefecture of China's Henan Province that failed catastrophically in 1975 during Typhoon Nina.
The Banqiao dam was built in the early 1950s on the Ru River as part of a project to control flooding and generate electricity and as a response to severe flooding in the Huai River Basin in 1949 and 1950[4].
As the Boshan Dam, with a capacity of 400 million m³, crested, and the water released from the failures of Banqiao and Shimantan was rushing downstream, air strikes were made against several other dams to protect the Suya Lake dam, which was already holding 1.2 billion m³ of water[6].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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