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Encyclopedia > Banking in the United States

United States Banking began in 1781 with an act of United States Congress that established the Bank of North America in Philadelphia. During the American Revolutionary War, the Bank of North America was given a monopoly on currency; prior to this time, private banks printed their own bank notes, backed by deposits of gold and/or silver. 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Bank of North America was chartered in 1781 by the Continental Congress and opened on January 7, 1782, at the prodding of Finance Minister Robert Morris, and was rechartered in 1784. ... Nickname: Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: , Country United States Commonwealth Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Government  - Mayor John F. Street (D) Area  - City 369. ... Combatants United States France Spanish Empire Dutch Republic Oneida Tuscarora Polish volunteers Quebec volunteers Prussian volunteers Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Hessian mercenaries Loyalists Commanders George Washington Nathanael Greene Gilbert de La Fayette Comte de Rochambeau Bernardo de Gálvez Tadeusz KoÅ›ciuszko Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben King George III Sir... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with private banking. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Standard atomic weight 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ...


Robert Morris, the first Superintendent of Finance appointed under the Articles of Confederation, proposed the Bank of North America as a commercial bank that would act as fiscal agent for the government. The monopoly was seen as necessary because previous attempts to finance the Revolutionary War with paper currency had failed; after the war, a number of banks were chartered by the states under the Articles of Confederation, including the Bank of New York and the Bank of Massachusetts, both of which were chartered in 1784. Robert Morris Robert Morris, Jr. ... The Articles of Confederation The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, commonly known as the Articles of Confederation, was the first governing document, or constitution, of the United States of America. ... A commercial bank is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. ... The Bank of New York (NYSE: BK), sometimes BNY, is a global financial services company operating in four primary business areas: Securities servicing Treasury management Investment management Private banking Bank of New York and Mellon Financial Corporation will merge. ... The Bank of Massachusetts, founded in 1784 in Boston, Massachusetts, was the second-oldest bank in the United States. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


The Bank of North America was succeeded by the First Bank of the United States, which the United States Congress chartered in 1791 under Article One, Section 8 of the United States Constitution, after the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation as the foundation of American government. However, Congress failed to renew the charter for the Bank of the United States, which expired in 1811. Similarly, the Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 and shuttered in 1836. The First Bank of the United States was a bank chartered by Congress on February 25, 1791. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

The era of free banking

Prior to 1836, a bank could only be chartered by a legislative act.[citation needed] It has been speculated that this led to many abuses, with proprietors lacking connections in their legislatures being effectively barred from establishing banks. [citation needed]The dissoluting of the Second Bank of the United States in 1836 lead 18 states to establish clear rules for incorporation -- any individual or group that met a certain financial requirement was permitted to issue bills of credit.[citation needed] Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Banker” redirects here. ... Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... The Second Bank of the United States was a bank chartered in 1816, five years after the expiration of the First Bank of the United States. ...


This led to many a period of fiscally irresponsible of Wildcat banking in many states, which partially destabilized the system of financial intermediation, and lead in part to the massive panic in 1837-1838 in Michigan. Wildcat banking refers to the practices of any unsound bank chartered under state law during the period of uncontrolled state banking (1816–63) in the United States. ...


During this period, bills were not redeemable at face value, but could be cashed according to certain common discount rates, which reflected the reputation and solvency of the issuing banks.[citation needed] These bills were commonly called "scrip."


The dual banking system

In 1863, Congress passed the National Bank Act in an attempt to retire the greenbacks that it had issued to finance the North's effort in the American Civil War. This opened up an option for chartering banks nationally. As an additional incentive for banks to submit to Federal supervision, in 1865 Congress began taxing any issue of state bank notes (also called "bills of credit" or "scrip") a standard rate of 10%, which encouraged many state banks to become national ones. This tax also gave rise to another response by state banks -- the invention of the demand deposit account, also known as a checking account. By the 1880s, deposit accounts had changed the primary source of revenue for many banks. The result of these events is what is known as the "dual banking system." Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The National Banking Act of 1863 raised money for the Union in the United States Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds, and taxed state bonds out of existence. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The dual system of banking has survived to this day.[citation needed] New banks may choose either state or national charters (a bank also can convert its charter from one to the other). Until 1989, banks with national charters (national banks) were required to participate in the FDIC, while State Banks either were required to obtain FDIC insurance by state law or they could voluntarily join it (usually in an attempt to bolster their appearance of solvency). After enactment of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1989 ("FDICIA"), all commercial banks that accepted deposits were required to obtain FDIC insurance and to have a primary federal regulator (the Fed for state banks that are members of the Federal Reserve System, and the FDIC for "nonmembers"). The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) was created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. ...


The Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 established the present day Federal Reserve System and brought all banks in the United States under the authority of the federal government, creating the twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks which are supervised by the Federal Reserve Board. Notwithstanding the Glass-Steagall Act of 1932 and the Banking Acts of 1933 and 1935, which were attempts to reform various banking abuses, the Federal Reserve System has remained more or less unchanged through to the present day. The Glass-Steagall Act was repealed in 1999, whereas the Banking Act of 1933 simply strengthened the supervisory powers of federal authorities and created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Fed redirects here. ... Federal Reserve Districts The United States Federal Reserve System consists of twelve Federal Reserve Banks, each responsible for a particular district, and some with branches. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ... Two separate United States laws are known as the Glass-Steagall Act. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... The FDIC logo The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation created by the Glass-Steagall Act of 1933. ...


Deregulation

Legislation passed by the federal government during the 1980s, such as the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 and the Garn-St. Germaine Depository Institutions Act of 1982, diminished the distinctions between banks and other financial institutions in the United States. This legislation is frequently referred to as "deregulation," and it is often blamed for the failure of over 500 savings and loan associations between 1980 and 1988, and the subsequent failure of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) whose obligations were assumed by the FDIC in 1989. However, some critics of this viewpoint, particularly libertarians, have pointed out that the federal government's attempts at deregulation granted easy credit to federally insured financial institutions, encouraging them to overextend themselves and (thus) fail. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act, a United States federal financial statute law passed in 1980, gave the Federal Reserve greater control over non-member banks. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... A savings and loan association is a financial institution which specializes in accepting savings deposits and making mortgage loans. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (FSLIC) administered the deposit insurance for savings and loans in the United States. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ...


Bank mergers and brands

Some brands in the banking/financial services industry today are the result of a merger where the acquiring bank assumed the brand name of the bank it took over. This happened in the case of these mergers:

  • The Nations Bank/BankAmerica merger
  • The Norwest/Wells Fargo merger
  • The Firststar/US Bank merger
  • The Travelers/Citibank merger
  • The Chemical Bank/Chase merger
  • The Travelers Group/Citicorp merger
  • First Union/Wachovia merger
  • J.P. Morgan Chase/Bank One merger

The Norwest Corporation was a large bank corporation in Minneapolis with offices in many states until, after buying Wells Fargo of San Francisco in 1998, it changed its own name to Wells Fargo and moved its headquarters to San Francisco in 2000. ... An older Wells Fargo branch, located in Berkeley, California Wells Fargos corporate headquarters and main branch Wells Fargo & Co. ... One Wachovia Tower in headquarters Charlotte, North Carolina Wachovia Corporation (NYSE: WB), based in Charlotte, North Carolina is one of the largest banking chains in the United States. ...

Top three changes in banking profitability

The top three changes affecting or detracting from a bank's profitability are the following:

  1. Increasing overhead - primarily due to escalating real estate prices and health benefits increase.
  2. Online lending - Non traditional banks have gained a foothold by leveraging the internet.
  3. Mortgage Brokers - Mortgage Brokers have gained more than 70% of the mortgage origination market over the past decade. Mortgage Brokers sell originated loans primarily to large wholesale mortgage servicing companies which can offer sharply reduced mortgage pricing as they do not have the same high cost or overhead as a retail bank branch. Therefore a retail bank may be competitive in the mortgage lending field on a retail basis, but not able to offer a comparative wholesale program to mortgage brokers. Therefore the mortgage brokers often sell the bulk of originations to large mortgage servicing companies.[citation needed]

Bank size information

Top ten bank holding companies in the U.S. ranked by assets

Figures as of September 30, 2006, in U.S. dollars.[1] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

  1. Citigroup Inc. — 1.746 trillion
  2. Bank of America Corp. — 1.452 trillion
  3. J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. — 1.338 trillion
  4. Wachovia Corp. — 560 billion
  5. Wells Fargo & Co. — 483 billion
  6. HSBC North America Inc. — 474 billion
  7. Taunus Corp. — 430 billion
  8. Washington Mutual Inc. — 348 billion[2]
  9. U.S. Bancorp — 217 billion
  10. Countrywide Financial Corp. — 193 billion

Citigroup Inc. ... One million million (1,000,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,000,001. ... Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648 ) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... One Wachovia Tower in headquarters Charlotte, North Carolina Wachovia Corporation (NYSE: WB), based in Charlotte, North Carolina is one of the largest banking chains in the United States. ... An older Wells Fargo branch, located in Berkeley, California Wells Fargos corporate headquarters and main branch Wells Fargo & Co. ... HSBC Bank USA N.A., the United States subsidiary of the HSBC Holdings plc, is a bank with its head office in New York City. ... Deutsche Bank AG (ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) (English: ) is a bank operating worldwide and employing more than 67,400 people (January, 2007). ... The Washington Mutual Tower in Seattle, Washington A Washington Mutual Financial Center in San Jose, California Washington Mutual (or WaMu; NYSE: WM) is one of the United Statess leading consumer and small business banks. ... It has been suggested that Firstar Corporation be merged into this article or section. ... Countrywide Financial Corporation (NYSE: CFC) is a diversified financial service holding company engaged primarily in residential mortgage banking and related businesses. ...

Top ten bank holding companies in the U.S. ranked by total domestic deposits

As of June 30, 2005 in U.S. dollars. These are U.S. deposits only. This is not a ranking of the largest U.S.-based global banks.[3] The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...

  1. Bank of America Corp. — 577 billion
  2. J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. — 406 billion
  3. Wachovia Corp. — 286 billion
  4. Wells Fargo & Co. — 262 billion
  5. Citigroup Inc. — 207billion
  6. U.S. Bancorp — 117 billion
  7. SunTrust Banks, Inc. — 107 billion
  8. Regions — 101 billion
  9. Royal Bank of Scotland PLC — 99 billion
  10. National City Corp. — 76 billion
  11. [(ICICI Bank.]] - 75 billion

Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648 ) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... One Wachovia Tower in headquarters Charlotte, North Carolina Wachovia Corporation (NYSE: WB), based in Charlotte, North Carolina is one of the largest banking chains in the United States. ... An older Wells Fargo branch, located in Berkeley, California Wells Fargos corporate headquarters and main branch Wells Fargo & Co. ... Citigroup Inc. ... It has been suggested that Firstar Corporation be merged into this article or section. ... SunTrust Headquarters at SunTrust Plaza in Atlanta, GA. SunTrust Banks, Inc. ... Regions Financial Corporation NYSE: RF is a publicly held company based in Birmingham, Alabama. ... The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (Scottish Gaelic: [1]) is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, which together with NatWest, provides branch banking facilities in the UK. Royal Bank of Scotland has around 700 branches, mainly in Scotland though there are branches in... National City Corporation (NYSE: NCC), based in Cleveland, Ohio, is one of the ten largest banks in America in terms of deposits. ...

Top ten commercial banks and savings institutions in the U.S. by total domestic deposits

As of June 30, 2005 in U.S. dollars. These are U.S. deposits only. This is not a ranking of the largest U.S.-based global banks.[4]

  1. Bank of America Corp. — 577 billion
  2. J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. — 384 billion
  3. Wachovia Corp. — 284 billion
  4. Wells Fargo & Co. — 256 billion
  5. Washington Mutual Inc. — 186 billion
  6. Citibank — 131 billion
  7. U.S. Bancorp, Inc. — 117 billion
  8. SunTrust Banks — 106 billion
  9. HSBC Bank USA NA — 62 billion
  10. World Savings Bank — 58 billion

Bank of America (NYSE: BAC TYO: 8648 ) is the largest commercial bank in the United States in terms of deposits, and the largest company of its kind in the world. ... J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. ... One Wachovia Tower in headquarters Charlotte, North Carolina Wachovia Corporation (NYSE: WB), based in Charlotte, North Carolina is one of the largest banking chains in the United States. ... An older Wells Fargo branch, located in Berkeley, California Wells Fargos corporate headquarters and main branch Wells Fargo & Co. ... The Washington Mutual Tower in Seattle, Washington A Washington Mutual Financial Center in San Jose, California Washington Mutual (or WaMu; NYSE: WM) is one of the United Statess leading consumer and small business banks. ... Citibank is a major international bank, founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York. ... It has been suggested that Firstar Corporation be merged into this article or section. ... SunTrust Headquarters at SunTrust Plaza in Atlanta, GA. SunTrust Banks, Inc. ... HSBC Holdings PLC (NYSE: HBC), (LSE: HSBA), (HKSE: 005), (Euronext: HSBC), is one of the largest banking groups in the world. ... Wachovia Corporation NYSE: WB, based in Charlotte, North Carolina is one of the largest banking chains in the United States. ...

United States - State Specific Information

Banking and lending laws vary by state in the United States. Each state has its own commercial and consumer regulatory guidelines. Each state has a banking commission or finance department. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

  • AK - Alaska Division of Banking & Securities Commission, 150 Third Street, Suite 217 Juneau, AK 99801
  • AL - AL State Banking Dept., Center for Commerce Suite 680 401 Adams Avenue,Montgomery, Alabama 36130-1201
  • AR
  • AZ - Department of Financial Institutions, 2910 N. 44th Street, Suite 310, Phoenix, AZ 85018 [1]
  • CA - Department of Corporations, 320 West 4th Street, Suite 750 LOS ANGELES, CA 90013-1105
  • CO - Department of Regulatory Agencies, Division of Banking, 1560 Broadway, Suite 975, Denver, CO 80202
  • CT - Connecticut Department of Banking, Consumer Credit Division 260 Constitution Plaza Hartford, CT 06103-1800
  • DC - Office of Banking & Financial Institutions 717 14th Street, Suite 1100, Washington, D.C. 20005
  • DE - Office of State Banking Commissioner 555 E. Lockerman St, Suite 210 DOVER, DE 19901
  • FL
  • GA - Georgia Department of Banking and Finance 2990 Brandywine Road, Suite 200, Atlanta, GA 30341-5565
  • HI
  • IA - Iowa Division of Banking
  • ID - Department of Finance
  • IL - Department of Financial and Professional Regulation
  • IN - Department of Financial Institutions
  • KS - Office of the State Bank Commissioner
  • KY - Department of Financial Institutions, 1025 Capitol Center, Dr., Suite 200, Frankfort, KY 40601, 502-573-3390, Toll free: 1-800-223-2579,Fax: 502-573-8787, http://www.dfi.state.ky.us
  • LA - Office of Financial Institutions
  • MA - Massachusetts Division of Banks
  • MD
  • ME
  • MN
  • MI
  • MO
  • MS
  • MT
  • NC
  • NE - Nebraska Department of Banking & Finance Commerce Court 1230 'O' Street, Suite 400 Lincoln, NE 68508-1402
  • ND - Dept of Banking, State Capitol, 600 E. Boulevard, Bismaarck, ND 58505-0080,
  • NJ - Department of Banking and Insurance Division of Banking Office of Consumer Finance, 20 West State Street P.O. Box 040, Trenton, NJ 08625-0325
  • NM - REGULATION & LICENSING DEPT.FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS DIVISION, Financial Institutions Division, 2550 Cerrillos Road, 3rd Floor, Santa Fe, NM 87505
  • NV - LAS VEGAS OFFICE, Mortgage Lending Division, 3075 E. Flamingo #104A, Las Vegas, Nevada 89121
  • NV - Carson City Office, Mortgage Lending Division, 400 W King Street, Suite 406,Carson City, Nevada 89703
  • NY - [List of New York Commercial Banks, Thrifts, Savings & Loans both State and Federally Chartered Institutions/ http://www.lendny.com] NYS Banking Department, 2 Rector Street-21st Floor, New York, NY 10006
  • OH - Dept of Commerce, DIVISION OF Financial Institutions,77 S HIGH STREET, 21st FLOOR, COLUMBUS, OH 43266-0121
  • OK - DEPT. OF CONSUMER CREDIT, 4545 LINCOLN BLVD., SUITE 104, OKLAHOMA CITY, OK 73105
  • OR - [Department of Consumer And Busines Services (DCBS)/ http://www.cbs.state.or.us/external/dfcs/]
  • PA - Bureau of Licensing and Consumer Compliance, DEPARTMENT OF BANKING, 333 MARKET ST., 16TH FL., HARRISBURG, PA 17101-2290
  • RI
  • SC
  • SD - DIVISION OF BANKING STATE CAPITOL, 500 EAST CAPITOL AVENUE, PIERRE, SD 57501-5070
  • TN - STATE OF TENNESSEE[DEPT. OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS/ http://www.state.tn.us/financialinst/]502 JOHN SEVIER BUILDING 500 CHARLOTTE AVENUE, NASHVILLE, TN 37219
  • TX - [Texas Savings and Loan Department/ http://www.tsld.state.tx.us/], 2601 North Lamar, Suite 201, Austin, Texas 78705 & [TEXAS CONSUMER CREDIT COMMISSION/ http://www.occc.state.tx.us/], 2601 N. LAMAR, AUSTIN, TX 78705-4207
  • UT - [Utah Division of Real Estate/ http://www.commerce.utah.gov/dre/mortlicensing.html], Heber Wells Building, 2nd Floor East, 160 East 300 South, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 or STATE OF UTAH DEPT. OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS P.O. BOX 89, , 324 SOUTH STATE, , SUITE 201 , SALT LAKE CITY, UT 84110-0089
  • VA - Applications/Licensing, STATE OF VIRGINIA, BUREAU OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS Tyler Bldg, 8th Floor,1300 E. Main Street,Richmond, VA 23219, PO BOX 640, RICHMOND, VA 23218-0640
  • VT - [Department of Banking/ http://www.bishca.state.vt.us/], Insurance,

Securities & Health Care Administration, 89 Main Street Drawer 20, Montpelier, Vermont 05620-3101

  • WA - Dept of Financial Institutions, Division of Consumer Services and Administration 210 11th Street SW Room 300, Olympia, WA 98504
  • WI - Dept. of Financial Institutions, 345 W. Washington Avenue, 4th Floor, P.O. Box 7876, Madison, WI 53707-7876
  • WV - TRACY HUDSON/MARLA GARDNER DIVISION OF BANKING1900 Kanawha Boulevard, East Building #3, Room 311 Charleston, WV 25305-0240
  • WY - HERSCHLER BUILDING-3RD FLOOR 122 WEST 25TH STREET CHEYENNE, WY 82002

See also

“Banker” redirects here. ... Bank regulations are a form of government regulation which subject banks to certain requirements, restrictions and guidelines, aiming to uphold the soundness and integrity of the financial system. ... In financial economics, a financial institution acts as an agent that provides financial services for its clients. ...

Further reading

In this volume, Murray Rothbard has provided a comprehensive history of money and banking in the United States, from colonial times to World War II, the first to explicitly use the interpretive framework of the Austrian monetary theory. ... Murray Newton Rothbard Murray Newton Rothbard (March 2, 1926 - January 7, 1995) was an American economist and political theorist belonging to the Austrian School of Economics who helped define modern libertarianism and anarcho-capitalism. ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.ffiec.gov/nicpubweb/nicweb/Top50Form.aspx Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, National Information Center
  2. ^ http://biz.yahoo.com/bw/061027/20061027005492.html?.v=1 Official Press Release
  3. ^ http://www2.fdic.gov/sod/sodSumReport.asp?barItem=3&sInfoAsOf=2005 fdic.gov, Analysts, Summary of Deposits, Summary Tables, Top 50 Bank Holdings Companies by Deposits
  4. ^ http://www2.fdic.gov/sod/sodSumReport.asp?barItem=3&sInfoAsOf=2005 fdic.gov, Analysts, Summary of Deposits, Summary Tables, Top 50 Commercial Banks and Savings Institutions by Total Domestic Deposits

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