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Encyclopedia > Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: বঙ্কিম চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) ('Chattopadhyay' in the original Bengali; 'Chatterjee' as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram, that inspired the freedom fighters of India, and was later declared the National Song of India. Image File history File links Bankim. ... Image File history File links Bankim. ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ... The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... Vande Mataram (Hindi: वन्दे मातरम् Vande Mātaram, Bengali: বন্দে মাতরম Bônde Matorom) is the national song of India, distinct from the national anthem of India Jana Gana Mana. The song was composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in a mixture of Bengali and Sanskrit. ...



Chatterjee was born in the village Kanthalpura, the youngest of three brothers, to Yadav (or Jadab) Chandra Chattopadhyaya and Durgadebi. His family was orthodox, and his father, a government official who went on to become the Deputy Collector of Midnapur. One of his brothers, Sanjeeb Chandra Chatterjee, was also a novelist and his known for his famous book "Palamau". He was educated at the Mohsin College in Hooghly[1] and later at the Presidency College, graduating with a degree in Arts in 1857. He was one of the first two graduates of the University of Calcutta .[2] He later obtained a degree in Law as well, in 1869. Medinipur (also written as Midnapore) is a city with a population of c. ... The Hoogli River (alternatively spelled Hooghly) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... Presidency College, Kolkata is one of the leading Indian institutions for undergraduate studies in the liberal arts. ... Formally established on the 24 January 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) (Bengali: কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, is the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. ...

Appointed Deputy Collector, like his father, of Jessore, Chatterjee went on to become a Deputy Magistrate, retiring from government service in 1891. His years at work were peppered with incidents that brought him into conflict with the ruling British of the time. However, he was made a Companion, Order of the Indian Empire in 1894. Jessore is a district in south western region of Bangladesh. ... The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Victoria in 1877. ...

Married at the young age of eleven, his first wife passed away in 1859. He later married Rajalakshmi Devi. They had three daughters.


Part of a series on
Hindu politics Hindu politics refers to the political movements professing to draw inspiration from Hinduism. ...

Major parties

Bharatiya Janata Party
Shiv Sena
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) (Hindi: , English: ), created in 1980, is one of the two major national political parties in India. ... SS election symbol Shiv Sena or शिव सेना (meaning Army of Shiva, referring to Shiva) is a political party in India founded on June 19, 1966 by Bal Thackeray, who is the president of the party. ...

Defunct parties

Hindu Mahasabha
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
Ram Rajya Parishad
Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha, a Hindu nationalist organization, was originally founded in 1915 to counter the Muslim League and the secular Indian National Congress. ... Bharatiya Jana Sangh is the old name of Bharatiya Janata Party of India. ... Ram Rajya Parishad (), Sanskrit, Forum of Ramas Kingdom, was a traditionalist Hindu party in India. ...


Integral humanism
Hindu nationalism
Uniform civil code
Integral humanism is the political philosophy practised by the Bharatiya Janata Party and the former Bharatiya Jana Sangh of India. ... Hindu nationalism is a nationalist ideology that sees the modern state of the Republic of India as a Hindu nation, and seeks to preserve the Hindu heritage. ... For Veer Savarkars book Hindutva, see Hindutva. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Major figures

Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar
Syama Prasad Mookerjee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Lal Krishna Advani
Bal Thackeray
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Vinayak Damodar Sarvakar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: विनायक दामोदर सावरकर) (May 28, 1883 – February 27, 1966) was an Indian revolutionary and Hindu nationalist political leader, who is credited with developing a Hindu nationalist political ideology he termed as Hindutva (Hinduness). ... Madhavrao Sadashivrao Golwalkar, popularly known as Guruji, was the second sarasanghachalak of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ... Syama Prasad Mookerjee (also spelled as Shyama Prasad Mukherjee) (July 6, 1901 – May 23, 1953) was the founder of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. ... Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Hindi: , pronunciation: ) (born December 25, 1924) was the Prime Minister of India in 1996 and again from October 13, 1998 until May 19, 2004. ... Lal Krishna Advani (Sindhi: लाल कृष्ण आडवाणी, لال ڪرشنا آڏواڻي) also known as Lal Kishenchand Advani (Sindhi: लाल किशेन्चन्द आडवाणी, لال ڪشن چند آڏواڻي), was born on November 8, 1927 in Karachi, India and served as the President of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) until year-end 2005 and is Leader of the Opposition in the 14th Lok Sabha. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya was a national leader and a freedom fighter of India. ...

Related authors

Vishal Agarwal
B.C. Chattopadhyay
Koenraad Elst
Francois Gautier
Sita Ram Goel
K.S. Lal
Harsh Narain
Yvette Rosser
Arun Shourie
Ram Swarup
Vishal Agarwal (b. ... Koenraad Elst is a Belgian orientalist, writer and researcher[1]. He has authored fifteen books on topics related to Hinduism, Indian history, and Indian politics. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sita Ram Goel (Devanāgarī: सीता राम गोयल, Sītā Rām Goyal) (1921–2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... K.S. Lal is a controversial Indian historian. ... Harsh Narain is an Indian author. ... Yvette Rosser is an American author, scholar and educationalist. ... Arun Shourie Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a prominent journalist, author, and politician of India. ... Ram Swarup (राम स्‍वरूप) (1920 - December 26, 1998) was an influential ideologue for the Hindutvamovement. ...

Politics · Govt of India ·  v  d  e 

Chatterjee, following the model of Ishwarchandra Gupta, began his literary career as a writer of verse. He soon realized, however, that his talents lay in other directions, and turned to fiction. His first attempt was a novel in Bengali submitted for a declared prize. He did not win the prize, and the novelette was never published. His first fiction to appear in print was Rajmohan's Wife. It was written in English and was probably a translation of the novelette submitted for the prize.[citation needed] Durgeshnondini, his first Bengali romance and the first ever novel in Bengali, was published in 1865. Ishwar Chandra Gupta (Bengali: ) (March, 1812-January 23, 1859), was a Bengali poet and writer. ... A novelette (or novelet) is a piece of short prose fiction. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Kapalkundala (1866) is Chatterjee's first major publication. The heroine of this novel, named after the mendicant woman in Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava, is modelled partly after Kalidasa's Shakuntala and partly after Shakespeare's Miranda. He had chosen Dariapur in Contai Subdivision as the background of this famous novel. The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Recognition of Sakuntala is a play in Sanskrit written by Kalidasa. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Location of Contai in Purba Medinipur district Contai (also known as Kanthi) ((Bengali: কাঁথি) is a Subdivisional town in the District of East Midnapore, West Bengal, India. ...

His next romance, Mrinalini (1869), marks his first attempt to set his story against a larger historical context. This book marks the shift from Chatterjee's early career, in which he was strictly a writer of romances, to a later period in which he aimed to simulate the intellect of the Bengali speaking people and bring about a cultural revival through a campaign to improve Bengali literature. He began publishing a monthly literary magazine Bangodarshan in April 1872, the first edition of which was filled almost entirely with his own work. The magazine carried serialized novels, stories, humorous sketches, historical and miscellaneous essays, informative articles, religious discourses, literary criticisms and reviews. Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree, 1873) the first novel of Chatterjee's to appear serially in Bangodarshan.

Bangodarshan went out of circulation after 4 years. It was later revived by his brother, Sanjeeb Chandra Chatterjee.

Chatterjee's next major novel was Chandrasekhar (1877), which contains two largely unrelated parallel plots. Although the scene is once shifted back to eighteenth century, the novel is not historical. His next novel, Rajani(1877), followed the autobiographical technique of Wilkie Collins' "A Woman in White". The title role, a blind girl, was modelled after Edward Bulwer-Lytton's Nydia in "The Last Days of Pompeii". In Krishnakanter Uil (Krishnakanta's Will, 1878) Chatterjee produced the work of his that comes closest to resembling a western novel. The plot is somewhat akin to that of Poison Tree. Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton (May 25, 1803 - January 18, 1873) was an English novelist, playwright, and politician. ...

The only novel of Chatterjee's that can truly be considered historical fiction is Rajsimha (1881, rewritten and enlarged 1893). Anandamath (The mission house of Felicity, 1882) is a political novel which depicts a Sannyasi (Brahmin ascetic) army fighting Indian muslims who are in the employ of the East India Company. The book calls for the rise of Brahmin/Hindu nationalism but, ironically, concludes with a character accepting British Empire as a necessity. The novel was also the source of the song "Vande Mataram" (I worship the Mother) which, set to music by Rabindranath Tagore, was taken up by many secular nationalists. The novel is loosely based on the time of the Sannyasi Rebellion, however in the actual rebellion, Hindus sannyasis and Muslim fakirs both rebelled against the British East India Company. The novel first appeared in serial form in Bangadarshan. Anandamatha (Bangla: আনন্দমঠ) is a famous Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and published in 1882. ... East India Company was the name of several historic European companies chartered with the monopoly of trading with Asia for their respective countries. ... Rabindranath Tagore ( ; Bangla: ; 7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj (syncretic Hindu monotheist) philosopher, visual artist, playwright, composer, and novelist whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Sannyasi Rebellion or Sannyasi Revolt (Bengali: সন্ন্যাসী বিদ্রোহ, The Monks Rebellion) is a term used to describe activities of sannyasis and fakirs, or Hindu and Muslim ascetics respectively, in Bengal, India in the late eighteenth century. ... Sanyasa (pronounced sanyaas) symbolises the conception of the mystic life in Hinduism where a person is now integrated into the spiritual world after wholly giving up material life. ... According to Herbert Ponting, who took this photograph in 1907, this is a fakir in Benares (Varanasi), India. ...

Chatterjee's next novel, Devi Chaudhurani, was published in 1884. His final novel, Sitaram (1886), tells the story of a Hindu chief rebelling against Muslim rule.

Chatterjee's humorous sketches are his best known works other than his novels. Kamalakanter Daptar (From the Desk of Kamalakanta, 1875; enlarged as Kamalakanta, 1885) contains half humorous and half serious sketches, somewhat on the model of De Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821). ...

Some critics, like Pramathnath Bishi, consider Chatterjee as the best novelist in Bangla literature. They believe that few writers in world literature have excelled in both philosophy and art as Bankim has done. They argue that in a colonised nation Bankim could not overlook politics. He was one of the first intellectuals who wrote in a British colony, accepting and rejecting the status at the same time. Bishi also rejects the division of Bankim in `Bankim the artist' and `Bankim the moralist' - for Bankim must be read as a whole. The artist in Bankim cannot be understood unless you understand him as a moralist and vice versa.


  • Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Chatterjee were good friends, and both enjoyed humour. Once, the former, playing on the meaning of Bankim (Either Bright Side of the Moon or A Little Bent), asked him what it was that had bent him. Chatterjee replied that it was the kick from the Englishman's shoe.
  • After the Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree) was published in 1873, The Times of London observed:
Have you read the Poison Tree
Of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee?
  • When Bipin Chandra Pal decided to start a patriotic journal in August 1906, he named it Bande Mataram, after Chatterjee's song. Lala Lajpat Rai also published a journal of the same name.

Sri Thakur Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: শ্রীরামকৄষ্ঞ পরমহংস) (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was a Bengali saint. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian author and politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ...



  • Durgeshnondini (March 1865)
  • Kapalkundala (1866)
  • Mrinalini (1869)
  • Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree, 1873)
  • Indira (1873, revised 1893)
  • Jugalanguriya (1874)
  • Radharani (1876, enlarged 1893)
  • Chandrasekhar (1877)
  • Kamalakanter Daptar (From the Desk of Kamlakanta, 1875)
  • Rajni(1877)
  • Krishnakanter Uil (Krishnakanta's Will, 1878)
  • Rajsimha (1882)
  • Anandamath (1882)
  • Devi Chaudhurani (1884)
  • Kamalakanta (1885)
  • Sitaram (March 1887)
  • Muchiram Gurer Jivancharita (The Life of Muchiram Gur)

Religious Commentaries

  • Krishna Charitra (History of Krishna, 1886)
  • Dharmatattva (Principles of Religion, 1888)
  • Devatattva (Principles of Divinity, Published Posthumously)
  • Srimadvagavat Gita, a Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita (1902 - Published Posthumously)

Poetry Collections Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ...

  • Lalita O Manas (1858)


  • Lok Rahasya (Essays on Society, 1874, enlarged 1888)
  • Bijnan Rahasya (Essays on Science, 1875)
  • Bichitra Prabandha (Assorted Essays), Vol 1 (1876) and Vol 2 (1892)
  • Samya (Equality, 1879)


  1. ^ His fight for freedom, A. DEVA RAJU, The Hindu, 2001-08-18.
  2. ^ Biography, from Banglapedia.

Banglapedia is a National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. ...

See also

External link

  Results from FactBites:
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (691 words)
8 April 1894, Bangla: বঙ্কিম চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) ('Chattopadhyay' in the original Bengali; 'Chatterjee' as spelt by the British) was an Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram, the national song of India.
Although he wrote on a narrow range of subjects, and without any pretension of great literary insight, he became popular on a scale that no other Bengali writer before or since has equalled.
Works by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay at Project Gutenberg
Bengali Greats Series: Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay - the Immortal Wordsmith of Bengal (2232 words)
Sarat Chandra who had a lot in common with Bankim as they had similar middle class upbringing and shared the same socio-economic background, was greatly influenced by Bankim's writings.
Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (nickname Nyarha) was born in Devanandapore - a village in West Bengal under the district of Hooghly on 15th September 1876 (31 Bhadra 1283 BY).
Sarat Chandra was actively involved in Indian freedom movement and became the President of Howrah District Congress at the request of C.
  More results at FactBites »



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