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Encyclopedia > Bank Holiday

A bank holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom and also in the Republic of Ireland. Although there is no legal right to time off on these days, the majority of the population not employed in essential services (e.g. utilities, fire, ambulance, police, health-care workers) receive them as holidays; those employed in essential services usually receive extra pay for working on these days. Bank holidays are so called because they are days upon which banks are shut and therefore (traditionally) no other businesses could operate. Legislation allows certain payments to be deferred to the next working day. Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Emergency Banking Act (also known as the Emergency Banking Relief Act) was an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. ... The word holiday has related but different meanings in English-speaking countries, with the exception of the United States where usage differs greatly. ... A public utility is a company that maintains the infrastructure for a public service. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ambulance (disambiguation). ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ...

Contents

History of bank holidays

Prior to 1834, the Bank of England observed about thirty-three saints' days and religious festivals as holidays, but in 1834, this was reduced to just four: 1 May, 1 November, Good Friday, and Christmas Day. Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...


In 1871, the first legislation relating to bank holidays was passed when Sir John Lubbock introduced the Bank Holidays Act 1871 which specified the days in the table set out below. Sir John was an enthusiastic supporter of cricket and was firmly of the belief that bank employees should have the opportunity to participate in and attend matches when they were scheduled. Included in the dates of bank holidays are therefore dates when cricket games were traditionally played between the villages in the region where Sir John was raised. Scotland was treated separately because of its separate traditions; for example, New Year or Hogmanay is a more important holiday there. John Lubbock. ... The Bank Holidays Act 1871 established the first Bank Holidays in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... Hogmanay (pronounced — with the main stress on the last syllable - hog-muh-NAY) is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner. ...

Bank holidays 1871
England, Wales, Ireland Scotland
New Year's Day
Good Friday
Easter Monday
Whit Monday First Monday in May
First Monday in August First Monday in August
Boxing Day Christmas Day

The act does not specify Good Friday and Christmas Day as bank holidays in England, Wales and Ireland because they were already recognised there as common law holidays, and because of common observance, they became customary holidays since before records began. This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


In 1903, the Bank Holiday (Ireland) Act added 17 March, Saint Patrick's Day, as a bank holiday for Ireland only. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ...


Current bank and public holidays

Exactly a century after the 1871 Act, the Banking and Financial Dealings Act 1971, which currently regulates bank holidays in the UK, was passed. The table below details the bank holidays specified in the 1971 Act; also listed are New Year's Day and May Day, introduced since 1971. These are deemed bank holidays by the legal device of a royal proclamation every year. In January 2007, the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 was given royal assent, making 30 November (or the nearest Monday if a weekend) a bank holiday in Scotland. This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... A proclamation (Lat. ... The St Andrews Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament that officially designates St. ... // The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a constitutional monarch completes the legislative process of lawmaking by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Royal proclamation is also used to shift bank holidays that would otherwise fall on a weekend. In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' in years when they coincide with weekends. These deferred bank holiday days are termed a 'bank holiday in lieu' of the typical anniversary date. In the legislation they are known as 'substitute days'. The movement of the St Andrew's Day Scottish holiday to the nearest Monday when 30 November is a weekend day is statutory and does not require a proclamation.

Current bank and public holidays
Date Name England and Wales Scotland Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
1 January New Year's Day X X X X
2 January 2nd January X
17 March St Patrick's Day X X
The Friday before Easter Sunday Good Friday X X X
The day after Easter Sunday Easter Monday X X X
First Monday in May¹ May Day Bank Holiday (or Early May Bank Holiday in Scotland) / Labour Day (called this in Ireland) X X X X
Last Monday in May² Spring Bank Holiday X X X
First Monday In June June Bank Holiday X
12 July Battle of the Boyne - Orangemen's Day X
First Monday in August Summer Bank Holiday X X
Last Monday in August Summer Bank Holiday X X
Last Monday in October October Bank Holiday X
30 November St Andrew's Day X
25 December Christmas Day X X X X
26 December³ Boxing Day, St. Stephen's Day X X X X
  1. For one year only, 1995, this holiday was moved to the second Monday in May – i.e., from 1 May to 8 May – to commemorate the 50th anniversary of VE Day.
  2. For one year only, 2002, this holiday was moved to 4 June. This caused it to follow an extra bank holiday on 3 June, making a four-day weekend to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II.
  3. Strictly, Boxing Day is the first weekday after Christmas,[citation needed] so it cannot fall on a Sunday. If Christmas Day is a Saturday, then Boxing Day is the following Monday, although in practice, this is often ignored since both the Monday and the Tuesday will be public holidays in addition to the normal weekend. The traditional name[citation needed] for a Sunday which coincides with the 26th of December is Christmas Sunday, with the following Monday actually being Boxing Day.

is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Good Friday, also called Holy Friday or Great Friday, is the Friday preceding Easter Sunday. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic cultures. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... The Orange Order is a Protestant fraternal organisation largely based in the United Kingdom but which also has a worldwide membership. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... St Stephens Day, or the Feast of St Stephen, is a Christian saints day celebrated on 26 December in the Western Church and 27 December in the Eastern Church. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Elizabeth II makes an official appearance at the CBC Headquarters as part of her Jubilee goodwill tour, October 2002. ...

Scotland

Main article: Bank holidays in Scotland

A number of differences apply to Scotland rather than the rest of the UK. For example, Easter Monday is not a bank holiday. Also, although they share the same name, the Summer Bank Holiday falls on the first Monday of August in Scotland as opposed to the last elsewhere in the UK.


Bank holidays do not, however, assume the same importance in Scotland as they do elsewhere. Whereas they have effectively become public holidays elsewhere in the UK, in Scotland there remains a tradition of public holidays based on local tradition and determined by local authorities. In 1996, Scottish banks made the business decision to harmonise their own holidays with the rest of the UK, therefore bank holidays in Scotland are neither public holidays nor the days on which banks are closed.


Prospective new bank holidays

It has been noted that the number of holidays in the UK is relatively small compared to the number in many other European countries. However, direct comparison is inaccurate since the 'holiday in lieu' scheme of deferment does not apply in most European countries, where holidays that coincide with a weekend (29% of fixed-date holidays) are 'lost'. In fact, the average number of non-weekend holidays in such countries, is only marginally higher (and in some cases lower) than the UK. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


There have been calls for an increase in the number of bank holidays. Among the most notably absent dates from the existing list are the feast days of patron saints; April 23 (St George's Day) in England and March 1 (St David's Day) in Wales are not currently recognised. March 17 (St Patrick's Day) is a public holiday in Northern Ireland and, from 2008, November 30 (St Andrew's Day) is a bank holiday in Scotland. In several forms of Christianity, a patron saint has special affinity for a trade or group. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Davids Day (Welsh: Dydd Gŵyl Dewi Sant - Day of the Festival of Saint David) is the day that the patron saint of Wales, Saint David, is celebrated. ... This article is about the country. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... St. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Andrew (Greek: Andreas, manly), called in the Orthodox tradition Protocletos, or the First-called, is the Christian Apostle, brother of Saint Peter. ... This article is about the country. ...


Given the relatively small number of existing holidays, the possibility has been seen for various commemorations to become bank holidays. Some of these suggestions are as follows:

  • One to represent the United Kingdom, British Day (possibly part of Gordon Brown's new Britishness policy).
  • Trafalgar Day
  • Community Day to celebrate volunteering and communities.
  • Waterloo Day
  • One to represent the European Union, making Europe Day a bank holiday.
  • One to represent the monarchy such as the Queen's Birthday (as in Australia, New Zealand and Canada) or coronation.
  • The adoption of either Veterans' Day UK, which falls during summer,[1] or a date in November, either on or close to the traditional Armistice Day, which would also give a holiday between the August Bank Holiday and Christmas.[2]

The Government as of 2008 has stated "we have no plans to change the current pattern of Bank Holidays, but we are nevertheless considering all these suggestions carefully".[3] In response to a parliamentary question about St George's Day, Gordon Brown stated that it is "for public debate" whether it should become a holiday. If it did, it would be eight days before the May holiday in some years, and very close to Easter in others. The Queens Golden Jubilee - a national celebration centred outside Buckingham Palace British Day is an umbrella term used for a number of proposals to create a national day for the United Kingdom and celebration of Britishness. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ... Trafalgar Day, 21 October, was widely commemorated by parades, dinners and other events throughout much of the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th century as a celebration of the victory won by Admiral Horatio Nelsons British fleet over the combined French and Spanish fleet at the Battle... Waterloo Day is 18 June, the date of the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. ... The Council of Europe (COE) has developed a series of European symbols for the continent of Europe, and these have since been shared with the European Union (EU). ... In Jersey the Lieutenant-Governor hosts a reception for the public at Government House to mark the Queens Official Birthday at which he announces recipients of Birthday Honours The Queens Birthday or Queens Official Birthday is celebrated as a public holiday in several Commonwealth countries (usually Commonwealth... Veterans Day in the United Kingdom is celebrated each year on 27 June. ... Armistice Day Celebrations in Toronto, Canada - 1918 Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...


Republic of Ireland

In the Republic of Ireland, the term "public holiday" is used officially, though "bank holiday" is used colloquially.


Good Friday is not a public holiday, though banks and public institutions are closed. The Summer Bank Holiday is also the first Monday in August rather than the last. A June Bank Holiday takes the place of the Spring Bank Holiday. Easter Monday and St Patrick's Day both qualify as National Days in the Republic. St. ...


Where public holidays fall at the weekend, an employee is entitled (at the employer's choice) to one of the following: a day off within a month, an additional day's paid annual leave or an additional day's pay. The employer can also choose one of these for regular public holidays, but this is rare. The public holiday does not, officially, move to the next weekday, but the usual practice is to take the day off on the next available weekday. A rarely-chosen alternative is to move to the previous or next church holiday.


The most recent public holiday to be added was Labour Day (often called May Day). This holiday is taken as the first Monday in May, and was introduced in 1994. Recently, senior politicians (including Ruairi Quinn TD) have been considering the addition of one or two extra public holidays to bring Ireland in line with the rest of Europe. This article is about annual labour observances internationally. ... This article is about the holidays celebrated on May 1. ... Ruairi Quinn (Irish: Ruairí Ó Cuinn) (born 2 April 1946) is an Irish Labour politician. ... A Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas or National Parliament. ...


United States

In the United States, banks are generally closed on all federal holidays, but the term bank holiday refers specifically to emergency bank closures mandated by executive order or act of Congress to remedy financial crises, for example the Emergency Banking Act of 1933.[citation needed] In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ... The presidential seal was used by Rutherford B. Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Emergency Banking Act (also known as the Emergency Banking Relief Act) was an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression. ...


Canada

  • See External Link

See also

This is the list of holidays by country. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Annual observances in the United Kingdom. ...

References

  1. ^ http://edmi.parliament.uk/EDMi/EDMDetails.aspx?EDMID=33590&SESSION=885
  2. ^ http://petitions.pm.gov.uk/remembermonday/
  3. ^ http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page14640.asp

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bankholiday.eu (1310 words)
Bank holidays are so called because they are days upon which banks are shut and therefore (traditionally) no other businesses could operate.
In the Republic of Ireland, the term Public Holiday is used officially, though bank holiday is used colloquially.
The holiday mandated by the Emergency Banking Act of 1933 is perhaps the most notable of these.
Bank Holiday - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1086 words)
A Bank Holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom and also in the Republic of Ireland.
Bank holidays are so called because they are days upon which banks are (or were) shut and therefore (traditionally) no other businesses could operate.
In this way, public holidays are not 'lost' in years when they coincide with weekends (which will already be a day off for many people.) These deferred bank holiday days are termed a 'bank holiday in lieu' of the typical anniversary date.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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