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Encyclopedia > Bangladeshi

The People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. Bangladesh (বাংলােদশ) literally means "The Country of Bengal". Lying north of the Bay of Bengal, on land it borders India and Myanmar. China, Thailand, Laos, Nepal and Bhutan are other countries that are very close to the Bangladesh border. This article is about the Bengali language. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... The Bay of Bengal is a sea that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. ... The Union of Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Great Wall of China, stretching over 6,700 km, was erected beginning in the 3rd century BC to guard the north from raids by men on horses. ...

গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ
Gano Projātontrī Bānglādesh
Image:Bangladesh coa.png
(In Detail) (In Detail)
image:LocationBangladesh.png
Official language Bengali
Capital Dhaka
President Iajuddin Ahmed
Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia
Area
- Total
- % water
Ranked 91st
144,000 km²
7.0%
Population
- Total (July 2004 est.)
- Density
Ranked 8th
141,340,476
1,055/km²
Independence
from Pakistan
March 26, 1971
Victory Day
December 16, 1971
Currency Taka (BDT)
Unemployment Rate 3.6%
Time zone UTC +6
National anthem Amar Sonar Bangla
National Fruit Jackfruit
National Flower Shapla (Water lily)
National Fish Hilsa
National Animal Bengal Tiger
National Bird Doel(Magpie)
Internet TLD .bd
Calling Code 880
Contents

13.1 Further reading/Non-government sites
13.2 Government and government organizations
13.3 Newspapers
Flag Ratio: 3:5 The national flag of Bangladesh was adopted officially on January 17, 1972. ... Bangladesh was adopted shortly after independence in 1971. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... This article is about the Bengali language. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Categories: Capitals in Asia | Asia geography stubs | Cities in Bangladesh ... This page lists Presidents of Bangladesh. ... Prof. ... The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is, in practice, the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. ... Categories: Stub | 1945 births ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... Independence is autonomous self-government of a country by its residents and indigenous population. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (86th in leap years). ... December 16 is celebrated as the Victory day in Bangladesh. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Taka is the official currency of Bangladesh. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... -1... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The National Anthem is the name of a song by the band Radiohead. ... Amar Sonar Bangla (My Golden Bengal) is the national anthem of Bangladesh. ... Binomial name Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. ... Genera Barclaya Wall. ... Hilsa, also pronounced Ilish is the national fish of Bangladesh. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found through the rainforests and grasslands of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India and Nepal. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. ... .bd is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bangladesh. ...

13.4 Political parties
13.5 Public Universities
13.6 Online Bangladeshi news sources

History

Main article: History of Bangladesh This article or section should include material from East Pakistan This is the history of Bangladesh. ...


There has long been advanced civilization in what is now Bangladesh, once the eastern part of a greater region called Bengal. Buddhist monasteries provide evidence of civilizations dating back to 700 BC, and there are claims of social structures from around 1000 BC. Early civilizations had Buddhist and/or Hindu influences. Northern Bangladesh has several sites of mass architecture, in the form of temples and monasteries, bearing proofs of such influences. The Pyramid of the Moon in Teotihuacan, Mexico. ... For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC 720s BC 710s BC - 700s BC - 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC 660s BC 650s BC Events and Trends 708 BC - Spartan immigrants found Taras (Tarentum, the modern Taranto) colony in southern Italy. ... (Redirected from 1000 BC) Centuries: 12th century BC - 11th century BC - 10th century BC Decades: 1050s BC 1040s BC 1030s BC 1020s BC 1010s BC - 1000s BC - 990s BC 980s BC 970s BC 960s BC 950s BC Events and Trends 1006 BC - David becomes king of the ancient Israelites (traditional... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ...


Bengal became Islamic starting in the 13th century and developed into a wealthy centre of trade and industry under the Mughal Empire during the 16th century. European traders had arrived in the late 15th century and eventually the British East India Company controlled the region by the late 18th century, from which the British extended their rule over all of India. When Indian independence was achieved in 1947, political motivations caused it to be divided into a predominantly Muslim Pakistan and a predominantly Hindu India. For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was a joint-stock company of investors, which was granted a Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intent to favor trade privileges in India. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The British Raj is an informal term for the period of British colonial rule of most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (previously known as Ceylon). ... On August 8, 1942, Gandhi led the Quit India Movement, a move for early independence. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ...


The Partition of India saw Bengal divided between the two new countries: an eastern part called East Bengal corresponding to what is now Bangladesh, and a western part, the Indian state of West Bengal. The abolition of the Zamindari system (which divided the society into lords, owners of property, and commoners, users of property) in East Bengal (1950) was a major landmark in Bangladesh's movement to a "people's state". The Language Movement of 1952 established the rights of the Bengali community to speak in their own language. Worth mentioning, this was the only revolution that was done solely for preserving the rights to speak a language and for this reason, UNESCO recognized 21 February as International Mother Language Day. In 1955, the government of Pakistan changed the name of the province from East Bengal to East Pakistan. The Partition of India was the process by which British dependencies and treaty states in the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in the 1940s. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. ... The Zamindari System is a kind of feudal system, introduced by the Mughals to collect taxes from peasants. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Events January January 5 - US Senator Estes Kefauver introduces a resolution calling for examination of organized crime in the USA January 6 - The United Kingdom recognizes the Peoples Republic of China. ... A Political movement in the erstwhile East Pakistan in 1952. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... There is a disputed proposal that this article should be merged with Language Martyrs Day 21st February has been proclaimed the International Mother Language Day by the UNESCO in 2000. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ... East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh, was the eastern half of Pakistan, created from the eastern half of the Bengal region of British India in 1947. ...


East Pakistan was dominated and neglected by West Pakistan, which comprised the rest of Pakistan (West Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, and the Northwest Frontier Province). The frequent exploitation of the majority Bengalis by the minority non-Bengalis infuriated people on both sides of Pakistan. The tensions peaked in 1971, following an open, non-democratic denial by Pakistani president Yahya Khan, a military ruler, of election results that gave the Awami League an overwhelming majority in the parliament (167 out of 169 seats allocated for East Pakistan) [1]  (http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/G_0075.HTM). East Pakistan, which is now Bangladesh, was the eastern half of Pakistan, created from the eastern half of the Bengal region of British India in 1947. ... The Punjab/ پنجاب province of Pakistan is part of the larger Punjab region. ... Sindh (Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Baluchistan (or Balochistan), also known as Greater Baluchistan is an arid region of south Asia, presently split between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. ... North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) is geographically the smallest of the four provinces of Pakistan. ... Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (February 4, 1917–August 10, 1980) was the President of Pakistan from 1969 to 1971, following the resignation of Ayub Khan. ... The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ...


Under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, also known as Bôngobondhu (Friend of Bengal), Bangladesh started its struggle for independence. The official onset followed one of the bloodiest genocides of recent times carried out by the Pakistan army on Bengali civilians on March 25, 1971. Virtually the entire Bengali intelligentsia was eliminated. There are unsubstantiated claims that the genocide was second only to the Holocaust. Owing to West Pakistan's effort to rid the country of foreign journalists, accurate numbers are difficult to get, but some estimates claim 50,000 deaths in the first three days of the so-called Operation Searchlight of the Pakistan Army [2]  (http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/G_0075.HTM). More than ten million Bengalis fled to neighbouring India. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... The Bangladesh Liberation War (two other names are also used occasionally) refers to an approximately nine month long armed conflict between current day Pakistan and Bangladesh. ... Genocide has been defined as the deliberate killing of people based on their ethnicity, nationality, race, religion, or (sometimes) politics, as well as other deliberate actions leading to the physical elimination of any of the above categories. ... March 25 is the 84th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (85th in leap years). ... The intelligentsia is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... Concentration camp inmates during the Holocaust The Holocaust refers to Nazi Germanys systematic genocide ( ethnic cleansing) of various ethnic, religious, national, and secular groups during World War II starting in 1941 and continuing through 1945. ...


The Bangladeshi Liberation War took place during the Cold War period. The United States and the People's Republic of China, considering the war an internal affair of Pakistan, preferred to back West Pakistan. However, India, the USSR and her allies and general masses in Japan, and Western countries stood solidly behind Bangladesh. To gain strategic advantage over the Sino-US-Pakistan axis, the Indo-Soviet Friendship Treaty was signed on 9 August 1971." [3]  (http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/G_0075.HTM) The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. ... August 9 is the 221st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (222nd in leap years), with 144 days remaining. ...


India, owing to its geographical position and military antagonism towards Pakistan, vehemently backed the Liberation War, especially after the USSR backed its motives. Strategically, independence of Bangladesh would mean one fewer front to fight Pakistan on. Also worth mentioning is that certain regional governments gave support based on ethnic grounds. On 27 March 1971, Prime Minister of India, Mrs. Indira Gandhi, expressed full support of her Government to the struggle for freedom. The Bangladesh-India border was opened to allow the tortured and panic-stricken Bengalis to have safe shelter in India. The governments of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura established refugee camps along the border. These camps became ready ground for recruitment of the freedom fighters. The headquarters of the Bangladesh Forces was established at 8 Theatre Road, Calcutta which started functioning from 12 April 1971. Lieutenant Colonel M A Rab and Group Captain A K Khandaker were appointed as Chief of Staff and Deputy Chief of Staff respectively. [4]  (http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/G_0075.HTM) This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (87th in Leap years). ... Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (इन्दिरा प्रियदर्शिनी गान्धी) (November 19, 1917 – October 31, 1984) was Prime Minister of India from January 19, 1966 to March 24, 1977, and from January 14, 1980 until her assassination in 1984. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ...


Throughout the War, despite severe opposition from the West Pakistan government, the British Broadcasting Corporation continued to provide coverage through the BBC Bangla radio services in South Asia. Among international efforts to raise awareness was also the Concert for Bangladesh by former Beatle George Harrison. This article is an overview article about the Crown chartered British Broadcasting Corporation formed in 1927. ... The Concert For Bangladesh is the event title for two concerts held on the afternoon and evening of August 1, 1971, playing to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York . ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... This article is about the Beatle George Harrison. ...


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, being identified as a major influencer of the Bengalis, was arrested by the Pakistani Government. Before he was arrested, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman made an formal and official declaration of Independence on March 26th. Hence March 26th is considered as the Independence Day of Bangladesh. First M A Hannan on 26th March and later on 27th March Ziaur Rahman, an army major then, and President of Bangladesh much later, declared the Independence of Bangladesh, on behalf of the Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, using a makeshift radio transmitter from Kalurghat near the port city of Chittagong. (Although, some people of Bangladesh, particularly members of Bangladesh Nationalist Party say that he was the man who declared independence of Bangladesh first). With help of Bengali officers in the army, support of civilians and military/humanitarian aid from India, Bangladesh quickly put together Mukti Bahini (Freedom Fighters), an armed group formed mostly of young students, workers, farmers and other civilians. Besides harassing attacks on the resident Pakistani army, the Mukti Bahini provided local intelligence and guidance of immense value to the three corps of the Indian army which attacked the occupying West Pakistani army of 80,000 in early December 1971. Within two weeks of the Indian invasion the Lieutenant-General A. A. K. Niazi of the Pakistan army surrendered to the Indian army on 16 December 1971. India took 93,000 prisoners of war who were held in camps in India to avoid reprisals by an enraged Bangladeshi population. The new nation of Bangladesh effectively came into being and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who had been incarcerated in West Pakistan since March, returned triumphantly as the first Prime Minister of the new nation. India withdrew its troops from Bangladesh within three months of the war. Pakistan, aided by its supporters in Bangladesh, committed war crimes before and during the war and memories of Bangladeshis remain scarred to this day. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... M. A. Hannan (Abdul Hannan) is cited by many as the first person to read over radio the text declaration of independence written by the great leader of the then East Pakistan and Chief of Awami League Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman from the Kalurghat Betar Kendra, Chittagong on March 26... Ziaur Rahman (January 19, 1936 - May 30, 1981) is considered to be one of Bangladeshs most popular presidents. ... This page lists Presidents of Bangladesh. ... Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... This article needs cleanup. ... Liberation War commemoration poster Mukti Bahini (Liberation Army), was a guerilla force organized by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahmans Awami League to resist the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan. ... Alternate uses: Student (disambiguation) Etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb stŭdērĕ, which means to study, a student is one who studies. ... Farmer spreading grasshopper bait in his alfalfa field. ... A civilian is a person who is not a member of a military. ... Military espionage, or military intelligence (MI), is a military discipline that focuses on information gathering, control, and dissemination about enemy units, terrain, and the weather in an area of operations. ... The Indian Army is the army of the Republic of India. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Gen. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Alternative meaning: Prime Minister (band) A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the... A war crime is a punishable offense, under international law, for violations of the law of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


After the war, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the Prime Minister and later the President of Bangladesh. He along with most of his family were massacred by a group of disgruntled Army officers on 15th August, 1975. Following his death, (Major General) Khaled Mosharraf led a military coup on 3 November 1975. Khaled Mosharraf was killed in a counter coup on November 7, 1975 in the Dhaka cantonment culminating in General Ziaur Rahman gaining power. He later gained the Presidency. But in 1981, he was killed in yet another coup, in Chittagong. In 1982 General Hossain Mohammad Ershad staged a bloodless coup and deposed the president Ahsan Uddin Choudhury, a former Supreme Court Justice. Ershad later declared himself President and started a new political party named Janadal, which he later renamed as Jatiya Party. The rule of Ershad continued until 1990. A popular uprising forced Ershad to resign and give way to a parliamentary democracy. Since then, Bangladesh has been ruled by three democratically elected governments. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman ( 1920 - August 15, 1975), born in Gopalganj, Bangladesh, was a Bengali nationalist leader in East Pakistan and first Prime Minister and President of independent Bangladesh. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... (Redirected from 15th August) August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Ziaur Rahman (January 19, 1936 - May 30, 1981) is considered to be one of Bangladeshs most popular presidents. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Hossain Mohammad Ershad (born 1930) was the military dictator of Bangladesh from 1982 until 1990. ... Jatiya Party (National Party) is a Bangladeshi political party. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Bangladesh [This document is old, written in 1996 (Presidential list updated 2004). ...


The President, while head of state, holds a largely ceremonial post, with real power held by the Prime Minister, who is head of government. The president is elected by the legislature every 5 years and his normally limited powers are substantially expanded during the tenure of a caretaker government, mainly in controlling the transition to a new government. This page lists Presidents of Bangladesh. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... The Prime Minister of Bangladesh is, in practice, the most powerful political position in Bangladesh. ... The head of government is the leader of the government or cabinet. ... A caretaker is a term mainly used in the United Kingdom, meaning a concierge or janitor. ...


The prime minister is appointed by the president and must be a member of parliament (MP) who the president feels commands the confidence of the majority of other MPs. The cabinet is composed of ministers selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president. Alternate meanings in cabinet (disambiguation) A Cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ...


The unicameral Bangladeshi parliament is the House of the Nation or Jatiya Sangsad, whose 300 members are elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies for five-year terms of office. The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, of which the chief justices and other judges are appointed by the president. Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Alternative meanings: Parliamentary system, Parliament (band), Parliament (cigarette). ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ...


Begum Khaleda Zia is currently the Prime Minister of Bangladesh. Categories: Stub | 1945 births ...


Divisions

Enlarge
Map of Bangladesh

Main article: Divisions of Bangladesh The South Asian country of Bangladesh consists of 6 divisions, each named after its respective capital: Barisal Chittagong Dhaka Khulna Rajshahi Sylhet Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Divisions of Bangladesh ...

Bangladesh is subdivided into 6 divisions, all named after their respective capitals:

See List of cities in Bangladesh.
Barisal is located in south-central Bangladesh. ... Chittagong Division is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. ... Dhaka Division is an administrative division within Bangladesh. ... Khulna division is a region in south-east Bangladesh. ... Rajshahi is in Northwestern part of Bangladesh. ... Sylhet is the Northeastern part of Bangladesh. ... Barisal Bhola Bogra Chandpur Chittagong Chuadanga Comilla Dhaka Dinajpur Farodpur Feni Hatia Ishurdi Jamalpur Jessore Joydevpur Kaptai Khepupara Khulna Kurmitola Kutubdia Madaripur Maijdicourt Mymensingh Patuakhali Rajshahi Rangamati Rangpur Saidpur Sandwip Satkhira Serajgonj Sitakundu Srimangal Sylhet Tangail Teknaf Thakurgaon Tungi 10 largest cities Dhaka - 5,818,600 Chittagong - 3,310,100...


Geography

Enlarge
NASA satellite Image of Bangladesh's physical features (click to enlarge and view national borders)

Main article: Geography of Bangladesh Bangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country located in South Asia with a largely marshy jungle coastline of 710 kilometers (440 mi. ...


Bangladesh consists mostly of a low-lying river delta located on the Indian subcontinent with a largely marshy jungle coastline on the Bay of Bengal known as the Sundarbans, home to the (Royal) Bengal Tiger. The densely populated delta is formed by the confluence of the Ganges (local name Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna), and Meghna rivers and their tributaries as they flow down from the Himalaya. Bangladesh's alluvial soil is highly fertile but vulnerable to both flood and drought. Hills rise above the plain only in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (highest point: the Keokradong at 1 230 m) in the far southeast and the Sylhet division in the northeast. Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... The Indian subcontinent is the peninsular region of larger South Asia in which the nations of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka as well as parts of Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar and some disputed territory currently controlled by China are located. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... This article is about Jungle, the terrain. ... The Bay of Bengal is a sea that forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. ... The Sundarbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris tigris The Bengal Tiger or Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a subspecies of tiger found through the rainforests and grasslands of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India and Nepal. ... The River Ganges (Ganga in Indian languages) is a major river in northern India. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Meghna is an important river in South Asia, one of the three rivers responsible for creating the largest delta on earth, most of which is Bangladesh. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... A drought is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Sylhet is the Northeastern part of Bangladesh. ...


Straddling the Tropic of Cancer, the Bangladeshi climate is tropical with a mild winter from October to March, a hot, humid summer from March to June, and a humid, warm rainy monsoon from June to October. Natural calamities, such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, and tidal bores affect the country almost every year, combined with the effects of deforestation, soil degradation and erosion. Dhaka is the country's capital and largest city. Other major cities include Chittagong, Rajshahi, and Khulna. Cox's Bazar, South of the city of Chittagong, has a sea beach that streches uninterrupted over 120kms; it is frequently quoted as the World's longest natural sea beach (although this claim is difficult to prove or disprove). Tropic of Cancer is also the name of a novel by Henry Miller, first published in 1934. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... For alternative meanings, see March (disambiguation). ... June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... A monsoon is a periodic wind, especially in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... For other uses of Tornado, see Tornado (disambiguation). ... The tidal bore in. ... Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest. ... Retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Categories: Capitals in Asia | Asia geography stubs | Cities in Bangladesh ... This article needs cleanup. ... Rajshahi is a city in southwestern Bangladesh. ... Khulna (population ~660,000) is the third-largest city of Bangladesh, located on the bank of the rivers Rupsha and Bhairob. ... Coxs Bazar in Bangladesh is the worlds longest natural beach (120 km). ...




Economy

Main article: Economy of Bangladesh Fishing is an important source of income in Bangladesh Bangladesh has made significant strides in its economic sector since its civil war with Pakistan in 1971. ...

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Fishermen near the town of Cox's Bazaar in southern Bangladesh. Many industries in Bangladesh are still primitive by modern standards.

Despite sustained domestic and international efforts to improve economic and demographic prospects, Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and ill-governed nation. Although more than half of the GDP is generated through the service sector, nearly two-thirds of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector, with rice as the single most important product. World population increase. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). ... Species Oryza barthii Oryza glaberrima Oryza latifolia Oryza longistaminata Oryza punctata Oryza rufipogon Oryza sativa References ITIS 41975 2002-09-22 This article is about the food grain, not the university or Condoleezza Rice; see also rice (disambiguation). ...


Major impediments to growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned enterprises, mismanaged port facilities, a rapidly growing labour force that has not been absorbed by agriculture, inefficient use of energy resources (such as natural gas), insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms, caused by political infighting and corruption. In 2001  (http://www.transparency.org/cpi/2001/cpi2001.html), 2002 (http://www.transparency.org/pressreleases_archive/2002/2002.08.28.cpi.en.html), and 2003 (http://www.transparency.org/pressreleases_archive/2003/2003.10.07.cpi.en.html), Transparency International's surveys ranked Bangladesh as the World's most corrupt country. In meteorology, a cyclone is the rotation of a volume of air about an area of low atmospheric pressure. ... A flood (in Old English flod, a word common to Teutonic languages; compare German Flut, Dutch vloed from the same root as is seen in flow, float) is an overflow of water, an expanse of water submerging land, a deluge. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material. ... This article is about political corruption. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organization devoted to fighting political corruption. ...


Since June 2004 Bangladesh has been ravaged by its worst floods in 6 years, which have killed 628 people so far and covered about sixty percent of the country. About 20 million people are in need of food aid on account of damaged crops, and the textile industry which earns 80% of the country's export earnings has been disrupted. Officials estimate that the damage incurred could approach US$7 billion (Yahoo!News) (http://news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/ap/20040804/ap_on_re_as/south_asia_floods_1). June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... This article is about the type of fabric. ...

Basic economic indicators
GDP-purchasing power parity $230 billion (2001 est.)
GDP-real growth rate 5.6% (2001 est.)
GDP-per capita: purchasing power parity $1,750 (2001 est.)
GDP-composition by sector
agriculture 30%
industry 18%
services 52% (2000)
Population below poverty line 35.6% (1995-96 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share
lowest 10% 3.9%
highest 10% 28.6% (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 5.8% (2000)
Labour force 64.1 million (1998)
Note: extensive export of labour to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances estimated at $1.71 billion in 1998-99
Labour force-by occupation
agriculture 65%
services 25%
industry and mining 10% (1996)
Unemployment rate 3.6% (2002)
Budget
revenues $4.9 billion
expenditures $6.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000)
Industries jute manufacturing, cotton textiles, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, chemical, light engineering, sugar, food processing, steel, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate 6.2% (2001)
Electricity-production 13.493 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity-production by source
fossil fuel 92.45%
hydro 7.55%
other 0% (2000)
Electricity-consumption 12.548 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity-exports 0 kWh (2000)
Electricity-imports 0 kWh (2000)
Industry and international trade
Agriculture-products rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Exports $6.6 billion (2001)
Exports-commodities garments, jute and jute goods, leather, frozen fish and seafood
Exports-partners US 31.8%, Germany 10.9%, UK 7.9%, France 5.2%, Netherlands 5.2%,

Italy 4.42% (2000)

Imports $8.7 billion (2001)
Imports-commodities machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, raw cotton, food, crude oil and petroleum products, cement
Imports-partners India 10.5%, EU 9.5%, Japan 9.5%, Singapore 8.5%, China 7.4% (2000)
Economic aid-recipient $1.575 billion (2000 est.)
Exchange rates Taka per US dollar - 57.756 (January 2002), 55.807 (2001), 52.142 (2000), 49.085 (1999), 46.906 (1998), 43.892 (1997)
Source:Discovery Bangladesh (http://www.discoverybangladesh.com/meetbangladesh/economy.html)

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Bangladesh The area which is now Bangladesh has a rich historical and cultural past, combining Dravidian, Indo-Aryan, Mongol/Mughul, Arab, Persian, Turkic, and west European cultures. ...


Apart from very small countries such as Singapore and Bahrain, Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world. The nation, at 982 persons per km², has often been compared to Indonesia's Java. National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Capital Singapore Largest city Singapore Government President Prime minister Westminster (de jure) Dominant-party (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Area  - Total  - Water (%) 697. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain (occasionally spelt Bahrein), is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... List of countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The figures in this table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers. ... View of the Puncak area in West Java Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is the most populous of Indonesias islands, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


Bangladesh is ethnically homogenous, with Bengalis comprising 98% of the population. The vast majority speak Bangla, or Bengali. The remaining two percent are mainly Urdu-speaking, non-Bengali Muslims from regions of India such as Bihar. A substantial number of non-Bengali tribal groups inhabit the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast and the Northern regions Bangladesh, including parts of the districts of Mymensingh, Sylhet, Rangpur. Almost all non-Bengali Bangladeshis speak Bangla as a second language. This article is about the Bengali language. ... Urdu(اردو) is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi, from whence it spread to the rest of the subcontinent. ... Bihar (बिहार in Devanagri) is a state situated in the eastern part of India. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is about the Bengali language. ...


Most Bangladeshis (about 83%) are Muslims, but Hindus constitute a sizable (16%) minority. There are also a small number of Buddhists, Christians, and Animists. Bengali, an Indo-Aryan language, is written in a script similar to Devanagari. It is the official language, though English is accepted in official tasks and in (higher) education. Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... About 0. ... Animism is the belief that personalized supernatural beings (or souls) inhabit all objects and govern their existence. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century) Devanāgarī (देवनागरी — in English pronounced ) (ISCII – IS13194:1991) [1] is a script used to write several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Kashmiri, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri and Nepali from Nepal. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In 1992, the government began promoting birth control to slow population growth, but with limited success. Many are landless or forced to inhabit hazardous floodplains, with the consequence of rampant water-borne disease. In an effort to stem the spread of pathogens like cholera and dysentery, international organizations began to promote well-drilling throughout the nation. Several years after widespread implementation of the programme, over a quarter of the population exhibited symptoms of arsenic poisoning. High levels of naturally occurring arsenic in the water table of certain regions has not been accounted for. The effects of arsenic-tainted water still remain a problem. Birth control is the practice of preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion, the ending of an unwanted pregnancy, or abstinence. ... In geography, a floodplain is an area of relatively level land that is inundated from time to time. ... A disease is any abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person affected or those in contact with the person. ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ... distribution of cholera Cholera (also called Asiatic cholera) is an infectious disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. ... Dysentery is a severe diarrhea illness often associated with blood in the feces. ... For the pioneering virtual community, see The WELL. A well is an artificial boring in the earth through which water, oil or gas can be obtained. ... Arsenic poisoning kills by massively disrupting the digestive system, leading to death from shock. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 4, p Density, Hardness 5727 kg/m3, 3. ... The water table is the upper limit of abundant groundwater. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Bangladesh

This article is about the Bengali language. ... Baitul Mukarram Nation Mosque in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, was built in 1962. ... Kabaddi or Kabadi is a team pursuit sport, primarily played in India. ... Bangladesh is traditionally very rich in its musical heritage. ...

Sports

Main article: Sports in Bangladesh Sports and games form an integral part of Bangladeshis life. ...


Sports and games form an integral part of Bangladeshi's life. In the villages one might see a passel of kids kicking a football, or in some dusty alley one might see kids playing cricket. Though Bangladesh is not a major sporting power in any sense, Bangladeshi athletes and sportspersons have brought her many laurels.


Public Universities

General Universities

Engineering/Technology Universities University of Chittagong is a public university situated near Bangladesh. ... The University of Dhaka was established in 1921. ... Rajshahi University is the second largest university in Bangladesh. ...

  • Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (বাংলাদেশ প্রকৌশল বিশ্যবিদ্যালয়) - BUET
  • Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (চট্টগ্রাম প্রকৌশল বিশ্যবিদ্যালয়) - CUET
  • Khulna University of Engineering and Technology (খুলনা প্রকৌশল বিশ্যবিদ্যালয়) - KUET
  • Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology (রাজশাহী প্রকৌশল বিশ্যবিদ্যালয়) - RUET
  • Shahajalal University of Science and Technology (শাহজালাল বিঞ্জান ও প্রযুক্তি বিশ্যবিদ্যালয়) - SUST

The Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) is the foremost Engineering University in Bangladesh. ...

Political Parties

The Bangladesh Awami League (বাংলাদেশ আওয়ামী লীগ Bāŋlādeś Āowāmī Līg) or the Bangadesh Peoples League is the main opposition party in Bangladesh. ... Bangladesh Nationalist Party (বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল Bāŋlādeś Jātīyatābādī Dal, BNP) is the most popular Bangladesh. ... Poster of the CPB commemorating the 50th anniversary of its foundation (as part of the Communist Party of Pakistan The Communist Party of Bangladesh is a communist party in Bangladesh. ... Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh is the largest and most influential Islamic political party in Bangladesh. ... Jatiya Party (National Party) is a Bangladeshi political party. ...

Miscellaneous topics

Telephones - main lines in use: 500,000 (2000) Telephones - mobile cellular: 283,000 (2000) Telephone system: general assessment: totally inadequate for a modern country domestic: modernizing; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities international: satellite earth stations... Bangladesh pursues a moderate foreign policy that places heavy reliance on multinational diplomacy, especially at the United Nations. ... Arts and Literature Kazi Nazrul Islam, National Poet of Bangladesh Akhteruzzaman Elias, Writer Ahmed Safa, Writer Begum Rokeya, Writer Bibi Russell, Internationally renowned Fashion Designer Humayun Azad, Writer, Professor Humayun Ahmed, Writer Dr. Md. ... The Bangladesh Army, Navy, and Air Force are composed of regular military personnel. ... The Bangladesh Air Force (Bangladesh Biman Bahini in Bangla) is the Aviation branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces. ... Bangladesh has been perhaps the most important hearth on the globe for Non-governmental organizations. ... Public holidays in Bangladesh Categories: Public holidays by country | Bangladesh ... Railways: total: 2,745 km broad gauge: 923 km 1. ... Biman Bangladesh is the national airline of Bangladesh. ...

See also

Language Movement Day or Language Revolution Day (ভাষা আন্দোলন দিবস), which is also referred to as Language Martyrs Day or Martyrs Day (শহীদ দিবস), is a national day of Bangladesh to commemorate protests and sacrifices to protect Bengali as a national language during Pakistan regime in 1952. ... West Bengal (পশ্চিম বঙ্গ, Pôščim Bôngô) is a state in the northeast of India. ...

External links

Further reading/Non-government sites

Government and government organizations

Newspapers

Bangla news papers

  • Ajker Kagoj (http://www.ajkerkagoj.com/)
  • Inqilab (http://www.dailyinqilab.com/)
  • Ittefaq (http://www.ittefaq.com/)
  • Janakantha (http://www.dailyjanakantha.com/)
  • Jugantor (http://www.jugantor.com/)
  • Prothom Alo (http://www.prothom-alo.net/)
  • Jai Jai Din (http://www.jaijaidin.com/)

This article is about the Bengali language. ...

English newspapers

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Political parties

  • Bangladesh Awami League - AL (http://www.albd.org/)
  • Bangladesh Nationalist Party - BNP (http://www.bnpbd.com/)
  • Communist Party of Bangladesh - CPB (http://www.cpbdhaka.com/)
  • Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh (http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/)
  • Jatiya Party - JP:Ershad (http://www.jatiyaparty.org/)

Public Universities

  • Bangladesh Open University (http://www.citechco.net/bou/)
  • Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (http://www.buet.ac.bd/)
  • Chittagong University of Engineering and Technology (http://www.cuet.ac.bd/)
  • Jahangirnagar University (http://www.juniv.edu/)
  • Rajshahi University (http://www.ru.ac.bd/)
  • Shahjalal University of Science and Technology  (http://www.sust.edu/)
  • University of Dhaka (http://www.univdhaka.edu/)

Online Bangladeshi news sources

  • -The Bangladesh Journal (http://www.bangladeshjournal.com/)
  • Vinnomot (http://www.vinnomot.com/)
  • Dak Bangla Intelligence Scan (http://www.dakbangla.blogspot.com/)
  • News from Bangladesh (http://www.bangladesh-web.com/)
  • List of Bangladeshi Weblogs (http://rezwanul.blogspot.com/2004/07/bangladeshi-blogs-update-here-is.html)


Countries in South Asia

Bangladesh | Bhutan | India | Maldives | Nepal | Pakistan | Sri Lanka This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Map of South Asia South Asia is a subregion of Asia comprising the modern states of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, . It covers about 4,480,000 km², or 10 percent of the continent, and is also known as the Indian subcontinent. ... The Kingdom of Bhutan is a small, landlocked nation of South Asia, located in the Himalaya Mountains, sandwiched between India and the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ... The Kingdom of Nepal, situated in the Himalaya, is the worlds only Hindu kingdom. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ...


 
 

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