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Encyclopedia > Banff National Park
Banff National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location of Banff National Park in Canada
Location: Alberta, Canada
Nearest city: Calgary, Alberta
Coordinates: 51°10′00″N, 115°33′00″W
Area: 6,641 km² (2,564 sq mi)
Established: 1885
Visitation: 3,927,557 (in 2004/05)
Governing body: Parks Canada

Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park, established in 1885, in the Canadian Rockies. The park, located 120 kilometres (80 mi) west of Calgary in the province of Alberta, encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi)[1] of mountainous terrain, with numerous glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley. The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (976x790, 57 KB) Summary Location of Canadian national parks Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: List of Canadian national parks Point Pelee National Park Bruce Peninsula National Park Gros Morne National Park Forillon National Park Cape Breton... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Calgary is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1485 KB) xgf [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1485 KB) xgf [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Moraine Lake is known for its picturesque views. ... Moraine Lake Valley of the Ten Peaks is a valley in Banff National Park that is crowned by ten notable peaks and also includes Moraine Lake. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... Ringrose Peak, Lake OHara, British Columbia, Canada The Canadian Rockies comprise the Canadian segment of the North American Rocky Mountains range. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Swedish/Norwegian mil. ... Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity and undergoes internal deformation. ... An ice field (also called an icefield) is a flat land area (or a basin surrounded by mountains) covered by ice, usually formed by long periods of snow. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferae, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the... 93 Athabasca Glacier on the Columbia Icefield. ... Lake Louise is both an actual lake and a nearby hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. ... Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km² (4200 mi²). It is located in the province of Alberta, to the north of Banff National Park and west of the city of Edmonton. ... Natural Bridge Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide in southeastern British Columbia. ... Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia, Canada covering 1,406 km² (543 mi²) in the Canadian Rockies and is part of a World Heritage Site. ... Kananaskis is situated about 80 km west of Calgary, Alberta in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... Banff townsite (left) and Tunnel Mountain (right) on the Bow River as seen from Sulphur Mountain. ... The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. ...


The Canadian Pacific Railway was instrumental in Banff's early years, building the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise, and attracting tourists through extensive advertising. In the early 20th century, roads were built in Banff, at times by war internees, and through Great Depression-era public works projects. Since the 1960s, park accommodations have been open all year, with annual tourism visits to Banff increasing to over 5 million in the 1990s.[2] Millions more pass through the park on the Trans-Canada Highway.[3] As Banff is one of the world's most visited national parks,[4] the health of its ecosystem has been threatened. In the mid-1990s, Parks Canada responded by initiating a two-year study, which resulted in management recommendations, and new policies that aim to preserve ecological integrity. An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta. ... Chateau Lake Louise from the Big Beehive Chateau Lake Louise is a Canadian Pacific hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff, Alberta. ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Trans Canada Highway over Canada Map The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. ... Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ...

Contents

History

Throughout its history, Banff National Park has been shaped by tension between conservation and development interests. The park was established in 1885, in response to conflicting claims over who discovered hot springs there, and who had the right to develop the hot springs for commercial interests. Instead, prime minister John A. Macdonald set aside the hot springs as a small protected reserve, which was later expanded to include Lake Louise and other areas extending north to the Columbia Icefields. The conservation movement is a political and social movement that seeks to protect natural resources including plant and animal species as well as their habitat for the future. ... Subdivision is the act of dividing up land into smaller pieces that are easier to sell, usually via a plat. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or... Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, QC, DCL, LL.D (January 11, 1815 – June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada, from July 1, 1867 to November 5, 1873, and also from October 17, 1878 to June 6, 1891. ... Lake Louise is both an actual lake and a nearby hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. ... Athabasca Glacier, Columbia Icefield, Canadian Rockies. ...


Early history

Archaeological evidence found at Vermilion Lakes radiocarbon dates the first human activity in Banff to 10,300 B.P.[5] Prior to European contact, aboriginals, including the Stoneys, Kootenay, Tsuu T'ina, Kainai, Peigans, and Siksika, were common in the region where they hunted bison and other game.[6] Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Mount Rundle reflected in the Vermillion Lakes The Vermilion Lakes are a series of lakes located on the outskirts of Banff, Alberta, in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. ... Before Present (BP) years are the units of time (counted backwards to the past) used to report raw radiocarbon ages and dates referenced to the BP scale origin in the year AD 1950 (identical to 1950 CE). ... Aboriginal peoples in Canada are Indigenous Peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982, sections 25 and 35, respectively, as Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... The Nakoda (also known as Stoney) are a First Nation group, indigenous to both Canada and the United States. ... The Kootenai (also Kutenai or Ktunaxa (pronounced in English as //) are an indigenous people of North America. ... The Tsuu Tina Nation is a First Nation in Canada. ... The Kainai Nation (or Kainah, Kainaiwa) is an Native American tribe in southern Alberta, Canada. ... The Northern Peigans are a Native American tribe, part of the Blackfoot (Nitsitapii) nation. ... See Blackfoot for the rock band. ... Species B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated (such as venison). ...

With the admission of British Columbia to Canada on July 20, 1871, Canada agreed to build a transcontinental railroad. Construction of the railroad began in 1875, with Kicking Horse Pass chosen, over the more northerly Yellowhead Pass, as the route through the Canadian Rockies.[7] Ten years later, the last spike was driven in Craigellachie, British Columbia. Image File history File linksMetadata James_Hector_1858. ... Image File history File linksMetadata James_Hector_1858. ... James Hector, circa 1858 Sir James Hector (March 16, 1834–November 06, 1907) was a Scottish geologist, naturalist, and surgeon who accompanied the Palliser Expedition as a surgeon and geologist. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The transcontinental railroad is a railway that crosses a continent, typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... Kicking Horse Pass is a mountain pass across the Continental Divide of the Canadian Rockies on the Alberta/British Columbia border, and lying within Yoho and Banff National Parks. ... Canadian National Railways GP9 climbing in the Yellowhead Pass The Yellowhead Pass (elevation 1110 m, lat. ... Craigellachie, BC Craigellachie (IPA: , but or can be substituted for ; is another common pronunciation) is a locality in British Columbia, Canada, located several kilometres to the west of the Eagle Pass summit. ...


Rocky Mountains Park established

With conflicting claims over discovery of hot springs in Banff, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald decided to set aside a small reserve of 26 square kilometres (10 sq mi) around the hot springs at Cave and Basin as a public park in 1885. Under the Rocky Mountains Park Act, enacted on 23 June 1887, the park was expanded to 674 square kilometres (260 sq mi)[6] and named Rocky Mountains Park. This was Canada's first national park, and the second established in North America, after Yellowstone National Park. The Canadian Pacific Railway built the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise to attract tourists and increase the number of rail passengers. The Cave and Basin National Historic Site, located in the town of Banff, Alberta, is the site of hot springs around which Banff National Park was first established. ... The Rocky Mountains Park Act was enacted on June 23, 1887 by the Parliament of Canada, establishing Banff National Park which was then known as Rocky Mountains Park. [1] The act was modelled on the Yellowstone Park Act passed by the United States Congress in 1881. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... The Canadian National Parks system encompasses over forty protected areas, including National Parks, National Park Reserves and National Marine Conservation Areas. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Yellowstone National Park is a U.S. National Park located in the western states of Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho. ... Banff Springs Hotel, Banff, Alberta. ... Chateau Lake Louise from the Big Beehive Chateau Lake Louise is a Canadian Pacific hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff, Alberta. ...

Banff Springs Hotel, 1902
Banff Springs Hotel, 1902

Early on, Banff was popular with wealthy European tourists, who arrived in Canada via trans-Atlantic luxury liner and continued westward on the railroad,[6] as well as upper-class American and English tourists. Some visitors participated in mountaineering activities, often hiring local guides. Tom Wilson, along with Jim and Bill Brewster, was among the first outfitters in Banff. The Alpine Club of Canada, established in 1906 by Arthur Oliver Wheeler and Elizabeth Parker, organized climbs and camps in the backcountry. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1106, 509 KB) Banff Springs Hotel, in Banff National Park, Canada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1106, 509 KB) Banff Springs Hotel, in Banff National Park, Canada. ... Europe at its furthest extent, reaching to the Urals. ... MV Pride of Aloha docked in Port of Nāwiliwili, Kaua‘i in the Hawaiian Islands A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner or luxury liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part... Mountaineering is the sport, hobby or profession of walking, hiking and climbing up mountains. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Alpine Club of Canada (ACC) is Canadas national mountaineering organization. ... Arthur Oliver Wheeler (May 1, 1860 - May 20, 1945), born in Kilkenny, Ireland, came to Canada in 1876 to work as a Dominion Land Surveyor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Alpine Club of Canada. ... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ...

Canadian Pacific Railway advertising brochure, highlighting Mount Assiniboine and Banff scenery (c. 1917)
Canadian Pacific Railway advertising brochure, highlighting Mount Assiniboine and Banff scenery (c. 1917)

By 1911, Banff was accessible by automobile from Calgary. Beginning in 1916, the Brewsters offered motorcoach tours of Banff.[8] In 1920, access to Lake Louise by road was available, and the Banff-Windermere Road opened in 1923 to connect Banff with British Columbia.[7] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x740, 292 KB) Canadian Pacific Railway brochure advertisement, depicting Banffs Mount Assiniboine. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (700x740, 292 KB) Canadian Pacific Railway brochure advertisement, depicting Banffs Mount Assiniboine. ... Mount Assiniboine, also known as Assiniboine Mountain, is a mountain located in eastern British Columbia, Canada. ... For the magazine called automobile, see Automobile Magazine. ... A bus is a large wheeled vehicle, intended to carry numerous persons in addition to the driver. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area...


In 1902, the park was expanded to cover 11,400 square kilometres (4,402 sq mi), encompassing areas around Lake Louise, and the Bow, Red Deer, Kananaskis, and Spray rivers. Bowing to pressure from grazing and logging interests, the size of the park was reduced in 1911 to 4,663 square kilometres (1,800 sq mi), eliminating many foothills areas from the park. Park boundaries changed several more times up until 1930, when the size of Banff was fixed at 6,697 square kilometres (2,586 sq mi), with the passage of the National Parks Act.[6] The Act also renamed the park as Banff National Park, named for the Canadian Pacific Railway station, which in turn was named after the Banffshire region in Scotland.[9] With the construction of a new east gate in 1933, Alberta transferred 0.84 square kilometres (207.5 acres) to the park. This, along with other minor changes in the park boundaries in 1949, set the area of the park at 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi).[7] The Bow River is a river in the Canadian province of Alberta. ... Red Deer River is a river is in Alberta, Canada, it is a tributary of the South Saskatchewan River. ... Kananaskis is an improvement district situated about 80 km west of Calgary, Alberta in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... Spray River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. ... Grazing is the regular consumption of part of one organism without killing it by another organism. ... Loggers on break, c. ... The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance. ... An eastbound CPR freight at Stoney Creek Bridge in Rogers Pass. ... Banffshire (Siorrachd Bhanbh in Gaelic) is a small traditional county in the north of Scotland. ... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


Coal mining

In 1887, local aboriginal tribes signed Treaty 7, which gave Canada rights to explore the land for resources. At the beginning of the twentieth century, coal was mined near Lake Minnewanka in Banff. For a brief period, a mine operated at Anthracite, but was shut down in 1904. The Bankhead mine, at Cascade Mountain, was operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway from 1903 to 1922. In 1926, the town was dismantled, with many buildings moved to the town of Banff and elsewhere.[10] Aboriginal peoples in Canada are indigenous peoples recognized in the Canadian Constitution Act, 1982 as the Indians (First Nations), Métis, and Inuit. ... Treaty 7 is an agreement concluded on 22 September 1887 between several mainly Blackfoot First Nations tribes, and Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom in what is today the southern portion of Alberta. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lake Minnewanka near Banff, Alberta Lake Minnewanka (Water of the Spirits in the Stoney Indian language) is located in the eastern area of Banff National Park in Canada, about five kilometres northeast of the Banff townsite. ... Bankhead, Alberta was a small coal mining town that existed in the early twentienth century, in Banff National Park, near the town of Banff, Alberta. ... Cascade Mountain as seen from Canmore Cascade Mountain is a mountain located in the Bow River Valley of Banff National Park. ...


Prison and work camps

During World War I, immigrants from Austria, Hungary, Germany, and Ukraine were sent to Banff to work in internment camps. The main camp was located at Castle Mountain, and was moved to Cave and Basin during winter. Much early infrastructure and road construction was done by Slavic Canadian internees.[11] Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Armando Diaz Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Franz... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Castle Mountain is located in Banff National Park of the Canadian Rockies. ... The Ukrainian Canadian internment was part of the confinement of enemy aliens in Canada during World War I, lasting from 1914 to 1920. ...

Castle Mountain internment camp (1915)
Castle Mountain internment camp (1915)

In 1931, the Government of Canada enacted the Unemployment and Farm Relief Act which provided public works projects in the national parks during the Great Depression. In Banff, workers constructed a new bathhouse and pool at Upper Hot Springs, to supplement Cave and Basin.[11] Other projects involved road building in the park, tasks around the Banff townsite, and construction of a highway connecting Banff and Jasper.[11] In 1934, the Public Works Construction Act was passed, providing continued funding for the public works projects. New projects included construction of a new registration facility at Banff's east gate, and construction of an administrative building in Banff. By 1940, the Icefields Parkway reached the Columbia Icefield area of Banff, and connected Banff and Jasper.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x664, 269 KB) Castle Mountain internment camp (1915). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x664, 269 KB) Castle Mountain internment camp (1915). ... The Canada wordmark, used by most agencies of the Canadian federal government. ... The Unemployment and Farm Relief Act was enacted in July 1931 by the Parliament of Canada, enabling public works projects to be set up in Canadas national parks during the Great Depression. ... Look up Public works in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about national parks. ... The Great Depression was an economic downturn which started in 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ... Upper Hot Springs are hot springs located in Banff National Park in Canada, near the Banff townsite. ... Jasper is a specialized municipality in western Alberta, Canada. ... The Public Works Construction Act was enacted in 1934 by the Parliament of Canada, provided $40 million in assistance during the Great Depression. ...


Internment camps were once again set up in Banff during World War II, with camps stationed at Lake Louise, Stoney Creek, and Healy Creek. Prison camps were largely comprised of Mennonites from Saskatchewan.[11] Japanese internment camps were not stationed in Banff during World War II, but rather were located in Jasper National Park where their detainees worked on the Yellowhead Highway and other projects. Combatants Allied Powers: United Kingdom France Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Charles de Gaulle Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Tree Paper Birch Bird Sharp-tailed Grouse Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km² (4200 mi²). It is located in the province of Alberta, to the north of Banff National Park and west of the city of Edmonton. ... The Yellowhead Highway is a major east-west highway connecting the four western Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. ...


Winter tourism

Winter tourism in Banff began in February 1917, with the first Banff Winter Carnival. The carnival featured a large ice palace, which in 1917 was built by internees. Carnival events included cross-country skiing, ski jumping, curling, snowshoe, and skijoring.[13] In the 1930s, the first downhill ski resort, Sunshine Village, was developed by the Brewsters. Mount Norquay ski area was also developed during the 1930s, with the first chair lift installed there in 1948.[6] Cross-country skiing (also known as XC skiing) is a winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily Northern Europe and Canada. ... Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down an inrun with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ... Curling is a precision team sport similar to bowls or bocce, played on a rectangular sheet of prepared ice by two teams of four players each, using heavy polished granite stones which they slide down the ice towards a target area called the house. ... A pair of modern snowshoes Snowshoes, sometimes colloquially referred to as webs, are footwear for walking over snow. ... Skijoring is a winter dog-powered sport popularized in North America and derived from the Scandinavian sport of pulka. ... Alpine skiing (or downhill skiing) is a recreational activity and sport involving sliding down snow-covered hills with long, thin skis attached to each foot. ... Sunshine Village is a ski resort in Banff National Park, Alberta. ... Mount Norquay is a mountain in Banff National Park, Canada that lies directly northwest of the town of Banff. ... A chairlift A chairlift is a type of aerial lift, which consists of a constantly moving loop of steel cable strung between two end terminals and generally over intermediate towers. ...


Since 1968, when Banff Springs Hotel was winterized, Banff has been a year-round destination.[14] In the 1960s, the Trans-Canada Highway was constructed, providing another transportation corridor through the Bow Valley, in addition to the Bow Valley Parkway, making the park more accessible. Also in the 1960s, Calgary International Airport was built. Calgary International Airport, (IATA: YYC, ICAO: CYYC), is a medium-sized airport that serves Calgary, Alberta, Canada and the surrounding region. ...


Canada launched several bids to host the Winter Olympics in Banff, with the first bid for the 1964 Winter Olympics which were eventually awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. Canada narrowly lost a second bid, for the 1968 Winter Olympics, which were awarded to Grenoble, France. Once again, Banff launched a bid to host the 1972 Winter Olympics, with plans to hold the Olympics at Lake Louise. The 1972 bid was most controversial, as environmental lobby groups provided strong opposition to the bid, which had sponsorship from Imperial Oil.[6] Bowing to pressure, Jean Chrétien, then the head of Parks Canada, withdrew support for the bid, which was eventually lost to Sapporo, Japan. Several events were hosted at the Canmore Nordic Centre at Canmore, Alberta, located just outside the eastern gates of Banff National Park on the Trans-Canada Highway, when nearby Calgary, Alberta was awarded the 1988 Winter Olympics. A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ... The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1964 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1968 Grenoble, France and opened on February 6. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Imperial Oil Limited TSX: IMO is Canadas largest petroleum company. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... Canmore ( Elevation: 1350 m / 4455 ft) is a town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Municipal District of Bighorn No. ... Trans Canada Highway over Canada Map The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. ... Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and opened by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé. The Olympics were highly successful financially as they brought in million-dollar profits. ...


Conservation

Since the original Rocky Mountains Park Act, subsequent acts and policies placed greater emphasis on conservation. With public sentiment tending towards environmentalism, Parks Canada issued major new policy in 1979, which emphasized conservation. The National Parks Act was amended in 1988, which made preserving ecological integrity a top priority. The act also required each park to produce a management plan, with greater public participation.[6] Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ... Ecological health or ecological integrity or ecological damage is used to refer to symptoms of an ecosystems pending loss of carrying capacity, ability to perform natures services, or pending ecocide due to cumulative causes such as pollution. ...


In 1984, Banff was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site, together with the other national and provincial parks that form the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, for the mountain landscapes containing mountain peaks, glaciers, lakes, waterfalls, canyons and limestone caves as well as fossils found here. With this designation came added obligations for conservation.[15] UNESCO logo UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... // Alberta Aspen Beach Provincial Park Beauvais Lake Provincial Park Big Hill Springs Provincial Park Big Knife Provincial Park Bow Valley Provincial Park Calling Lake Provincial Park Carson-Pagasus Provincial Park Chain Lakes Provincial Park Cold Lake Provincial Park Crimson Lake Provincial Park Cross Lake Provincial Park Cypress Hills Provincial Park... The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site is located in the Canadian Rockies. ... Grand Canyon, Arizona A canyon or gorge is a deep valley between cliffs often carved from the Earth by a river. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ...


During the 1980s, Parks Canada moved to privatize many park services such as golf courses, and added user fees for use of other facilities and services to help deal with budget cuts. In 1990, the Town of Banff was incorporated, giving local residents more say regarding any proposed developments.[16] Banff townsite (left) and Tunnel Mountain (right) on the Bow River as seen from Sulphur Mountain. ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ...


In the 1990s, development plans for the park, including expansion at Sunshine Village, were under fire with lawsuits filed by Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS). In the mid-1990s, the Banff-Bow Valley Study was initiated to find ways to better address environmental concerns, and issues relating to development in the park. The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) was founded in 1963 to help protect Canadas wilderness. ...


Geography

Map of Banff National Park
Map of Banff National Park
Lake Louise
Lake Louise
Peyto Lake
Peyto Lake
Two Jacks Lake
Two Jacks Lake

Banff National Park is located on Alberta's western border with British Columbia. Banff is about an hour and half driving distance from Calgary, and four hours from Edmonton. Jasper National Park is located to the north, while Yoho National Park is to the west, and Kootenay National Park is to the south. Kananaskis Country, which includes Bow Valley Wildland Provincial Park, Spray Valley Provincial Park, and Peter Lougheed Provincial Park, is located to the south and east of Banff. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (961x1140, 1056 KB) Created by User:AudeVivere File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (961x1140, 1056 KB) Created by User:AudeVivere File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 706 KB) Summary Description: Fairmont Chateau Hotel, Lake Louise, Banff National Park, Canada Source: photo taken by author Date: 17. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 706 KB) Summary Description: Fairmont Chateau Hotel, Lake Louise, Banff National Park, Canada Source: photo taken by author Date: 17. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Peyto-lake-banff. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Peyto-lake-banff. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 350 KB) Copyright (c)2006, Oliver Low (me). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1632x1232, 350 KB) Copyright (c)2006, Oliver Low (me). ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area... Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... Edmonton is the capital of Albertaand home of the most beautiful girl in the world her name is jacqueline and she lives in clairview. ... Jasper National Park is the largest national park in the Canadian Rockies, spanning 10,878 km² (4200 mi²). It is located in the province of Alberta, to the north of Banff National Park and west of the city of Edmonton. ... Natural Bridge Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope of the Continental Divide in southeastern British Columbia. ... Kootenay National Park is located in southeastern British Columbia, Canada covering 1,406 km² (543 mi²) in the Canadian Rockies and is part of a World Heritage Site. ... Kananaskis is an improvement district (a type of rural municipal administrative unit) situated to the west of Calgary, Alberta, Canada in the foothills and front ranges of the Canadian Rockies. ... Bow Valley Provincial Park is a provincial park located in Alberta, Canada. ... Spray Valley Provincial Park is a provincial park located east of the Rocky Mountains, along the Spray River in western Alberta, Canada. ... Peter Lougheed Provincial Park Towering mountains, pristine lakes, evergreen valleys, and glacial streams . ...


The Trans-Canada Highway passes through Banff National Park, from eastern boundary near Canmore, through the towns of Banff and Lake Louise, and into Yoho National Park in British Columbia. The Banff townsite is the main commercial center in the national park. The village of Lake Louise is located at the junction of the Trans-Canada Highway and the Icefields Parkway, which extends north to the Jasper townsite. Trans Canada Highway over Canada Map The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins all ten provinces of Canada. ... Canmore ( Elevation: 1350 m / 4455 ft) is a town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Municipal District of Bighorn No. ... Lake Louise is both an actual lake and a nearby hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. ...


Town of Banff

Main article: Banff, Alberta

The town of Banff, established in 1883, is the main commercial centre in Banff National Park, as well as a centre for cultural activities. Banff is home to several cultural institutions, including the Banff Centre, the Whyte Museum, the Buffalo Nations Luxton Museum, Cave and Basin National Historic Site, and several art galleries. Throughout its history, Banff has hosted many annual events, including Banff Indian Days which began in 1889, and the Banff Winter Carnival. Since 1976, The Banff Center has organized the Banff Mountain Film Festival. In 1990, the town was incorporated as a municipality of Alberta, though still subject to the National Parks Act and federal authority in regards to planning and development.[17] As of the 2005 census, the town of Banff has a population of 8,352, of which nearly 7,000 are permanent residents.[18] The Bow River flows through the town of Banff, with the Bow Falls located on the outskirts of town. Banff townsite (left) and Tunnel Mountain (right) on the Bow River as seen from Sulphur Mountain. ... The Banff Centre is a highly respected arts, cultural, and educational institution in Banff, Alberta Canada. ... Whyte Museum is a museum in Banff, Alberta, Canada. ... The Cave and Basin National Historic Site, located in the town of Banff, Alberta, is the site of hot springs around which Banff National Park was first established. ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... The Banff Mountain Film Festival is an annual presentation of short films and documentaries about mountain culture, sports and environment. ... The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... Bow Falls, on the Bow River near Banff The Bow River thunders over Bow Falls just before the junction of the Bow and Spray Rivers. ...


Lake Louise

Lake Louise, a small village located 54 kilometres (32 mi) west of the Banff townsite, is home to the landmark Chateau Lake Louise at the edge of Lake Louise. Located 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) from Lake Louise, Moraine Lake provides a scenic vista of the Valley of the Ten Peaks. This scene was pictured on the back of the $20 Canadian banknote, in the 1969-1979 ("Scenes of Canada") series. The Lake Louise Mountain Resort is also located near the village. Lake Louise is both an actual lake and a nearby hamlet located in the Canadian province of Alberta in Banff National Park. ... Chateau Lake Louise from the Big Beehive Chateau Lake Louise is a Canadian Pacific hotel on the eastern shore of Lake Louise, near Banff, Alberta. ... Moraine Lake is known for its picturesque views. ... Moraine Lake Valley of the Ten Peaks is a valley in Banff National Park that is crowned by ten notable peaks and also includes Moraine Lake. ... Sample Canadian bank notes, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100 Canadian banknotes are the banknotes of Canada, denominated in Canadian dollars (CAD). ... Lake Louise Mountain Resort is a ski resort located in the Banff National Park, in the village of Lake Louise, Alberta. ...


Icefields Parkway

The Icefields Parkway extends 230 kilometres (143 miles),[19] connecting Lake Louise to Jasper, Alberta. The Parkway originates at Lake Louise, and extends north up the Bow Valley, past Hector Lake, Bow Lake, and Peyto Lake. The Parkway then crosses a summit, and follows the Mistaya River to Saskatchewan Crossing, where it converges with the Howse and North Saskatchewan River. 93 Athabasca Glacier on the Columbia Icefield. ... Hector Lake location in Banff National Park Hector Lake is a small lake in western Alberta, Canada. ... Bow Lake in Banff National Park Bow Lake is a small lake in western Alberta, Canada. ... Peyto Lake (pea-toe) is a glacier fed lake located in Banff National Park in the Canadian Rockies. ... Mistaya River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. ... Saskatchewan River Crossing is a place name in western Alberta, Canada. ... Howse River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. ... The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to Lake Winnipeg. ...


The North Saskatchewan River flows east from Saskatchewan Crossing, out of Banff, into what is known as David Thompson country, and onto Edmonton. The David Thompson Highway follows the North Saskatchewan River, past the man-made Abraham Lake, and through David Thompson Country. At Saskatchewan Crossing, basic services are available, including gasoline, cafeteria, a gift shop, and small motel. The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to Lake Winnipeg. ... It is a major highway in Central Alberta. ... Abraham Lake on the North Saskathewan River Abraham Lake map Abraham Lake is an artificial lake on North Saskatchewan River in western Alberta, Canada. ...


North of Saskatchewan Crossing, the Icefields Parkway follows the North Saskatchewan River up to the Columbia Icefield. The Parkway crosses into Jasper National Park at Sunwapta Pass at 2,023 metres (6,635 ft) in elevation,[20] and continues on from there to the Jasper townsite. Athabasca Glacier, Columbia Icefield, Canadian Rockies. ... The metre, or meter (U.S.), is a measure of length. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ...


Geology

Castle Mountain
Castle Mountain

The Canadian Rockies consist of several northwest-southeast trending ranges. Closely following the continental divide, the Main Ranges form the backbone of the Canadian Rockies. The Front Ranges are located east of the Main Ranges. Banff National Park extends eastward from the continental divide and includes the eastern slope of the Main Ranges and much of the Front Ranges. The latter include the mountains around the Banff townsite. The foothills are located to the east of the Park, between Calgary and Canmore. On the other side of the Park, the Western Ranges pass through Yoho and Kootenay National Parks. Still farther west is the Rocky Mountain Trench, the western boundary of the Canadian Rockies region in British Columbia. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x1737, 2047 KB) [edit] Summary Castle Mountain in Banff National Park Photo by Kmf164, taken on June 7, 2003. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2400x1737, 2047 KB) [edit] Summary Castle Mountain in Banff National Park Photo by Kmf164, taken on June 7, 2003. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... The Rocky Mountain Trench is a huge glacial valley stretching 1500 km (930m), running unbroken from the Flathead Lake area of Montana to the Liard River in far northern British Columbia. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages English de facto (none stated in law) Flower Pacific dogwood Tree Western Redcedar Bird Stellers Jay Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 36 6 Area...


The Canadian Rockies are comprised of sedimentary rock, including shale, sandstone, limestone, and quartzite, that originated as deposits in a shallow inland sea. The geologic formations in Banff range in age from Precambrian eon to the Jurassic period. The mountains were formed 80-120 million years ago, as a product of thrust faults.[21] Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Quartzite Quartzite is a hard, metamorphic rock which was originally sandstone. ... A geologic formation is a formally named rock stratum or geological unit. ... The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... // The image above is believed to be a replaceable fair use image. ... A thrust fault is a particular type of fault, or break in the fabric of the Earths crust with resulting movement of each side against the other, in which a lower stratigraphic position is pushed up and over another. ...


Over the past 80 million years, erosion has taken its toll on the landscape, with more extensive erosion occurring in the foothills and Front Range than in the Main Range.[21] Banff's mountains exhibit several different shapes that have been influenced by the composition of rock deposits, layers, and their structure. Numerous mountains in Banff are carved out of sedimentary layers that slope at 50-60 degree angles.[21] Such dip slope mountains have one side with a steep face, and the other with a more gradual slope that follows the layering of the rock formations, e.g., Mount Rundle, near the Banff townsite. Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. For erosion as understood by materials science, see Erosion (materials science) For erosion as an English analogy, see Erosion (figurative) Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock and other particles) by the agents of wind, water... General Definition A dip slope is a geological formation often created by tilted strata. ... Mount Rundle is a mountain in Banff National Park overlooking the town of Banff. ...


Other types of mountains in Banff include complex, irregular, anticlinal, synclinal, castellate, dogtooth, and sawback mountains.[22] Castle Mountain exemplifies a castellate shape, with steep slopes and cliffs. The top section of Castle Mountain is comprised of a layer of Paleozoic-era shale,[23] sandwiched between two limestone layers. Dogtooth mountains, such as Mount Louis, exhibit sharp, jagged slopes. The Sawback Range, which consists of dipping sedimentary layers, has been eroded by cross gullies. Scree deposits are common toward the bottom of many mountains and cliffs. Anticline with syncline visible at far right- USGS In structural geology, an anticline is a Fold (geology) that is convex to the youngest beds—youngest sediments are on back of hand, older under the palm. ... Road Cut near Ft. ... Castle Mountain is located in Banff National Park of the Canadian Rockies. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Mount Louis is a mountain located in southeast Banff National Park. ... The Sawback Range is a mountain range of the Canadian Rockies that stretches from the Bow Valley in Alberta into southeastern Banff National Park. ... Gully in El Paso County, Colorado, USA. A gully is a landform created by running water eroding sharply into a hillside. ... Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ...


Banff's landscape has also been marked by glacial erosion, with deep U-shaped valleys and many hanging valleys that often form waterfalls. Matterhorn-type mountains, such as Mount Assiniboine, have been shaped by glacial erosion that has left a sharp peak. A number of small gorges also exist, including Mistaya Canyon and Johnston Canyon. A glaciated valley in the Mount Hood Wilderness showing the characteristic U-shape. ... Bridal Veil Falls in Yosemite National Park flowing from a hanging valley. ... Hopetoun Falls near Otway National Park, Victoria, Australia A waterfall is usually a geological formation resulting from water, often in the form of a stream, flowing over an erosion-resistant rock formation that forms a sudden break in elevation. ... Mount Assiniboine, also known as Assiniboine Mountain, is a mountain located in eastern British Columbia, Canada. ... A gorge is a narrow passage between steep mountains or hills. ... Mistaya River is a short river in western Alberta, Canada. ... Cascade in Johnston Canyon Johnston Creek is a tributary of the Bow River in western Alberta, Canada. ...


Glaciers and icefields

Banff National Park has numerous large glaciers and icefields, many of which are easily accessed from the Icefields Parkway. Small cirque glaciers are fairly common in the Main Ranges, situated in depressions on the side of many mountains. As with the majority of mountain glaciers around the world, the glaciers in Banff are retreating. Photographic evidence alone provides testimony to this retreat and the trend has become alarming enough that glaciologists have commenced researching the glaciers in the park more thoroughly, and have been analyzing the impact that reduced glacier ice may have on water supplies to streams and rivers. The largest glaciated areas include the Waputik and Wapta Icefields, which both lie on the Banff-Yoho National Park border. Wapta Icefield covers approximately 80 square kilometres (30.9 sq mi) in area.[24] Outlets of Wapta Icefield on the Banff side of the continental divide include Peyto, Bow, and Vulture Glaciers. Bow Glacier retreated an estimated 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) between the years 1850 and 1953,[24] and since that period, there has been further retreat which has left a newly formed lake at the terminal moraine. Peyto Glacier has retreated approximately 2,000 metres (6,561 ft) since 1880,[25] and is at risk of disappearing entirely within the next 30 to 40 years.[26] Both Crowfoot and Hector Glaciers are also easily visible from the Icefields Parkway, yet they are singular glaciers and are not affiliated with any major icesheets. A cirque glacier is formed in cirque, bowl-shaped depressions on the side of mountains. ... Glaciology is the study of glaciers, or more generally the study of ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. ... The Waputik Icefield is located on the Continental divide in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. ... The Wapta Icefield is located on the Continental Divide in the Canadian Rockies, in the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. ... Peyto Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, approximately 90 km (56 miles) northwest of the town of Banff, and can be accessed from the Icefields Parkway. ... Bow Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, approximately 37 km (23 miles) northwest of Lake Louise, and can be viewed from the Icefields Parkway. ... Vulture Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, northwest of Lake Louise, and can be viewed from the Icefields Parkway. ... Moraine at Mono Lake, California, United States Moraines clearly seen on a side glacier of the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... Crowfoot Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, 32 km (20 miles) northwest of Lake Louise, and can be viewed from the Icefields Parkway. ... Hector Glacier is located in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada. ...


The Columbia Icefield, at the northern end of Banff, straddles the Banff and Jasper National Park border and extends into British Columbia. Snow Dome, in the Columbia Icefields, forms a hydrological apex of North America, with water flowing from this point in to the Pacific via the Columbia, the Arctic Ocean via the Athabasca River, and into the Hudson Bay and ultimately into the Atlantic Ocean, via the North Saskatchewan River.[24] Saskatchewan Glacier, which is approximately 13 kilometers (8 mi) in length and 30 square kilometres (11.6 sq mi) in area,[24] is the major outlet of the Columbia Icefield that flows into Banff. Between the years 1893 and 1953, Saskatchewan Glacier had retreated a distance of 1,364 metres (4,474 ft), with the rate of retreat between the years 1948 and 1953 averaging 55 meters (180 ft) per year.[24] Overall, the glaciers of the Canadian Rockies lost 25% of their mass during the 20th century.[27] Athabasca Glacier, Columbia Icefield, Canadian Rockies. ... Snow Dome is a mountain located on the Continental Divide in the Columbia Icefield of Jasper National Park. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Athabasca River watershed in western Canada The Athabasca River (French: rivière Athabasca) originates from the Columbia Glacier of the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park in Alberta, Canada. ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... The North Saskatchewan River is a glacier-fed river flowing east from the Canadian Rockies to Lake Winnipeg. ... In this animated gif of the Columbia Icefield, glaciated areas in 1990 are compared to 2000. ...


Climate

Skiing on Parker Ridge, near the Columbia Icefield
Skiing on Parker Ridge, near the Columbia Icefield

Located on the eastern side of the Continental Divide, Banff National Park receives 472 millimetres (19 in) of precipitation annually.[28] This is considerably less than received in Yoho National Park on the western side of the divide in British Columbia, with 884 millimetres (35 in) annual precipitation at Wapta Lake and 616 millimetres (26.3 in) at Boulder Creek.[28] 234 centimetres (92 in) of snow falls on average falls each winter in the Banff townsite, while 290 centimetres (114 in) falls in Lake Louise. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2421x1600, 2081 KB) [edit] Summary Alpine skiing on Parker Ridge in Banff National Park, near the Columbia Icefields and the Jasper National Park boundary. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2421x1600, 2081 KB) [edit] Summary Alpine skiing on Parker Ridge in Banff National Park, near the Columbia Icefields and the Jasper National Park boundary. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Wapta Lake is a glacial lake in the Canadian Rockies of eastern British Columbia, Canada. ...


During winter months, temperatures in Banff are moderated, compared to Edmonton and other areas of central and northern Alberta, due to Chinook winds and other influences from British Columbia. The mean low temperature during January is -15° C (6° F), and the mean high temperature is -5° C (24° F) for the town of Banff.[28] Weather conditions during summer months are pleasant, with high temperatures during July averaging 22° C (71° F), and daily low temperatures averaging 7° C (45° F).[28] Chinook winds, often just called chinooks, are a variety of Föhn winds[1] pattern observed in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains end and the mountains begin. ... Celsius relates to the Celsius or centrigrade temperature scale. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ...


Biology

Ecoregions

Banff National Park spans three ecoregions, including montane, subalpine, and alpine. The subalpine ecoregion, which consists mainly of dense forest, comprises 53% of Banff's area. 27% of the park is located above the treeline, in the alpine ecoregion.[29] The treeline in Banff lies approximately at 2,300 meters (7,544 ft),[21] with open meadows at alpine regions and some areas covered by glaciers. A small portion (3%) of the park, located at lower elevations, is in the montane ecoregion.[29] Lodgepole pine forests dominate the montane region of Banff, with Englemann spruce, willow, aspen, occasional Douglas-fir and a few Douglas maple interspersed. Englemann spruce are more common in the subalpine regions of Banff, with some areas of lodgepole pine, and subalpine fir.[30] The montane areas, which tend to be the preferred habitat for wildlife, have been subjected to significant human development over the years. An ecoregion, sometimes called a bioregion, is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Mount McKinley in Alaska has one of the largest visible base-to-summit elevation differences anywhere A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... // Summary The subalpine Biome is a geographic and altitudinal region found below Tree-line and above the montane. ... For the climate of the mountains named the Alps, see climate) for a region above the tree-line. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ... A meadow is a habitat of rolling or flat terrain where grasses predominate. ... Binomial name Pinus contorta Douglas Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) is a common tree in western North America. ... Binomial name Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. ... Species About 350, including: Salix acutifolia - Violet Willow Salix alaxensis - Alaska Willow Salix alba - White Willow Salix alpina - Alpine Willow Salix amygdaloides - Peachleaf Willow Salix arbuscula - Mountain Willow Salix arbusculoides - Littletree Willow Salix arctica - Arctic Willow Salix atrocinerea Salix aurita - Eared Willow Salix babylonica - Peking Willow Salix bakko Salix barrattiana... Species Populus adenopoda Populus alba Populus grandidentata Populus sieboldii Populus tremula Populus tremuloides Aspens are trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the poplar genus, Populus sect. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Acer glabrum Torr. ... Binomial name Abies lasiocarpa (Hooker) Nuttall The Subalpine Fir (Abies lasiocarpa) is a western North American fir, native to the mountains of Yukon, British Columbia and western Alberta in Canada; southeastern Alaska, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, northeastern Nevada, and the Trinity Alps in...


Wildlife

Elk in Banff
Elk in Banff

The park has 56 mammal species that have been recorded. Grizzly and Black bears inhabit the forested regions. Cougar, Lynx, Wolverine, weasel, Northern River Otter and wolves are the primary predatory mammals. Elk and White-tailed Deer are common in the valleys of the park, including around (and sometimes in) the Banff townsite, while Moose tend to be more elusive, sticking primarily to wetland areas and near streams. In the alpine regions, Mountain Goats, Bighorn Sheep, marmots and pika are widespread. Other mammals such as Beaver, Porcupine, squirrel, chipmunks are the more commonly observed smaller mammals.[31] In 2005, a total of 5 caribou where counted, making this species one of the rarest mammals found in the park.[4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2093x1464, 2361 KB) [edit] Summary Elk in Banff National Park. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2093x1464, 2361 KB) [edit] Summary Elk in Banff National Park. ... Binomial name Cervus canadensis New species designate Siberian and American Elk (Cervus canadensis), are the second largest species of deer in the world, after the Moose (Alces alces). ... // Trinomial name Ursus arctos horribilis (Ord, 1815) Current and historical range of the Grizzly Bear in North America The grizzly bear, sometimes called the silvertip bear, is a powerful brownish-yellow bear that lives in the uplands of western North America. ... Binomial name Ursus americanus Pallas, 1780 The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... Binomial name Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) Cougar range map The Cougar (Felis concolor), also known as the Puma or Mountain Lion, is a large, solitary cat found in the Americas. ... poopTaxobox | color = pink | name = Lynx | image = lynx-canadensis. ... Binomial name Gulo gulo (Linnaeus, 1758) The Wolverine (Gulo gulo) is the largest land-dwelling species of the Mustelidae or weasel family (the sea otter is largest overall); and is the only species currently classified in the genus Gulo (meaning glutton). It is also called the Glutton or Carcajou. ... Species Mustela africana Mustela altaica Mustela erminea Mustela eversmannii Mustela felipei Mustela frenata Mustela kathiah Mustela lutreola Mustela lutreolina Mustela nigripes Mustela nivalis Mustela nudipes Mustela putorius Mustela sibirica Mustela strigidorsa Mustela vison Weasels are mammals in the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family. ... Binomial name Lontra canadensis (Schreber, 1777) The Northern River Otter, Lontra canadensis, is a North American member of the Mustelidae or weasel family. ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Wolf or Grey Wolf (Canis lupus) is a mammal of the Canidae family and the ancestor of the domestic dog. ... Binomial name Cervus canadensis New species designate Siberian and American Elk (Cervus canadensis), are the second largest species of deer in the world, after the Moose (Alces alces). ... Binomial name Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, 1780 The White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer found throughout most of the continental United States, southern Canada, Mexico, Central America and northern portions of South America as far south as Peru. ... Binomial name Alces alces (Linnaeus, 1758) Moose range map The moose (so named in North America) or elk (in Europe), Alces alces, is the largest member of the deer family Cervidae, distinguished from the others by the palmate antlers of its males. ... Binomial name Oreamnos americanus (Blainville, 1816) The Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus), also known as the Rocky Mountain Goat, is a large hoofed mammal found only in North America. ... Binomial name Ovis canadensis Shaw, 1804 Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) are one of two species of mountain sheep in North America; the other species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep. ... Species See text. ... Type Species Ochotona minor Link, 1795 (= Lepus dauuricus Pallas, 1776) Species See text The name pika (archaically spelled pica) is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). ... Species C. canadensis C. fiber Beavers are semi-aquatic rodents native to North America and Europe. ... Genera Family Erethizontidae Coendou Sphiggurus Erethizon Echinoprocta Chaetomys Family Hystricidae Atherurus Hystrix Thecurus Trichys This article is about the rodent mammal. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Species 23 species, see text Chipmunk is the common name for any small squirrel-like rodent species of the genus Tamias in the family Sciuridae. ... Binomial name Rangifer tarandus (Linnaeus, 1758) The reindeer, known as caribou when wild in North America, is an Arctic and Subarctic-dwelling deer (Rangifer tarandus). ...


Due to the harsh winters, the park has few reptiles and amphibians with only one species of toad, three species of frog, one salamander species and two species of snakes that have been identified.[31] At least 280 species of birds can be found in Banff including Bald and Golden Eagles, Red-tailed Hawk, Osprey, Falcon and Merlin, all of which are predatory species. Additionally, commonly seen species such as the Gray Jay, American Three-toed Woodpecker, Mountain Bluebird, Clark's Nutcracker, Mountain Chickadee and pipit are frequently found in the lower elevations. The White-tailed Ptarmigan is a ground bird that is often seen in the alpine zones. Rivers and lakes are frequented by over a hundred different species including loons, herons, and mallards who spend their summers in the park.[31] Subclasses Anapsida Diapsida Reptiles are tetrapods and amniotes, animals whose embryos are surrounded by an amniotic membrane. ... Subclasses and Orders Order Temnospondyli - extinct Subclass Lepospondyli - extinct Subclass Lissamphibia   Anura   Caudata   Gymnophiona Amphibians (class Amphibia; from Greek αμφις both and βιος life) are a taxon of animals that include all living tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) that do not have amniotic eggs, are ectotherms, and generally spend part of their time... Binomial name Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) Subspecies (Linnaeus, 1766) Southern Bald Eagle Audubon, 1827) Northern Bald Eagle or Washingtons Eagle Synonyms Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766 The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), also known in North America as the American Eagle, is a bird of prey found in North America, most... Binomial name Aquila chrysaetos Linnaeus, 1758 World distribution of the golden eagle Light green = Nesting area Blue = Wintering area Dark green = All year distribution The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Buteo jamaicensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a large Buteo which breeds from western Alaska and northern Canada to Panama and the West Indies. ... Binomial name Pandion haliaetus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a medium large raptor which is a specialist fish-eater with a worldwide distribution. ... Species About 37; see text. ... Binomial name Falco columbarius (Linnaeus, 1758) Merlin (Falco columbarius) is a falcon that breeds in northern North America, Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Perisoreus canadensis (Linnaeus, 1766) The Gray Jay Perisoreus canadensis, is a medium-sized jay. ... Binomial name Picoides dorsalis (Baird, 1858) The American Three-toed woodpecker, Picoides dorsalis is a medium-sized woodpecker (family Picidae). ... Binomial name Sialia currucoides (Bechstein, 1798) The Mountain Bluebird, Sialia currucoides, is a medium-sized thrush. ... Binomial name Nucifraga columbiana (Wilson, 1811) The Clarks Nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana), is a large passerine bird, in the family Corvidae. ... Binomial name Poecile gambeli or Parus gambeli Linnaeus, 1766 The Mountain Chickadee, Parus gambeli or Poecile gambeli, is a small songbird. ... Genera Anthus Tmetothylacus † see also: wagtail, longclaw Pipits are small passerine birds with medium to long tails. ... Binomial name Lagopus leucurus (Richardson, 1831) The White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus) is the smallest bird in the grouse family. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Genera See text. ... // Binomial name Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus, 1758 Subspecies (Mallard) (Mexican Duck) The Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos; Greek for flat-billed duck[2]), also known in North America as the Wild Duck, is a common and widespread dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and sub-tropical areas of North America, Europe and...


Endangered species in Banff include the Banff Springs Snail Physella johnsoni which is found in the hot springs of Banff.[32] Woodland caribou, found in Banff, are listed as a threatened species, as are grizzly bears. The critically endangered Amur Tiger, a rare subspecies of tiger. ... The name snail applies to most members of the molluscan class Gastropoda that have coiled shells. ...


Mountain pine beetles

Further information: mountain pine beetle

Mountain pine beetles have caused a number of large-scale infestations in Banff National Park, feeding off of the phloem of mature lodgepole pines. Alberta's first known outbreak occurred in 1940, infecting 43 square kilometres (17 sq mi) of forest in Banff.[33] A second major outbreak occurred in the late 1970s and early 1980s in Banff and the surrounding Rocky Mountains region. Binomial name Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1905 The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to central British Columbia. ... Binomial name Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1905 The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a species of bark beetle native to the forests of western North America from Mexico to central British Columbia. ... In vascular plants, phloem is the living tissue that carries organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, to all parts of the plant where needed. ...


Tourism

Skiing at Lake Louise
Skiing at Lake Louise

Banff National Park one of the top tourism places in Alberta and one of the most visited national parks in North America, with 3,927,557 visitors in 2004/2005.[4][34] During summer, 42% of park visitors are from Canada (23% from Alberta), while 35% are from the United States, and 20% from Europe.[35] Tourism in Banff contributes an estimated C$6 billion annually to the economy.[36] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 418 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Lake Louise Mountain Resort User:AudeVivere/Favorites ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2048x1365, 418 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Lake Louise Mountain Resort User:AudeVivere/Favorites ... ISO 4217 Code CAD User(s) Canada Inflation 2. ...


A park pass is required for stopping in the park and permit checks are common during the summer months, especially at Lake Louise and the start of the Icefields Parkway. A permit is not required if travelling straight through the park without stopping. Approximately 5 million people pass through Banff annually on the Trans-Canada Highway without stopping.[3]


Attractions in Banff include Upper Hot Springs, and a 27-hole golf course at Fairmont Banff Springs Hotel, and three ski resorts including Sunshine Village, Lake Louise Mountain Resort, and Mount Norquay ski resort. Day hikes, such as the Cory Pass Loop, are popular with visitors. Other activities include alpine and Nordic skiing, and horseback riding. Upper Hot Springs are hot springs located in Banff National Park in Canada, near the Banff townsite. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ... Sunshine Village is a ski resort in Banff National Park, Alberta. ... Lake Louise Mountain Resort is a ski resort located in the Banff National Park, in the village of Lake Louise, Alberta. ... Mout Norquay (also called Ski Bnaff@Norquay) is a ski resort in the Canadian Rockies, near the town of Banff, Alberta. ... The Cory Pass Loop is a trail located in Banff National Park. ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ...


Backcountry activities in Banff include hiking, camping, climbing, and skiing. Parks Canada requires those using backcountry campgrounds, Alpine Clup of Canada huts, or other backcountry facilities to purchase a wilderness pass. Reservations for using the campgrounds are also required. A backcountry area in general terms is a geographical region that is: isolated remote undeveloped difficult to access The term particularly applies to mountainous regions that are reasonably close to urban areas but are: not immediately accessible by road at relatively high altitude not frequented by human visitors While the... Two hikers in the Mount Hood National Forest Eagle Creek hiking Hiking is a form of walking, undertaken with the specific purpose of exploring and enjoying the scenery. ... Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... Climbers on Valkyrie at The Roaches in Staffordshire, England. ... Deep powder skiing Alpine skier carving a turn on piste Members of the U.S. Air Force skiing (and snowboarding) at Keystone Resorts 14th Annual SnoFest This article is about snow skiing. ...


Park management

Banff National Park is managed by Parks Canada, under the National Parks Act which was passed in 1930. Over time, park management policies have increasingly emphasized environmental protection over development. In 1964, a policy statement was issued that reiterated ideals of conservation laid out in the 1930 act. With the controversial bid for the 1972 Winter Olympics, environmental groups became more influential, leading Parks Canada to withdraw its support for the bid. The 1979 Beaver Book was a major new policy, which emphasized conservation. In 1988, the National Parks Act was amended, making the maintenance of ecological integrity the top priority. The amendment also paved the way for non-governmental organizations to challenge Parks Canada in court, for breaches in adhering to the act. In 1994, Parks Canada established revised "Guiding Principles and Operating Policies", which included a mandate for the Banff-Bow Valley Study to draft management recommendations.[6] As with other national parks, Banff is required to have a Park Management Plan. On a provincial level, the park area and the included communities are administered by Alberta Municipal Affairs as Improvement District No. 9 (Banff).[37] Parks Canada is a Canadian government agency whose purpose is to protect and present nationally significant examples of Canadas natural and cultural heritage and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure their ecological and commemorative integrity for present and future generations. ... The National Parks Act is a Canadian federal law that regulates protection of natural areas of national significance. ... Conservation may refer to the following: Conservation ethic in relation to preserving ecosystems Conservationist Conservation movement Conservation ecology Conservation biology Energy conservation in reducing non-renewable energy consumption Conservation law of physics Conservation of energy Conservation of mass Conservation (genetics) in genetics Conservation (botany) in botanical nomenclature Conservation (psychology) in... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... Counties and municipal districts of Alberta are administrative subdivisions of the provinces census divisions. ... Alberta Municipal Affairs is a ministry of the Executive Council of Alberta. ...


Human impact

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1586 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1586 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing If you use this image outside of projects of the Wikimedia Foundation please attribute it to Wikimedia Commons or another project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Lake Minnewanka near Banff, Alberta Lake Minnewanka (Water of the Spirits in the Stoney Indian language) is located in the eastern area of Banff National Park in Canada, about five kilometres northeast of the Banff townsite. ...

Ecology

Since the nineteenth century, humans have impacted Banff's ecology through introduction of non-native species, controls on other species, and development in the Bow Valley, among other human activities. Bison once lived in the valleys of Banff, but were hunted by indigenous people and the last bison was killed off in 1858.[38] Elk are not indigenous to Banff, and were introduced in 1917 with 57 elk brought in from Yellowstone National Park.[39] The introduction of elk to Banff, combined with controls on coyote and wolves by Parks Canada beginning in the 1930s, has caused imbalance of the ecosystem.[39] Other species that have been displaced from the Bow Valley include grizzly bears, cougars, lynx, wolverines, otter, and moose. Beginning in 1985, gray wolves were recolonizing areas in the Bow Valley.[40] However, the wolf population has struggled, with 32 wolf deaths along the Trans-Canada Highway between 1987 and 2000, leaving only 31 wolves in the area.[41] Sweet clover (), introduced and naturalized to the U.S. from Eurasia as a forage and cover crop, supports insect biodiversity. ... Bow Valley is a valley located in Alberta, Canada. ... Species B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic genus containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... Binomial name Canis latrans Say, 1823 The coyote (Canis latrans, meaning barking dog) also prairie wolf [2]) is a member of the Canidae (dog) family and a relative of the domestic dog. ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 The Gray Wolf (Canis lupus; also spelled Grey Wolf, see spelling differences; also known as Timber Wolf or Wolf) is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ...


The population of bull trout and other native species of fish in Banff's lakes has also dwindled, with the introduction of non-native species including brook trout, and rainbow trout.[42] Lake trout, Westslope cutthroat trout, Chiselmouth are also rare native species, while Chinook salmon, White sturgeon, Pacific lamprey, and Banff longnose dace are likely extinct locally.[43] The Banff longnose dace, once only found in Banff, is now an extinct species.[43] Binomial name Salvelinus confluentus Suckley, 1859 The bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) is a char of the family Salmonidae. ... Binomial name Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814) The brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) is a species of fish in the salmon family (family Salmonidae) of order Salmoniformes. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792 Subspecies See text. ... Binomial name Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792) Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. ... Category: ... Binomial name Acrocheilus alutaceus Agassiz and Pickering, 1855 The chiselmouth is an unusual cyprinid fish of western North America. ... Binomial name Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum, 1792) The Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (derived from Russian чавыча), is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Binomial name Lampetra tridentata (Richardson, 1836) The Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, also known as three tooth lamprey and tridentate lamprey, lives along the Pacific Coast of North America and Asia. ... The Banff longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae smithi) was a diminutive version of the eastern longnose dace, its range restricted to a small marsh fed by two hot springs in Banff National Park in Banff, Alberta. ... The Banff longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae smithi) was a diminutive version of the eastern longnose dace, its range restricted to a small marsh fed by two hot springs in Banff National Park in Banff, Alberta. ... // Prepleistocene extinctions A large number of historical orders are extinct, for example dinosaurs, pterosaurs and ammonites. ...


The Trans-Canada Highway, passing through Banff, has been problematic, posing hazards for wildlife due to vehicle traffic and as an impediment to wildlife migration. Grizzly bears are among the species impacted by the highway, which together with other developments in Banff, has caused fragmentation of the landscape. Grizzly bears prefer the montane habitat, which has been most impacted by development. Wildlife crossings, including a series of underpasses, and two wildlife overpasses, have been constructed at a number of points along the Trans-Canada Highway to help alleviate this problem. Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... Nighttime traffic captured by a camera over several seconds. ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... Wildlife crossings reconnnect habitats, allowing animals to cross roads safely. ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ...


Fire management

Parks Canada management practices, notably fire suppression, since Banff National Park was established have impacted the park's ecosystem. Since the early the 1980s, Parks Canada has adopted a strategy that employed prescribed burns, which helps to mimic effects of natural fires. Fire fighting is the act of carrying out procedures to extinguish an unwanted fire. ... A Prescribed burn is a forest management technique of purposeful burning to eliminate buildup of flammable forest products. ...


Development

Banff townsite
Banff townsite

In 1978, expansion of Sunshine Village ski resort was approved, with added parking, hotel expansion, and development of Goat's Eye Mountain. Implementation of this development proposal was delayed through the 1980s, while environmental assessments were conducted. In 1989, Sunshine Village withdrew its development proposal, in light of government reservations, and submitted a revised proposal in 1992. This plan was approved by the government, pending environmental review. Subsequently, Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) filed a court injunction, which halted the development.[44] CPAWS also put pressure on UNESCO to revoke Banff's World Heritage Site status, over concerns that developments were harming the park's ecological health.[45] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1800, 1772 KB) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1800, 1772 KB) [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Banff National Park Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... The Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society (CPAWS) was founded in 1963 to help protect Canadas wilderness. ... An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that either prohibits or compels (restrains or enjoins) a party from continuing a particular activity. ...


Banff-Bow Valley Study

While the National Parks Act and the 1988 amendment emphasize ecological integrity, in practice Banff has suffered from inconsistent application of the policies.[36] In 1994, the Banff-Bow Valley Study was mandated by Sheila Copps, the minister responsible for Parks Canada, to provide recommendations on how to better manage human use and development, and maintain ecological integrity.[46] While the two-year Banff-Bow Valley Study was underway, development projects were halted, including the expansion of Sunshine Village, and the twinning of the Trans-Canada Highway between Castle Junction and Sunshine. Sheila Maureen Copps, PC, HBA, LL.D (hc), (born November 27, 1952, in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian journalist and former politician. ... Twinning (making a twin of) has at least two meanings: City and town twinning Widening of a road by construction of another one next to it, with a median in between (Canada) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the...


The panel issued over 500 recommendations, including limiting the growth of the Banff townsite, capping the town's population at 10,000, placing quotas for popular hiking trails, and curtailing development in the park.[36] Another recommendation was to fence off the townsite to reduce confrontations between people and elk. By fencing off the townsite, this measure was also intended to reduce access to this refuge for elk from predators, such as wolves that tended to avoid the townsite. Upon release of the report, Copps immediately moved to accept the proposal to cap the town population. She also ordered a small airstrip to be removed, along with a buffalo padlock, and cadet camp, that inhibited wildlife movement. An airstrip is a kind of airport that consists only of a runway with perhaps fueling equipment. ...


In response to concerns and recommendations raised by the Banff Bow Valley Study, a number of development plans were curtailed in the 1990s. Plans to add nine holes at the Banff Springs Golf Resort were withdrawn in 1996.


Canmore

With the cap on growth in the town of Banff, Canmore, located just outside the Banff boundary, has been growing rapidly to serve increasing demands of tourists. Major developments proposals for Canmore have included the Three Sisters Golf Resorts, proposed in 1992, which has been subject of contentious debate, with environmental groups arguing that the development would fragment important wildlife corridors in the Bow Valley.[47] Canmore ( Elevation: 1350 m / 4455 ft) is a town in Alberta, Canada, located in the Municipal District of Bighorn No. ... Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ... A wildlife corridor is the artificial joining of fragmented habitats. ...


See also

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The Canadian National Parks system is run by Parks Canada, which also runs Canadas National Historic Sites. ... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, South America, and the Caribbean. ...

References

  1. ^ The Mountain Guide - Banff National Park (PDF). Parks Canada (2006).
  2. ^ Highway Mitigation Research. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  3. ^ a b Savage, Candace. "A Highway Runs Through It", Canadian Geographic, July/August 2000, pp. 34-42.
  4. ^ a b c Park Management, Annual Planning Forum 2005. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  5. ^ Fedje, Daryl W., James M. White, Michael C. Wilson, D. Erle Nelson, John S. Vogel, John R. Southon (1995). "Vermilion Lakes Site: Adaptations and Environments in the Canadian Rockies during the Latest Pleistocene and Early Holocene". American Antiquity 60(1): 81-108.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Hildebrandt, Walter (1995). "Historical Analysis of Parks Canada and Banff National Park, 1968-1995". Banff-Bow Valley Study.
  7. ^ a b c
  8. ^ About Brewster - History. Retrieved on 2006-08-03.
  9. ^ Banff Townsite Area. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-06-13.
  10. ^ Gadd, Benn (1989). Bankhead: The Twenty Year Town. Coal Association of Canada. 
  11. ^ a b c d Waiser, Bill (1995). Park Prisoners, The Untold Story of Western Canada's National Parks, 1915-1946. Fifth House Publishers. 
  12. ^ Scott, Chic (2003). Summits & Icefields: Alpine Ski Tours in the Canadian Rockies. Rocky Mountain Books. 
  13. ^ Yeo, Bill (1990). "Making Banff a Year-Round Park". Winter Sports in the West, Alberta Historical Society.
  14. ^ Hotel History. Fairmont Banff Springs.
  15. ^ Advisory Body Evaluation (pdf). UNESCO (1992). Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  16. ^ Banff National Park Management Plan. Parks Canada (May 2004). Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  17. ^ Banff National Park Management Plan. Parks Canada (2004, May). Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  18. ^ Ketterer, Shirley (2005, August). 2005 Banff Municipal Census. Town of Banff. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  19. ^ Jasper National Park - Did you know?. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-09-01.
  20. ^ Gem Trek Publishing (1999). Map of the Columbia Icefield Area, 2nd edition. 
  21. ^ a b c d Gadd, Ben (1992). Handbook of the Canadian Rockies. Corax Press. 
  22. ^ Baird, D.M. (1977). Banff National Park, How Nature Carved Its Splendor. Hurtig Publishers. 
  23. ^ Langshaw, Rick (1989). Geology of the Canadian Rockies. Summerthought. 
  24. ^ a b c d e Ommanney C.S.L. (2002). "Glaciers of the Canadian Rockies, Professional Paper 1386-J (Glaciers of North America)". U.S. Geological Survey.
  25. ^ Brugman, Melinda M., Paul Raistrick, and Alain Pietroniro (1997). Glacier Related Impacts of Doubling Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentrations on British Columbia and Yukon (pdf). Responding to Global Climate Change in British Columbia and Yukon. British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks.
  26. ^ Scott, D. and Jones, B. (2005). Climate Change & Banff National Park: Implications for Tourism and Recreation (pdf). University of Waterloo.
  27. ^ WWF International. Going, Going, Gone, Climate Change and Global Glacier Decline (pdf). Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  28. ^ a b c d Canadian Climate Normals 1971-2000. Environment Canada. Retrieved on 2006-06-19.
  29. ^ a b Ecoregions of Banff National Park. Parks Canada.
  30. ^ Hebblewhite, Mark, Daniel H. Pletscher, and Paul C. Paquet (2002). "Elk population dynamics in areas with and without predation by recolonizing wolves in Banff National Park, Alberta". Canadian Journal of Zoology 80: 789-799.
  31. ^ a b c Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks. United Nations Environment Programme. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  32. ^ Species at risk - Banff Springs Snail. Environment Canada. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  33. ^ Mountain Pine Beetle Management Guide. Sustainable Resource Development, Government of Alberta (2004, January).
  34. ^ Report on the State of Conservation of Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-06-23.
  35. ^ State of the Park Report: An Assessment of the State of a Place for People. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-06-23.
  36. ^ a b c Page, Robert, Suzanne Bayley, J. Douglas Cook, Jeffrey E. Green, J.R. Brent Ritchie (1996, October). "Banff-Bow Valley: At the Crossroads - Summary Report". Banff-Bow Valley Task Force.
  37. ^ Improvement District No. 9 (Banff) - Alberta Municipal Affairs
  38. ^ Wildlife of Banff National Park. Parks Canada. Retrieved on 2006-07-19.
  39. ^ a b Luxton, Eleanor Georgina (1979). Banff, Canada's First National Park: a history and a memory of Rocky Mountains park. Summerthought.
  40. ^ Paquet, P.C., Gibeau, M.L., Herrero, S., Jorgenson, J., and J. Green. (1994). Wildlife corridors in the Bow River Valley, Alberta: A strategy for maintaining well-distributed, viable populations of wildlife. 
  41. ^ Struzik, Ed. "Wolves losing mountain park turf to humans: Traffic congestion in Jasper and Banff gravely impacting park populations", Edmonton Journal, 2000, March 12, p. A6.
  42. ^ Schindler, David W. (2000). "Aquatic problems caused by human activities in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada". Ambio 29(7): 401-407.
  43. ^ a b Barnett, Vicki. "Native fish stocks drastically down in central Rockies", Calgary Herald, 1996, March 10, p. D1.
  44. ^ Fuller, Patty. "No ray of light for Sunshine Village", Alberta Report, 1994, February 14.
  45. ^ Adams, Jeff. "Twinning Breaks Pledge, Says Expert", Calgary Herald, 1993, April 16, p. B11.
  46. ^ Banff-Bow Valley Study, Technical Report, chapter 1.
  47. ^ Barnett, Vicki. "Stakes are high for resort", Calgary Herald, 1992, July 26, p. A8.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in leap years). ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... July 26 is the 207th day (208th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 158 days remaining. ...

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