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Encyclopedia > Bandura
A Bandura and a Torban, at the Royal College of Music
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A Bandura and a Torban, at the Royal College of Music
Julian Kytasty, plays a prima Chernihiv bandura
Julian Kytasty, plays a prima Chernihiv bandura
"The Experimental Bandura Тrio": Jurij Fedynsky, Julian Kytasty,and Michael Andrec
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"The Experimental Bandura Тrio": Jurij Fedynsky, Julian Kytasty,and Michael Andrec
Ken Bloom, plays a Kharkiv bandura
Ken Bloom, plays a Kharkiv bandura
Yuri Singalevych(Lviv) playing a diatonic bandura c.1930's
Yuri Singalevych(Lviv) playing a diatonic bandura c.1930's

The bandura organologically refers to a Ukrainian and Polish plucked-string instruments of two distinct families: the lute or kobza from medieval times to ca. 1800 ("Barduny" in medieval Polish) and the more modern zither type commonly associated with Ukraine. The term "bandura" can also refer to a number of different ethnic Eastern European regional instruments ranging from a hurdy-gurdy to a guitar. The terms kobza and bandura were at one time used interchancheably, although these terms diverged in the 19th century, and so they do today. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x667, 55 KB)I am the maker/owner of this foto, and I hereby place it in public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (400x667, 55 KB)I am the maker/owner of this foto, and I hereby place it in public domain. ... Image File history File links Kytasty. ... Image File history File links Kytasty. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Band-ex-trio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Band-ex-trio. ... Image File history File links KenBloomKharkivb. ... Image File history File links KenBloomKharkivb. ... Image File history File links Panskabandura. ... Image File history File links Panskabandura. ... The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... Kobza (кобза) is a traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument, similar to a lute. ... Kobza (кобза) is a traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument, similar to a lute. ...


The earliest mention of the "lute-type" bandura, dates back to a Polish chronicle of 1441, which states that the Polish King Sigismund III had a court bandurist known as Taraszko who was Ukrainian in origin and was also the king's companion in chess. The first use of the term kobza dates back to a 1313 Polish chronicle. The existence of lute-like instruments used by the inhabitants of the lands than now constitute Ukraine date back to 591. However, it is not known what specific terms were used for such instruments until the Turkic word Kobza was introduced in the 12th century AD. The term Bandura is thought to have a Latin pedigree (deriving from pandora or pandura). This has meant that some 19th century academics have argued that the instrument came to Ukraine from England or Italy. This is a hotly disputed subject, notwithsanding a few Italian iconographic examples of banduras from ca. 1700 and an ascription of the instrument's invention to Francesco Landini (a blind lutenist-composer from the 13th century). It is known that by the 1700's the instrument had approximately 4-5 stoppable strings strung along the neck (with or without frets) and up to 16 treble strings knowns as prystrunky strung in a diatonic scale across the soundboard. The bandura existed in this form relatively unchanged until the middle of the 19th century, but ca. 1800 the unfrettable (now referred to as "starosvitska") bandura was developed, and this particular type of bandura superceded the frettable type, and became the ancestor of the banduras of our time. The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... Kobza (кобза) is a traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument, similar to a lute. ... Kobza (кобза) is a traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument, similar to a lute. ...


The bandura underwent a rapid change in the 20th century parallelling the development of Ukrainian ethnic awareness. After the death of the blind kobzar Ostap Veresai in 1890 it was thought that the last bandurist had died. In 1902 at the 12th Archeological Conference 6 blind traditional kobzars were found. After 1902 the sanctions introduced by the Russian government in 1876 banning the playing of the instrument on stage were lifted. In 1908 F.Kolessa made wax cylinder recordings of the epic ballads known as dumy which these blind kobzars sang. The recordings were transcribed and published in 1910. After 1902 the bandura became a cause popular among non-blind student youth. Metal strings became standard after 1902 and their number of strings and size of the instrument began to grow. In 1912 metal tuning pegs were introduced. In 1925 chromatic strings were introduced on instruments used by the Kyiv Bandurist Capella. In 1931 the first mechanisms were introduced for the rapid retuning of the instrument. The first Primer for the bandura was published in Lviv by Hnat Khotkevych in 1909. In 1910 the first composition for the bandura was published. In 1918 the first professional bandurist capella was established. In 1926 the first professional tertiary education courses in bandura playing were established in Kharkiv. Bandura playing became extremely popular and by 1928 there were over 900 bandura ensembles in Ukraine. The XIIth Archeological Congress Kharkiv, 1902 In the 1867 a tradition of holding Archeological Conferences known as Congresses was established in the Russian Empire. ... Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv ; Polish: Lwów; Russian: Львов, Lvov; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also Cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. ... Hnat Martynovych Khotkevych (1877-?) Hnat Khotkevych was born in 1877 not far from Kharkiv in the town of Derkachi. ... Kharkiv Gosprom Building Kharkiv (ukr. ...


In the 1930's attempts were made to control this rapid growth with the introduction of various sanctions. By the end of the 1930's many blind itinerant bandurists fell under harsh persecution from the Soviet authorities, many being arrested and most of them either executed or sent to GULAG.


After the death of Joseph Stalin severe persecution of bandurists stopped. Conservatory courses were once again re-established as was the serial manufacture of instruments by instrument factories in Chernihiv and Lviv. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Chernihiv or Chernigov is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the capital of Chernihiv Oblast (province). ... Lviv (Ukrainian: Львів, L’viv ; Polish: Lwów; Russian: Львов, Lvov; German: Lemberg; Latin: Leopolis; see also Cities alternative names) is a city in western Ukraine, the capital city of the Lviv Oblast (province) and one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. ...


Today there are 3 main directions in bandura playing: 1) Authentic-folkloric-reproductive playing on traditional instruments. 2) Academic performance on Kyiv style instruments taught in conservatories. (Primarilly transcriptions of classical music) 3) Fakeloric performance of stylised songs and music on contemporary instruments.


The article about another related Ukrainian lute called torban or teorban discusses these issues in depth: http://www.polyhymnion.org/torban The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ... The torban or teorban is an Eastern European musical instrument that combined features of the Baroque lute with those of the psaltery. ... The torban or teorban is an Eastern European musical instrument that combined features of the Baroque Lute with those of the psaltery. ...


External links

  • [1] TORBAN.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bandura (418 words)
bandura has 32–55 strings: the 8–14 bass strings (bunty) are stretched along the neck, and the 24–43 treble strings (prystrunky) run along the side of the soundboard.
The bandura differs from other lutelike instruments by the presence of the prystrunky, on which the melody is performed (the bunty are used only for accompaniment), and the absence of frets.
bandura steel strings are used, the lower ones being wound with copper, brass, or bronze.
Albert Bandura Biographical Sketch (7080 words)
Young Bandura's elementary and high school years were spent at the one and only school in town, which being woefully short of teachers and resources left learning largely to the students' own initiative.
Bandura's decision to re-label his theoretical approach from social learning to social cognitive was due to his growing belief that the breadth of his theorizing and research had expanded beyond the scope of the social learning label.
Bandura has served psychology in a variety of capacities, and his sense of concern with the uses to which its knowledge is put swells his extracurricular activities.
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