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Encyclopedia > Banco Ambrosiano

Banco Ambrosiano was an Italian bank which collapsed spectacularly in 1982. At the centre of the bank's failure was its chairman, Roberto Calvi and his membership in the illegal masonic lodge Propaganda Due (more commonly known as "P2") involved in Gladio's "strategy of tension" starting from the 1969 Piazza Fontana bombing. Vatican Bank was Banco Ambrosiano's main shareholder, and the death of Pope John Paul I in 1978 is rumoured to be linked to the Ambrosiano scandal, giving one of the subplots of The Godfather Part III. Vatican Bank was also accused of funneling US covert funds to Solidarity and the Contras through Banco Ambrosiano. Roberto Calvi. ... P2 is the common name for the Italian Freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (Italian: Propaganda Two). ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, false flag terrorism actions and even terroristic actions. ... The Piazza Fontana bombing (Italian: ) refers to the terrorist bombing on December 12, 1969 in the offices of Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy, carried out by far-right terrorists. ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ... Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26 to September 28, 1978. ... The Godfather Part III (1990) is the third and final film in the Godfather trilogy written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola, and directed by Coppola. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... The Contras (from the Spanish term La Contra, short for movement of the contrarrevolucionarios) were the armed opponents of Nicaraguas Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction following the July 1979 overthrow of Anastasio Somoza Debayle (which ended the Somoza dynasty), and continuing throughout the following decade. ...

Contents

Members

Roberto Calvi. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Paul Casimir Marcinkus was born on January 15, 1922, in Cicero, Illinois. ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ... For other uses of Nassau, see Nassau (disambiguation). ... Bank of England It may also have supervisory powers to ensure that banks and other financial institutions do not behave recklessly or fraudulently. ...

Before 1981

The Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan in 1896 by Monsignor Giuseppe Tovini, and was named after Saint Ambrose, the fourth century archbishop of the city. Tovini's purpose was to create a Catholic bank as a counter-balance to Italy's "lay" banks, and its goals were "serving moral organisations, pious works, and religious bodies set up for charitable aims." The bank came to be known as the "priests' bank"; one chairman was Franco Ratti, nephew to Pope Pius XI. In the 1960s the bank began to expand its business, opening a holding company in Luxembourg in 1963 which came to be known as Banco Ambrosiano Holding. This was under the direction of Carlo Canesi, then a senior manager, and from 1965 chairman. This article is about the city in Italy. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ...


In 1947 Canesi brought Roberto Calvi into Ambrosiano. In 1971 Calvi became general manager, and in 1975 he was appointed chairman. Calvi expanded Ambrosiano's interests further; these included creating a number of off-shore companies in the Bahamas and South America; a controlling interest in the Banca Cattolica del Veneto; and funds for the publishing house Rizzoli to finance the Corriere della Sera newspaper (giving Calvi control behind the scenes for the benefit of his associates in the P2 masonic lodge). Calvi also involved the Vatican Bank, Istituto per le Opere di Religione, in his dealings, and was close to Bishop Paul Marcinkus, the bank's chairman. Ambrosiano also provided funds for political parties in Italy, and for both the Somoza dictatorship in Nicaragua and its Sandinista opposition. There are also rumours that it provided money for Solidarity in Poland (it has been widely alleged that the Vatican Bank funded Solidarity). Roberto Calvi. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... Corriere della Sera (Evening Mail) is the most important Italian daily newspapers (first in sales [1]), printed in Milan. ... In most areas of the world Masons gather together in Masonic Lodges to work the three degrees of Freemasonry: 1° = Entered Apprentice 2° = Fellow Craft 3° = Master Mason Blue Lodge is used to specify the basic Masonic Lodge granting the first three degrees and to differentiate it from other Masonic... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ... Paul Casimir Marcinkus was born on January 15, 1922, in Cicero, Illinois. ... Somoza was the name of an influential political dynasty in Nicaragua. ... Sandinista! is also the name of a popular music album by The Clash. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny Samorządny Związek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech Wałęsa. ... The Vatican Bank is a common name given to the Istituto per le Opere di Religione (IOR) or Institute for Religious Works, the central bank for the Roman Catholic Church located in Vatican City. ...


Calvi used his complex network of overseas banks and companies to move money out of Italy, to inflate share prices, and to secure massive unsecured loans. In 1978 the Bank of Italy produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster and led to criminal investigations. However, soon afterwards the investigating Milanese magistrate, Emilio Alessandrini, was killed by a left-wing terrorist group, while the Bank of Italy official who superintended the inspection, Mario Sarcinelli, found himself imprisoned on charges that were later dismissed. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Please see: Banca dItalia is the Italian Central Bank. ...


After 1981

In 1981 police raided the office of Propaganda Due masonic lodge Worshipful Master Licio Gelli, and found further evidence against Roberto Calvi. Calvi was imprisoned, put on trial, and sentenced to four years in jail. However, he was released pending an appeal, and he kept his position at the bank. Other alarming developments followed: Carlo De Benedetti of Olivetti bought into the bank and became deputy chairman, only to leave two months later after receiving Mafia threats and lack of co-operation from Calvi. His replacement, a longtime employee named Roberto Rosone, was wounded in a mafia shooting incident. The criminal organization responsible of this shooting was the Banda della Magliana (Magliana Gang) which had taken over Rome's underworld in the late 1970s, and has been related to various political events of the anni di piombo (years of lead). 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In Freemasonry, the head of a Blue Lodge is called the Worshipful Master but only during the time that the lodge is actually in session while addressing him, much as a person would address a judge as your honor while court is in session. ... Licio Gelli (born in Pistoia, Tuscany, April 21, 1919), was the masonic Worshipful Master of the powerful Italian lodge Propaganda Due (P2), involved in Gladios strategy of tension. He has been involved in almost all of the Italian scandals in the past three decades (Tangentopoli, which led to the... Olivetti Lettera 22, 1950 Ing. ... The Mafia (also referred to as Cosa Nostra or the Mob), is a criminal secret society which first developed in the mid-19th century in Sicily. ... The Banda della Magliana was an Italian criminal organization based in Roma, particularly active through-out the late 1970s until the early 1990s. ... After World War II and the overthrow of Mussolinis fascist regime, Italys history was dominated by the Democrazia Cristiana (DC - Christian-Democrats) party for forty years, while the opposition was led by the Italian Communist Party (PCI); this condition endured until the Tangentopoli scandal and operation Mani pulite...


In 1982 it was discovered that the bank could not account for $1.287 billion. Calvi fled the country on a false passport, and Rosone arranged for the Bank of Italy to take over. Calvi's personal secretary, Graziella Corrocher, left a note denouncing Calvi before allegedly jumping from her office window to her death. Calvi himself was found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge in London on June 18. 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Please see: Banca dItalia is the Italian Central Bank. ... Blackfriars Bridge with St Pauls Cathedral behind Blackfriars Bridge viewed from upstream, looking south Blackfriars Bridge, seen from Waterloo Bridge. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ...


During July 1982, funds to the off-shore interests were cut off, leading to their collapse, and in August the bank was replaced by the Nuovo Banco Ambrosiano under Giovanni Bazoli. There was much argument about who should take responsibility for losses incurred by the Old Ambrosiano's off-shore companies, and the Vatican eventually agreed to pay out a substantial sum without accepting liability. Bank of England It may also have supervisory powers to ensure that banks and other financial institutions do not behave recklessly or fraudulently. ...


Clearstream scandal

Further information: Clearstream

Just before the media revealed the Ambrosiano scandal, Gérard Soisson, manager of transaction clearing company Clearstream, was found dead in Corsica, two months after Ernest Backes's dismissal from Clearstream in May 1983. Banco Ambrosiano was one of the many banks to have un-published accounts in Clearstream. Backes, formerly the third highest ranking officer of Clearstream and a primary source for Denis Robert's book on Clearstream's scandal, Revelation$, claims he "was fired because (he) knew too much about the Ambrosiano scandal. When Soisson died, the Ambrosiano affair wasn’t yet known as a scandal. (After it was revealed) I realized that Soisson and I had been at the crossroads. We moved all those transactions known later in the scandal to Lima and other branches. Nobody even knew there was a Banco Ambrosiano branch in Lima and other South American countries.” [1] As of 2005, while the Italian justice has opened up again the investigation concerning the murder of Roberto Calvi, Ambrosiano's chairman, it has asked the support of Ernest Backes, and will investigate Gerard Soisson's death, according to Lucy Komisar. Licio Gelli, headmaster of P2 masonic lodge, and mafioso Giuseppe "Pippo" Calò, are being prosecuted for the assassination of Roberto Calvi. Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Ernest Backes (1946, Trier, Germany) was #3 of compensation chamber Clearstream (formerly Cedel), in charge of relations with clients, and was fired in May 1983. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Denis Robert is a French journalist, author of Revelation$ with Ernest Backes, former #3 of Clearstream. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Lucy Komisar is a New York City-based investigative journalist. ... Giuseppe Pippo Calo (born 1931) is a member of the Sicilian Mafia. ...


Roberto Calvi's 1982 murder

Journalist David Yallop believes that Calvi, with the assistance of P2, may have been responsible for the untimely death of Albino Luciani, who, as Pope John Paul I, was planning a reform of Vatican finances. However, Calvi's family maintain that he was an honest man manipulated by others. Their perspective informs Robert Hutchison's 1997 book Their Kingdom Come: Inside the Secret World of Opus Dei. According to the magistrates who indicated Licio Gelli, P2's headmaster, and Giuseppe Calò for Calvi's murder, Gelli would have ordered his death to punish him for embezzlement of his and the mafia's money, while the mafia wanted to stop him from revealing the way Calvi helped it in money laundering. David Anthony Yallop (born 1937 London) is a British author who writes chiefly about unsolved crimes. ... John Paul I, seen here on the papal throne, is wearing an inexpensive silver pectoral cross, not the standard golden cross worn by Popes and his uncut hair, simply brushed back, was considered unusual but more genuine and modest than the dandy coifs of the other Cardinals. ... Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26 to September 28, 1978. ... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ...


Bibliography

Rupert Cornwell, God's Banker: The Life and Death of Roberto Calvi, Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1984.


David Yallop, In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I, Corgi, 1987


See also

The Banda della Magliana was an Italian criminal organization based in Roma, particularly active through-out the late 1970s until the early 1990s. ... Clearstream Banking S.A. (CB) is the clearing division of Deutsche Börse, based in Luxembourg. ... Licio Gelli (born in Pistoia, Tuscany, April 21, 1919), was the masonic Worshipful Master of the powerful Italian lodge Propaganda Due (P2), involved in Gladios strategy of tension. He has been involved in almost all of the Italian scandals in the past three decades (Tangentopoli, which led to the... P2 is the common name for the Italian Freemasonic lodge Propaganda Due (Italian: Propaganda Two). ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... A strategy of tension (Italian: ) is a way to control and manipulate public opinion using fear, propaganda, disinformation, psychological warfare, agents provocateurs, false flag terrorism actions and even terroristic actions. ... The Piazza Fontana bombing (Italian: ) refers to the terrorist bombing on December 12, 1969 in the offices of Banca Nazionale dellAgricoltura (National Agrarian Bank) in Piazza Fontana, Milan, Italy, carried out by far-right terrorists. ... Roberto Calvi. ...

External links

  • Lucy Komisar about "Revelation$" by Denis Roberts & Ernest Backes
  • Links to several newsarticles about the scandal
  • "Gelli arrest is another chapter in sordid Vatican bank scandal", American Atheists, September 16, 1998. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Banco Ambrosiano - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (913 words)
Banco Ambrosiano (which was closely related to the Vatican Bank) was an Italian bank which collapsed spectacularly in 1982.
The Banco Ambrosiano was founded in Milan in 1896 by Monsignor Giuseppe Tovini, and was named after Saint Ambrose, the fourth century archbishop of the city.
Banco Ambrosiano was one of the many banks to have un-published accounts in Clearstream.
Roberto Calvi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (616 words)
Roberto Calvi (Milan, April 13, 1920 - London, June 17, 1982) (aka Gian Roberto Calvini) was an Italian banker known to the press as "God's Banker", because of his close association with the Vatican.
Calvi was the chairman of one of the country's largest private banks, Banco Ambrosiano, when it went bankrupt in 1982.
In 1978 the Bank of Italy had produced a report on Ambrosiano that predicted future disaster, and which had led to criminal investigations.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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