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Encyclopedia > Baltimore classification

The Baltimore classification is a classification system which groups viruses into families depending on their type of genome (DNA, RNA, single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds) etc.) and their method of replication. Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (Latin, poison) is a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Replication may mean: In biology: Self-replication, when a molecule (or any other pattern) makes a copy of itself DNA replication, the act of copying the genetic material of a cell (DNA) to a daughter cell Semiconservative replication, mechanism of DNA replication Other: replication (computer science), the provision of redundant...

It was created by the American biologist David Baltimore and is the preferred way of classifying viruses today. Other classifications are determined by the type of disease the virus causes (localised, disseminated, persistent, etc.) or its morphology (spherical, dodecahedral, etc.). Neither are particularly satisfactory because very different viruses will sometimes cause the same disease (e.g. hepatitis), and viruses with similar structures will often behave very differently (what's more, the precise structure of viruses is often difficult to determine under the microscope). David Baltimore (born March 7, 1938) is an American biologist and a winner of the 1975 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. ... Comparative anatomy is the study of similarities and differences in organisms. ... Hepatitis is a gastroenterological disease, featuring inflammation of the liver. ...


Classifying viruses according to their genome means that those in a given category will all behave in much the same way, which offers some indication of how to proceed with further research.

Genera Subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae    Simplexvirus    Varicellovirus    Mardivirus    Iltovirus Subfamily Betaherpesvirinae    Cytomegalovirus    Muromegalovirus    Roseolovirus Subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae    Lymphocryptovirus    Rhadinovirus Unassigned    Ictalurivirus The Herpesviridae are a family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals. ... Genera Subfamily Chordopoxvirinae    Orthopoxvirus    Parapoxvirus    Avipoxvirus    Capripoxvirus    Leporipoxvirus    Suipoxvirus    Molluscipoxvirus    Yatapoxvirus Subfamily Entomopoxvirinae    Entomopoxvirus A    Entomopoxvirus B    Entomopoxvirus C Poxviruses (members of the family Poxviridae) can infect as a family both vertebrate and invertebrate animals. ... Genera Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Mastadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ... A papovavirus is a member of the Papovaviridae family of viruses. ... Genera Circovirus Gyrovirus The Circoviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Circovirus; type species: Porcine circovirus Genus Gyrovirus; type species: Chicken anaemia virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Genera Subfamily Parvovirinae    Parvovirus    Erythrovirus    Dependovirus Subfamily Densovirinae    Densovirus    Iteravirus    Brevidensovirus The Parvoviridae family includes the smallest known viruses, and some of the most environmentally resistant. ... Genera Orthoreovirus Orbivirus Rotavirus Coltivirus Aquareovirus Cypovirus Fijivirus Phytoreovirus Oryzavirus The Reoviridae are a family of viruses that includes some viruses that affect the gastrointestinal system (such as Rotavirus), and some that cause respiratory infections. ... Genera Aquabirnavirus Avibirnavirus Entomobirnavirus The viridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Aquabirnavirus; type species: Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus Genus Avibirnavirus; type species: Infectious bursal disease virus Genus Entomobirnavirus; type species: Drosophila X virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Genera Mamastrovirus Avastrovirus The Astroviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Mamastrovirus; type species: Human astrovirus Genus Avastrovirus; type species: Turkey astrovirus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Genera Vesivirus Lagovirus Norovirus Sapovirus The Caliciviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Vesivirus; type species: Swine vesicular exanthema virus Genus Lagovirus; type species: Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Categories: Viruses | Virus stubs ... Genera Coronavirus Torovirus // Introduction Coronaviruses are enveloped, single stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses (27-31kb) with club-shaped surface about 120-160 nm in diameter that resemble a “corona”. Both 5 and 3 ends of the genome have a cap and poly (A) tract respectively. ... Genera Flavivirus Pestivirus Hepacivirus The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that infect mammals. ... Genera Enterovirus Rhinovirus Hepatovirus Cardiovirus Apthovirus Parechovirus Erbovirus Kobuvirus Teschovirus Picornaviruses are viruses that belong to the family Picornaviridae. ... Arterivirus is a genus of virus, with type species Equine arteritis virus. ... Genera Alphavirus Rubivirus The Togaviridae are a family of viruses, including the following genera: Genus Alphavirus; type species: Sindbis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, Onyongnyong virus Genus Rubivirus; type species: Rubella virus The genome of the Togaviridae viruses is a linear... Arenavirus is a genus of virus. ... Genera Influenzavirus A Influenzavirus B Influenzavirus C Isavirus Thogotovirus The Orthomyxoviridae are a family of RNA viruses which infect vertebrates. ... Genera See text Paramyxoviruses are viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family of the Mononegavirales order; they are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses responsible for a number of human and animal diseases. ... Genera Hantavirus Nairovirus Orthobunyavirus Phlebovirus Tospovirus Bunyaviridae is a family of viruses. ... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Genera Alpharetrovirus Betaretrovirus Gammaretrovirus Deltaretrovirus Epsilonretrovirus Lentivirus Spumavirus A retrovirus is a virus which has a genome consisting of two identical plus sense RNA molecules. ... Genera Orthohepadnavirus Avihepadnavirus Hepadnaviruses are the viruses in the family Hepadnaviridae. ...

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