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Encyclopedia > Baltic shield

The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea. It is composed mostly of Archean and Proterozoic gneisses and greenstone which have undergone numerous deformations through tectonic activity. It contains the oldest rocks of the European continent with a thickness of 250-300 km. Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... The terms Fennoscandia and Fenno-Scandinavia are used either to include the Scandinavian peninsula, the Kola peninsula, Karelia, Finland and Denmark under the same term alluding to the Fennoscandian Shield, even if Denmark actually resides on the North European Plain, or they may be used in a more cultural sense... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53 deg. ... The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... In geology, the Proterozoic is an eon prior to the first abundant complex life on earth. ... Banded gneiss with dike of granite orthogneiss Gneiss is a common and widely distributed type of rock formed by high grade regional metamorphic processes from preexisting formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks. ... This article is about zones of mixed sedimentary and volcanic rock sequences that often contain minable concentrations of gold, silver, copper, zinc and lead. ... Plate tectonics (from the Greek word for one who constructs, τεκτων, tekton) is a theory of geology developed to explain the phenomenon of continental drift, and is currently the theory accepted by the vast majority of scientists working in this area. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous land mass. ...

The Baltic Shield is divided into five provinces: the Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian (or Southwestern gneiss) provinces in Fennoscandia, and the Karelian, Belmorian and Kola provinces in Russia. The latter three are divided further into several blocks and complexes and contain the oldest of the rocks, at 2500-3100 Ma (million years) old. The youngest rocks belong to the Sveconorwegian province, at 900-1700 Ma old. Sometimes included as part of the Baltic Shield is the East European Platform (or Russian Platform), an area of western Russia covered by 3 km of sedimentary rock. Annum is a Latin term meaning year. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...

Thought to be formerly part of an ancient continent, the Baltic Shield grew in size through collisions with neighbouring crustal fragments. The mountains created by this tectonic processes have since been eroded to their bases, the region being largely flat today. Through five successive Pleistocene glaciations and subsequent retreats, the Baltic Shield has been scoured clean of its overlying sediments, leaving expansive areas (most within Scandinavia) exposed. It is therefore of importance to geophysicists studying the geologic history and dynamics of eastern Europe. The Pleistocene Epoch is part of the geologic timescale. ... Glaciation, often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... Geophysics, the study of the earth by quantitative physical methods, especially by seismic reflection and refraction, gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radioactivity methods. ...

The scouring and compression of the Baltic Shield by glacial movements created the area's many lakes and streams, the land retaining only a thin layer of sandy sediment collected in depressions: Vast forests of pine dominate, clearly demarcating its boundaries. A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ...

The Baltic Shield yields important industrial minerals and ores, such as those of iron, nickel, copper and platinum group metals. Because of its similarity to the Canadian Shield and cratons of southern Africa and Western Australia, the Baltic Shield had long been a suspected source of diamonds and gold. Currently, especially the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt in the north is considered to be an unexplored area that has the potential to hold exploitable gold deposits. This article is about minerals in the geologic sense; for nutrient minerals see dietary mineral; for the band see Mineral (band). ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a mineral deposit containing a metal or other valuable resource in economically viable concentrations. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d Appearance lustrous, metallic Atomic mass 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... The platinum group or platinum family is a group of six metal elements with similar physical and chemical properties. ... Canadian Shield The Canadian Shield is a large craton in eastern and central Canada and adjacent portions of the United States, composed of bare rock dating to the Precambrian Era (between 4. ... A craton is an old and stable part of the continental crust that has survived the merging and splitting of continents and supercontinents for at least 500 million years. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ... A scattering of round-brilliant cut diamonds shows off the many reflecting facets. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... The Central Lapland Greenstone Belt (CLGB) is located in the northern part of the Fennoscandian Shield. ...

Recent exploration by De Beers and others has revealed a significant number of diamond-bearing kimberlites in the Kola Peninsula, and (possibly extensive) deposits of gold in Finland. In Sweden, Alcaston Diamond NL is presently conducting a diamond exploration project, claiming some 9,550 square kilometres. The De Beers Group is a Johannesburg- and London-based diamond mining and trading corporation. ... Hewn kimberlite core sample from the James Bay Lowlands region of Northern Ontario, Canada. ... The Kola Peninsula in relation to Scandinavia, the White Sea, Barents Sea, Lake Onega, Lake Ladoga, and foreign countries. ...

See also

The Kola Superdeep Borehole (KSDB) is a Russian-funded project to drill into the Earths crust. ... The Finnish nickel deposits were found in the Petsamo area at Barents Sea, which until the Paris Peace Treaty was the northernmost part of Finland. ... The Swedish iron ore was an important theme in the World War II debate. ...

External links

  Results from FactBites:
Finland encyclopedia : Cultural Information , Maps, Finland politics and officials, Finland History. Travel to Finland (2359 words)
The Baltic Shield is defined as the "exposed" Precambrian northwest segment of the East European Craton.
The Baltic Shield is divided into five provinces: the Svecofennian and Sveconorwegian (or Southwestern gneiss) provinces in Fennoscandia, and the Karelian, Belmorian and Kola provinces/cratons in Russia.
There is considerable misunderstanding in the literature with the use of the term "Baltic Shield." A shield in any craton is the area of exposed crystalline crust while the other part of a craton is a “platform” where the crystalline crust or basement is overlaid by younger sedimentary cover.
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Baltic (746 words)
Baltic states the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.
Baltic provinces historic regions of Courland, Livonia, Estonia, and Ingermanland bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea.
It borders on Germany in the west, on the Baltic Sea and the Kaliningrad region of Russia in the north, on Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine in the east, and on the Czech
  More results at FactBites »



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