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Encyclopedia > Baltic States
The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.

The Baltic states refer to Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, all of which were controlled by the Soviet Union during 19401941 and 1944/19451991. From a linguistic standpoint, only the Latvians and the Lithuanians are "Baltic" peoples properly speaking, as the Estonians speak an unrelated Finnic language. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have been members of the European Union and NATO since 2004. Today the three countries are liberal democracies and their market economies have in recent years undergone rapid expansion. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x929, 128 KB) Found in http://en. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x929, 128 KB) Found in http://en. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... Baltic-Finnic languages are a subgroup of Finno-Ugric languages, spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 6 million people. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


In the Cold War context, the three countries were considered a part of Eastern Europe and were generally treated as a cohesive cultural and historical entity. However, today it is often stressed that Latvia, Lithuania, and particularly Estonia have little else in common other than geographic proximity, similar small size, and a shared history of Soviet occupation. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ...


Culturally and historically, it is more appropriate to view Estonia, which is Lutheran and Finnic-speaking, as belonging in the Northern European cultural sphere. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves a Nordic people rather than Balts,[1][2] because of strong cultural, historical and linguistic ties with the Nordic countries. Since regaining independence, Estonia has shown a strong desire to identify itself as Nordic, as expressed in a speech by former foreign minister and current president Toomas Hendrik Ilves entitled, "Estonia as a Nordic Country".[3] Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which follows the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmɑs hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is an Estonian politician. ...


To a lesser degree, northern parts of Latvia have also been influenced by Lutheran and Northern European traditions. The rest of the country, in particular the southeast, along with its southern neighbor, Lithuania, are predominantly Catholic and culturally situated in Central Europe. In Lithuania and most of Latvia, the historical impact of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Russian Empire, and the German Empire have been of crucial importance. In Estonia and northern parts of Latvia, historical connections to the Teutonic Order, to the Hanseatic League, and to the Swedish and Danish Empires have left an important historical imprint. Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Denmark-Norways possessions c. ...


It should be noted that although politically the present-day Baltic countries are republics, the term "Baltic republics" often refers to something different: the constituent Baltic republics of the Soviet Union. They are occasionally confused with the Balkan states because of their similar sounding name, but are similar in name only. in particular, for the archaizing senses of republic, as a translation of politeia or res publica Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on consent of the governed... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

History of the Baltic states

See also: Baltic Republics

The histories of today's Baltic countries took a first "common turn" in the 13th century when Christianity and feudalism were effectively forced upon the region by the invasion of the crusaders from the west (German Sword Brethren, Denmark) and the conversion of Lithuania's rulers from Paganism to Christianity. Over the subsequent centuries, these lands became a battlefield between the Teutonic Order, the Hanseatic League, Poland, Denmark, Sweden, Muscovy, and other Russian principalities. However, Lithuania became the only of the current three to establish its own state as the Grand Duchy of Lithuania some time before 1252. It later was a major political power of the region. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


By about 1582, almost the whole territory of the Baltic states (other than northern Estonia) was under the overlordship of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Baltic provinces (Curonia, Livonia, Estonia and Ingria) and Lithuania in the 19th century, albeit with names and borders different from the present-day countries, were part of the Russian Empire. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... Ingria may be seen represented in the easternmost part of the Carta Marina (1539) Ingria (Finnish: , Russian: , Swedish: , Estonian: ) is a historical region, now situated mostly in Russia, comprising the area along the basin of the river Neva, between the Gulf of Finland, the Narva River, Lake Peipsi in the...


Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania became sovereign nations in the aftermath of World War I. They declared independence in 1918, fought independence wars against German Freikorps and Bolshevist Russia, and were recognized as independent countries in 1920. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Independence war can refer to: A war of independence of a country. ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps, i. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Prior to World War II, Finland may have occasionally been considered a fourth Baltic state. For example, in the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Finland was acknowledged by Nazi Germany as a Baltic state designated into the Soviet "sphere of interest". Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Following the Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939, the Soviet Army entered eastern Poland as well as military bases in the Baltic states which were granted after USSR had threatened the three countries with military invasion. In June 1940, the Red Army occupied the whole territory of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and installed new, pro-Soviet governments in all three countries. Following rigged elections, in which only pro-communist candidates were allowed to run, the newly "elected" parliaments of the three countries formally applied to "join" the USSR in August 1940 and were annexed into it as the Estonian SSR, the Latvian SSR, and the Lithuanian SSR. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Lithuanian: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Vilnius Official language None. ...


The Soviet control of the Baltic states was interrupted by Nazi German invasion of the region in 1941. The German occupation lasted until late 1944 (in Courland, until early 1945), when the countries were re-occupied by the Red Army. In all three countries, Baltic partisans, known colloquially as the Forest Brothers, waged unsuccessful guerrilla warfare against the Soviet occupation for the next eight years in a bid to regain their nations' independence. National Socialism redirects here. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Look up partisan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of...


The concept of the "Baltic states" can be said to have been physically realized on August 23, 1989, when approximately two million people joined their hands to form a 600-kilometer human chain across the three countries in the event known as the Baltic Way. is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Human chain formed in Lithuania The STEBUKLAS stone in Vilnius Cathedral Square, in the place where, according to an urban legend, the Baltic Way started Baltic Way (also Baltic chain, Estonian: Balti kett, Latvian: Baltijas ceļš, Lithuanian: Baltijos kelias) is the event which occurred on August 23, 1989 when approximately...


The three Baltic nations re-declared their independence between 1990 and 1991, and their independence was recognized by the Soviet Union on September 6, 1991. An integration with Western Europe was chosen as the main strategic goal. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ...


Rather than new states, each of the three declared itself to be the restoration of the sovereign nations which existed already in 1918–1940, thus further emphasizing their contention (adhered to worldwide, but contested by some Russian governments) that Soviet domination over the Baltic nations during the Cold War period had been an illegal occupation and annexation. This does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In 2002 the Baltic nations applied to become members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the European Union (EU). Membership of NATO was duly achieved on March 29, 2004, and accession to the EU took place on May 1, 2004. Also see: 2002 (number). ... March 29 is the 88th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (89th in leap years). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Language and culture in the Baltic states

Despite the three nations' similar history, their languages belong to two distinct language families. The Latvian and Lithuanian languages make up the group of Baltic languages which belongs to the Indo-European language family.[4] The Estonian language, on the other hand, is not an Indo-European language and instead belongs to the Baltic-Finnic subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, sharing close ethnic and historical ties with the Finnish language and people. The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... Approximate geographical distribution of areas where indigenous Finno-Ugric languages are spoken. ... Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (91. ...


The peoples of the Baltic countries also belong to different Christian denominations. Believers in Estonia are mostly Lutheran; Latvia has strong Lutheran as well as Catholic communities; while Lithuania is principally Catholic. Moreover, Russian minorities in these countries are predominantly Orthodox. The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Due to a long period of Germanic domination, starting in the Middle Ages, the German language also has an important role in Latvia and Estonia. Its role diminished greatly after World War II when the Baltic states were forcefully absorbed into the Soviet Union, but it remains one of three main foreign languages taught in schools (the other two being English and Russian).[5] The Baltic states have historically also been in the Swedish and Russian spheres of influence. Following the period of Soviet domination, ethnic Russian immigrants from former USSR and their descendants today make up a sizable minority in the Baltic states, particularly in Latvia (about one-third of the population) and Estonia (one-fourth of the population). German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Baltic Russians are ethnic Russians who live in the Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ...


Statistics

The largest cities in the Baltic states, by population, are:

The largest cities in the Baltic states, by population of Baltic peoples (Lithuanians, Latvians, and Estonians), are: Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Å iauliai County Municipality Å iauliai city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 2 Coordinates General information Capital of Å iauliai County Å iauliai city municipality Å iauliai district municipality Population (rank) 129,075 in 2005 (4th) First mentioned 1236 Granted city rights 1589 Å iauliai ( (help· info), approximate English transcription: , is... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Panevėžys County Municipality Panevėžys city municipality Coordinates General Information Capital of Panevėžys County Panevėžys city municipality Panevėžys district municipality Panevėžys rural elderate Population 115,604 in 2005 (5th) First mentioned 1503 Granted city rights 1837 Panevėžys ( (help... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Daugavpils (Belarusian Дзьвінск Dźvinsk, Russian Двинcк Dvinsk, Lithuanian Daugpilis, German Dünaburg, Polish Dźwinów, DźwiÅ„sk or Dyneburg, Yiddish דענענבורג Denenburg), population 115,265 in 2000 census) is the second largest city in Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Liepāja Liepāja (German: Libau, Lithuanian: Liepoja, Polish: Lipawa, Russian: Либава / Libava or Лиепая / Liyepaya, Yiddish: ליבאַװע / Libave) is a city in western Latvia on the Baltic sea. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... Coordinates: Founded 1201 Government  - Mayor Jānis Birks Area  - City 307. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Samogitia County Å iauliai County Municipality Å iauliai city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 2 Coordinates General information Capital of Å iauliai County Å iauliai city municipality Å iauliai district municipality Population (rank) 129,075 in 2005 (4th) First mentioned 1236 Granted city rights 1589 Å iauliai ( (help· info), approximate English transcription: , is... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Panevėžys County Municipality Panevėžys city municipality Coordinates General Information Capital of Panevėžys County Panevėžys city municipality Panevėžys district municipality Panevėžys rural elderate Population 115,604 in 2005 (5th) First mentioned 1503 Granted city rights 1837 Panevėžys ( (help... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Alytus (approximate English transcription [ÊŒ.lıː.ˈtus], simplified Lithuanian transcription [alÄ«tus]; Polish: Olita) is the capital of Alytus County, Lithuania, with 70,000 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... Location Ethnographic region Sudovia County MarijampolÄ— County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 3 General Information Capital of MarijampolÄ— County MarijampolÄ— municipality Population 48,675 in 2001 (7th) First mentioned 1667 Granted city rights 1792 MarijampolÄ— ( (help· info)) is an industrial town and the capital of the MarijampolÄ— County...

See also

http://www. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Baltic Russians are ethnic Russians who live in the Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Baltic States. ... Human chain formed in Lithuania The STEBUKLAS stone in Vilnius Cathedral Square, in the place where, according to an urban legend, the Baltic Way started Baltic Way (also Baltic chain, Estonian: Balti kett, Latvian: Baltijas ceļš, Lithuanian: Baltijos kelias) is the event which occurred on August 23, 1989 when approximately... A glass skyscraper – an icon of Estonias economic boom Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continues up to the present moment. ... This term is generally used for the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) in the first phases of World War II. // History of the occupation Before the beginning of World War II Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed an ostensible non-aggression treaty known as... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia...

References and notes

  1. ^ Estonian foreign ministry publication, 2004.
  2. ^ Estonian foreign ministry publication, 2002.
  3. ^ "Estonia as a Nordic Country" Speech by Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs, 14 December 1999.
  4. ^ Along with the defunct Old Prussian language, Latvian and Lithuanian can be linked to the Balto-Slavic group of the Indo-European languages. The student of both Slavic and Latvian or Lithuanian languages will find numerous common roots.
  5. ^ During the period of Soviet control, Russian became the most commonly studied foreign language at all levels of schooling, but knowledge of German remained fairly common among the older generations. After the Baltic states achieved independence in 1991, while German made a comeback as a language of study it was English that became the most commonly studied foreign language, and the role of Russian language in education fell sharply.

is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar). ... Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language, once spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to the German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... The Balto-Slavic language group is a reconstructed hypothethical language group consisting of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...

Journals and book series

International peer-reviewed journals and book series dedicated to the Baltic region include:

  • On the Boundary of Two Worlds: Identity, Freedom, and Moral Imagination in the Baltics (book series)
  • Journal of Baltic Studies, journal of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies (AABS)
  • Lituanus, journal dedicated to Lithuanian and Baltic art, history, language, literature and related cultural topics

The Journal of Baltic Studies, the official journal of the Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies (AABS), is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary academic journal founded in 1970 and published quarterly by Routledge, dedicated to the political, social, economic, and cultural life of the Baltic region and its history. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Baltic States (6006 words)
German for the territory of the Baltic states and historical East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия —; Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia.
It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on...
Baltic states have historically also been in the Swedish (svenska) is a language spoken principally in Sweden, Finland (Finland-Swedish, Swedish: finlandssvenska), Åland and in the coastland of Estonia Swedish is classified as a member of the East section of the Scandinavian languages, a sub-group of the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family.
Baltic countries - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1378 words)
The term "state" is used as a synonym of "sovereign country", which is distinct from non-sovereign states (the kind to be found in federations and confederations).
The histories of today's Baltic countries took a first "common turn" in the 13th century when Christianity and feudalism were effectively introduced to the region by the invasion of the crusaders from the west (German Sword Brethren, Denmark) and the conversion of Lithuania's rulers from Paganism to Christianity.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, the Baltic provinces (Curonia, Livonia, Estonia and Ingria) and Lithuania in the 19th century, albeit with names and borders different from the present-day countries, were part of the Russian Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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