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Encyclopedia > Baltic German

The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainlands of Northern Europe, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, and the Danish islands. ...

Contents


Territories

In Baltic German settlement patterns, the Baltic area consisted of the following territories:

  • Estland (Latin: Estonia), roughly the northern half of present-day Estonia; major towns: Reval (Tallinn), Narwa (Narva).
  • Livland (Latin: Livonia), roughly the southern half of present-day Estonia and the northern half of today's Latvia; major towns: Riga, Dorpat (Tartu).
  • Kurland (Latin: Couronia, also English: Courland), roughly the southern half of present-day Latvia; major towns: Mitau (Jelgava), Windau (Ventspils), Libau (Liepāja).
  • the island of Ösel (Saaremaa) present-day Estonia; major town: Arensburg (Kuressaare).

Occasionally, ethnic Germans from East Prussia are considered Baltic German for reasons of cultural, linguistic, and historical affinities. In contrast, the Old Prussians were of Baltic, not Germanic, stock. ... Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... County Harju County Mayor Tõnis Palts Area 159. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... This article is about the region in Europe. ... Riga (RÄ«ga in Latvian), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′ N 24°8′ E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... Courland, Kurland, Couronia, or Curonia, a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Jelgava (German: Mitau; Russian: Елгава / Митава; Polish: Mitawa) is a town in central Latvia about 41 km southwest of Riga with approximately 66,000 inhabitants. ... Ventspils is a city in northwestern Latvia, on the coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Liepāja (Lithuanian Liepoja, Polish Lipawa, German Libau, Russian Либава Libava or Лиепая Liyepaya, Yiddish ליבאַװע Libave; population 89,448 in 2000 census) is a city in Latvia, on the Baltic sea. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Saaremaa (Swedish, German Ösel, or Oesel, Latin Osilia) is the largest island (2673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... County Saare County Mayor Urmas Treiel Area 14. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ...


History

Middle Ages

Ethnic proto-Germans began to settle in the Baltic region in the 12th century when traders and missionaries began to visit the coastal lands inhabited by tribes who spoke Finnic and Baltic languages. Systematic settlement as the dominating class by the first "Baltic Germans" dates from 1199, when Albert von Buxhoeveden from Bremen became the first Bishop of Livonia. Two years later he founded Riga and the crusading Order of the Sword Brothers (Livonian Order) to protect the mission against the local heathens; the knights quickly began to administer the territory instead of turning the land over to the bishop. The Sword Brothers became part of the Teutonic Order in 1236. For 200 years, the knights on the shores of the eastern Baltic had support from the Holy Roman Empire. Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... The Baltic Sea The Baltic region (sometimes briefly The Baltics) is an ambiguous term used to denominate an arbitrary region connected to the Baltic Sea (also called The Baltics). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Finnic (Fennic, sometimes Baltic Finnic) may refer to Finnish-similar languages spoken close to the Gulf of Finland, i. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti, Lithuanian: baltai), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ... The career of Albert of Buxhoeveden (ca 1165 - Riga, January 17, 1229) and his brother Hermann exemplify the double nature of power, ecclesiastical and secular, especially on the marches of Europe, where Roman Catholicism was pushing aggressively to the East. ... Bremen lies in North Germany 50km South of the North Sea. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... The Northern Crusades, or Baltic Crusades, were undertaken by Western Europeans against the still heathen people of North Eastern Europe around the Baltic Sea. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... Heathen is a term used both to describe a person who does not follow an organized religion, and also a modern practitioner of Heathenry. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ...


As the Teutonic Knights were weakened during the 15th century through wars with Poland and Lithuania, the Livonian branch in the north began to pursue its own policies. When the Prussian branch of the Order secularized in 1525 and became the Duchy of Prussia, the Livonian Order remained independent, although surrounded by aggressive neighbors. In 1558 Russia's invasion of Livonia began the Livonian War between Russia, Poland, Sweden, and Denmark which lasted for 20 years. In course of the war, the state was divided between Denmark (which took Ösel), Sweden (which took Estland), Poland (which took Livland), and the Protestant state of Courland, a fief of Poland. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... Events January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Reformation

The Baltic provinces, like many other German-led states, became Protestant during the Reformation, and the secularized land was split up among the remaining aristocratic knights. // History and origins Roots and precursors 14th Century and 15th Century Anti-hierarchical movements: Catharism, Waldensianism, and others Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity of the Church), Avignon, Great Schism Jan Hus, John Wycliffe, William Tyndale Northern Renaissance Unrest in the Western Church and Empire culminated in the Avignon Papacy (1308 - 1378... The Ancient Greek term aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ...


Kurland existed as a German-speaking country for over 200 years, while Livland was once again split. Sweden controlled Estland between 1561 and 1710 and Livland between 1621 and 1710, having signed an agreement to not undermine German Baltic autonomy. The German-language University of Dorpat (University of Tartu), the foundation of which was supported by King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden (himself a native German-speaker), remained the only one in the Baltic region for centuries and became the intellectual focus of the Baltic Germans, both nobles and intellectuals. // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 4 - Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (d. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 4 - Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (d. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool, German: Universität Dorpat) is the national university of Estonia, and the one classical university in Estonia, located in the city of Tartu. ... Gustav II Adolf (also known as Gustaf Adolf den store or Gustavus II Adolpus) (December 9, 1594 – November 6, 1632 O.S.), widely known by the Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus and referred to by Protestants as the Lion of the North, was King of Sweden from 1611 until his...


Russian control

Between 1710 and 1795, following Russia's success in the Great Northern War and the Partitions of Poland, the three Baltic states became provinces of Imperial Russia. // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 4 - Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (d. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia, Denmark-Norway and Saxony-Poland (from 1715 also Prussia and Hanover) on one side and Sweden on the other side from 1700 to 1721. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski, Lithuanian Padalijimas) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article is about political regions. ... Big Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire, adopted in 1882 Central element from the Coat of Arms of the Russian Empire Flag of Russian Empire Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion...


However, the Baltic provinces remained dominated and self-governed by the local German-speaking aristocracy. This Ritterschaft was based on the former knights but also included immigrants from the German principalities to the west. Most of the professional classes in the region, the literati, were German-speakers. Government, however, was in the hands of the Ritterschaft of each province, in which only members of the matriculated nobility held membership. Autonomy was guaranteed by the various rulers, especially during Russian times. Germans, other than the estate-owners, mainly settled in the cities, such as Riga, Reval (Tallinn), Dorpat (Tartu), and Pernau (Pärnu); as late as the mid-19th century the population of many of these municipalities still had a German majority with an Estonian or Latvian minority. The Ancient Greek term aristocracy meant a system of government with rule by the best. This is the first definition given in most dictionaries. ... An intellectual is a person who uses his or her intellect to study, reflect, and speculate on a variety of different ideas. ... Matriculated is a short film set in the world of The Matrix and part of The Animatrix collection. ... // English Title of Nobility (footnotes at bottom of entry) From the beginning, English law hardly knew anything of a noble or a gentle class. ... Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Riga (RÄ«ga in Latvian), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′ N 24°8′ E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial... County Harju County Mayor Tõnis Palts Area 159. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... The city of Pärnu is located within the county of Pärnu. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The indigenous people of the Baltic region enjoyed fewer rights under the Baltic German nobility compared to their brethren in Germany, Sweden or even Poland; and until serfdom was officially abolished in the Baltic provinces in the beginning of 19th century, their fate resemble that of the serfs in Russia proper. Harsh treatment resulted in uprisings which were brutally suppressed. The situation in the cities was in some cases better. The word indigenous is an adjective derived from the Latin word indigena, meaning native, belonging to, aboriginal; and has several applications: Indigenous peoples, communities and cultures native or indigenous to a territory; Indigenous (band), the Native American blues-rock band; In biology, indigenous means native to a place or biota... // English Title of Nobility (footnotes at bottom of entry) From the beginning, English law hardly knew anything of a noble or a gentle class. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ...


German cultural autonomy ceased in the 1880s, when Russification replaced German administration and schooling with the usage of the Russian language. The Revolution of 1905 led to attacks against the Germans, the burning of manors, and the killing and torture of members of the nobility, if usually not by the local inhabitants but by outside revolutionary bands. Owing to their German heritage, during World War I Baltic Germans were seen as the enemy by Russians, yet also as traitors by the German Empire if they remained loyal to Russia. As a result of the Russian Revolution and the subsequent Russian Civil War, many Baltic Germans fled to Weimar Germany. // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Russification is adoption of the Russian language or some other real or supposed Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Russian (Russian: русский язык, russkij jazyk,   listen[?]) is the most widely spoken language of Europe and the most widespread of the Slavic languages. ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... Bayview Secondary School ROXS! The term German Empire commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic (in German Weimarer Republik). It is named after the city of Weimar, where a national assembly convened to produce a new constitution after the German monarchy was abolished following the nations defeat in World...


Post WWI

When the Republics of Estonia and Latvia were founded in 1918-19, the Baltic German estate owners were largely expropriated in a land reform, although the Germans were given considerable cultural autonomy. 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Land reform (also agrarian reform although that can have a broader meaning) is the government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of — i. ...


Estonia's Baltic German population was smaller, so as Estonians continued to fill professional positions such as law and medicine, there was less of a leadership role for the Baltic Germans. Many Baltic Germans began to leave during the interwar era. No precise numbers are available for the emigration during this period.


In Latvia, Baltic Germans were the most politically active and organized ethnic group, although they lost some influence after Karlis Ulmanis' coup in 1934. As a result of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union (1939), Estonia and Latvia were "restored" to Russian control; the remaining Baltic Germans were evacuated and resettled into the Warthegau and other areas that were parts of occupied Poland. . Kārlis Ulmanis (b. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Molotov (lower left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin (far right) The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Ribbentrop-Molotov pact or Nazi-Soviet pact and formally known as the Treaty of Nonaggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was in theory a... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen) was the name given by Nazis to the territory of Greater Poland which was occupied, annexed and directly incorporated into the German Reich after defeating the Polish army in 1939 (as opposed to the General Government, GG). ...


Some 21,400 Baltic Germans were resettled from Estonia to Germany in late 1939. Close to 50,000 were resettled from Latvia by late 1939.


The Soviet advance into Poland and East Prussia in 1945 resulted in their having to trek to the West. Many Baltic Germans were onboard the KdF Ship Wilhelm Gustloff when it was sunk by a Soviet submarine on January 30, 1945 in the worst loss of life from a single vessel in maritime history. Additional Baltic Germans died during the sinking of the SS General von Steuben on February 10, 1945. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Wilhelm Gustloff was a ship built by Blohm + Voss and named after the assassinated leader of the Nazi party in Switzerland, Wilhelm Gustloff. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The SS General von Steuben (formerly called the München (after Munich), but renamed in 1938) was a German luxurious passenger ship which was turned into an armored transport ship in World War II. The 14,600-ton liner set sail from Pillau in the bay of Danzig on February... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


When Estonia declared independence from the Soviet Union on August 20, 1991, the exiled association of the German Baltic nobility sent an official message to the president-to-be Lennart Meri that no member of the association would claim proprietary rights to their former Estonian lands. This, and the fact that the first German ambassadors to Estonia and Latvia were both Baltic Germans, helped reconcile the two peoples. August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lennart Georg Meri (born March 29, 1929), is a writer and politician who served as president of Estonia from 1992 to 2001. ...


Notable Baltic Germans

Baltic Germans played leading roles in Baltic society, with many of them becoming noted scientists or explorers. A number of Baltic Germans served as ranking generals in the Russian Imperial army. Many served with the Whites during the Russian Civil War or sided with the Nazis during World War II. The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1922. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atom bomb World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a mid-20th-century conflict that engulfed much of the...

Karl Ernst von Baer (February 17, 1792 - November 26, 1876) was a Baltic German biologist and a founding father of embryology. ... Georg Dehio (November 22, 1850 in Reval (Tallinn) - March 21, 1932 in Tübingen), German historian of art. ... Johann Friedrich von Eschscholtz (1 November 1793 – May 1831) was an eminent botanist, physician and naturalist. ... Otto von Kotzebue ( December 30, 1787 - February 15, 1846), was a Russian navigator. ... Adam Johann Ritter von Krusenstern (born November 19, 1770 in Hagudi, Estonia, died August 24, 1846 in Reval (Tallinn), Estonia) was the Russian admiral and explorer who in 1803-1806 led the first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth. ... Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz (February 12, 1804 - February 10, 1865) was a Baltic German physicist most famous for formulating Lenzs law in 1833. ... Alexander von Oettingen (1827 - 1905), Baltic German Lutheran theologian and statistician. ... Wilhelm Ostwald Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald (commonly just Wilhelm Ostwald) (September 2, 1853 - April 4, 1932) was a German chemist. ... Johann Reinhold Patkul (1660-1707), a Livonian politician and agitator of Baltic German extraction, was born in prison at Stockholm, where his father lay under suspicion of treason. ... Wolter von Plettenberg (or Walter von Plettenberg) was the Master of Livonian Order 1494–1535 was one of the greatest leaders of Livonian knights. ... Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian: Георг Вильгельм Рихман) (July 22, 1711 (old style: July 11, 1711) – August 6, 1753 (old style: July 26, 1753)) was a Russian physicist. ... Alfred Rosenberg in 1933 Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893–October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Roman Fyodorovich Ungern von Sternberg, ca 1919 Baron Roman Nicolaus Fyodorovich von Ungern-Sternberg (Russian Роман Фёдорович Унгерн фон Штернберг) (January 22, 1886, new style — September 15, 1921) a. ... Author Gero von Wilpert was born in 1933 in Tartu (Dorpat), Estonia. ... Wrangel, Ferdinand Petrovich (Врангель, Фердинанд Петрович in Russian) (12. ... Baron Wrangel Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel (Врангель, Пётр Николаевич in Russian) (August 15, 1878, Zarasai, Lithuania (then Imperial Russia) — April 25, 1928, Brussels, Belgium), was the one of the leaders of the White movement in Southern Russia, Lieutenant General (1917). ...

See Also

Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Map Kurland, Courland, Couronia, Curonia, or Kurzeme is a former Baltic province of the Teutonic Order state in Livonia (ca. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Liflandiya) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day Latvia and... The Livonian Confederation was a loosely organized alliance in present-day Estonia and Latvia that existed from 1228 to 1560s. ... The German minority in Russia and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves. ...

External link


  Results from FactBites:
 
Baltic German - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1265 words)
The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia.
Germans, other than the estate-owners, mainly settled in the cities, such as Riga, Reval (Tallinn), Dorpat (Tartu), and Pernau (Pärnu); as late as the mid-19th century the population of many of these municipalities still had a German majority with an Estonian or Latvian minority.
The indigenous people of the Baltic region enjoyed fewer rights under the Baltic German nobility compared to their brethren in Germany, Sweden or even Poland; and until serfdom was officially abolished in the Baltic provinces in the beginning of 19th century, their fate resemble that of the serfs in Russia proper.
Estonian Institute www.einst.ee (2982 words)
A characteristic trait of this epoch was the impact of the Enlightenment and German Romanticism on Baltic German intellectuals.
Rising national and cultural enthusiasm among the Baltic Germans was interrupted with the outbreak of World War I. Although almost all Baltic Germans of military age served as Russian officers, the Russian authorities became increasingly suspicious of possible collaboration between Baltic Germans and the enemy.
An autonomous Baltic German state consisting of the three provinces in union with Prussia or the dukedom of Mecklenburg was proposed, but the German authorities were divided and no formal ties were established before the defeat of Germany in November 1918.
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