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Encyclopedia > Balochistan (region)
Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. The Baloch are shown in pink.
Major ethnic groups in Pakistan and surrounding areas, in 1980. The Baloch are shown in pink.

Balochistan or Baluchistan is an arid region located in the Iranian Plateau in Southwest Asia and South Asia, between Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan. The area is named after the numerous Baloch (or Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush) tribes, an Iranian people, who moved into the area from the west around A.D. 1000. All natives are considered Balochi even if they do not speak Balochi; Pashto, Persian, and Brahui languages are also spoken in the region. The southern part of Balochistan is known as Makran. Balochistan or Baluchistan may refer to: Balochistan (region), a large region covering southwest Pakistan, southwest Afghanistan and southeast Iran Balochistan (Iran), part of the Iranian Sistan and Baluchestan Province Balochistan (Pakistan) a province of Pakistan Balochistan (Afghanistan), Southern centre and southern west of Afghanistan Baluchistan was divided into three main... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 625 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,014 × 972 pixels, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 625 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,014 × 972 pixels, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... Balochi (also Baluchi, Baloci or Baluci) is a Northwestern Iranian language. ... Pashto (‎, IPA: , also rendered as Pakhto, Pushto, Pukhto ‎, Pashtoe, Pashtu, Pushtu, Pathani or Pushtoo and also known as Afghan language[4][5]) is an Iranian language spoken by Pashtuns living in Afghanistan and Pakistan[6]. // Geographic distribution of Pashto (purple) and other Iranian languages Pashto is spoken by about 30... Farsi redirects here. ... The Brahui (بروہی) or Bravi (براوِ) language, spoken by the Brahui, is mainly spoken in Balochistan, Pakistan, although it is also spoken in Afghanistan and Iran. ... Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ...

Contents

Landscape

Balochistan's landscape is composed of barren, rugged mountains and fertile land. During the summer, some regions of Balochistan are the hottest in Pakistan. Most of the land is barren, and it is generally sparsely populated. In the south – the Makran – lies the desert through which Alexander the Great passed with great difficulty. Makran is the southern region of Balochistan, in Iran and Pakistan along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ...


History

The original inhabitants of ancient Baluchistan, were the aborigine tribes speaking languages related to Munda languages.[citation needed] The Dravidians are thought to have migrated from the Iranian plateau and settled in Baluchistan and the Indus valley around 4000 BC.[citation needed] The Brahui living in Baluchistan still speak a Dravidian language, thought to be a remnant from this earlier susbtrate. The Indo-European Indo-Aryan peoples, and other Indo-Iranian peoples, migrated from what is now Afghanistan and surrounding areas starting around 2000 BC, and settled in all regions of Pakistan.[citation needed] Later, these Aryan groups would become the Pakhtuns and the various Nuristani, Dardic, and other tribes that currently populate the region.[citation needed] Before the arrival of the Baloch, the region was populated by Brahui people|Brahuis]].[citation needed]. Nearly all of Baluchistan, and what is today the country of Pakistan, was part by the Persian Achaemenid dynasty that ruled the area for over two hundred years beginning in 540 BC. In 326 BC, Alexander the Great defeated the Hindu king Puru (Porus, Paurava) at the Hydaspes near Jhelum and annexed the area to his Hellenistic empire. After Alexander's death and brief Seleucid control, Baluchistan remained part of the Persian empire. This article is about the history of the Balochistan province of Pakistan. ... Munda Languages are spoken in north east India. ... Dravidian may refer to: in the spiritualistic interpretations: the people who are the drav i. ... Topographic map of the Iranian plateau connecting to Anatolia in the west and Hindu Kush and Himalaya in the east Iranian plateau is both a geographical area of South or West Asia, home of ancient civilizations[1], and a geological area of Eurasia north of the great folded mountain belts... Brahui may refer to: The Brahui language The Brahui people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic/Indian) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, or ethnic Afghan; in referring to the period of the British Raj or earlier, sometimes Pathan) are an ethnic/religious group of people, living primarily in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India who follow Pashtunwali, their indigenous religion. ... Nuristani languages form a language sub-family of the Indo-Iranian languages localized between the Iranian languages and the Indo-Aryan languages Ashkun language Kamviri language Kati language (Bashgali) Prasuni language (Wasi-Weri) Tregami language Waigali language (Kalasha-Ala) Categories: Language stubs | Indo-Iranian languages ... The Dardic languages form a subfamily of the Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Persepolis Ruins The Achaemenid dynasty (Old Persian:Hakamanishiya, Persian: هخامنشیان) - was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... King Porus (also Raja Puru), was the King of Pauravaa, The state falls with in the territory of Trigata Kingdom of Katoch Rulers i. ... Combatants Macedonian Empire Greek allies Persian allies Indian allies Paurava Commanders Alexander the Great, Craterus King Porus Strength 34,000 infantry,[2][3][4] 7,000 cavalry[5][6] 50,000 infantry,[7] 5,000 cavalry,[7] 200 war elephants,[8][9] 1,000 chariots[10] Casualties 4,000 infantry... Jhelum or Jehlum may mean: Jhelum River in India and Pakistan Jhelum City in Punjab, Pakistan Jhelum District in Punjab, Pakistan This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Persia redirects here. ...


From the 1st century to the 3rd century AD, the region was ruled by the Pāratarājas (lit. "Pārata Kings"), a dynasty of Indo-Scythian or Indo-Parthian kings. The dynasty of the Pāratas is thought to be identical with the Pāradas of the Mahabharata, the Puranas and other Indian sources.[1] The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... Coin of Parataraja king Arjuna (2nd century CE). ... The Indo-Scythian King of Kings Azes II (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... The Paradas are a people mentionned in ancient Indian writings from the beginning of our era, such as the Manu Smriti. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Purana (Sanskrit: ), meaning belonging to ancient or olden times, is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...


They are essentially known through their coins, which typically exhibit the bust of the ruler on the obverse, with long hair within a headband), and a swastika within a Brahmi legend on the reverse (usually silver coins) or Kharoshthi (usually copper coins). The coins can mainly be found in the Loralai area of modern Pakistan. This article is about the symbol. ... BrāhmÄ« refers to the pre-modern members of the Brahmic family of scripts, attested from the 3rd century BC. The best known and earliest dated inscriptions in Brahmi are the rock-cut edicts of Ashoka. ... The Kharoṣṭhī script, also known as the Gāndhārī script, is an ancient alphabetic script used by the Gandhara culture of historic northwest India to write the Gandhari and Sanskrit languages (the Gandhara kingdom was located along the present-day border between Afghanistan and Pakistan between the Indus River and the... Loralai is a town and district of Pakistan, in Baluchistan. ...


Herodotus in 650 BC describes the Paraitakenoi as a tribe ruled by Deiokes, a Persian king, in northwestern Persia (History I.101). Arrian describes how Alexander the Great encountered the Pareitakai in Bactria and Sogdiana, and had them conquered by Craterus (Anabasis Alexandrou IV). The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (1st century AD) describes the territory of the Paradon beyond the Ommanitic region, on the coast of modern Baluchistan.[2] Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Deioces, Déjocès or Diyako (709 to 656 B.C.) was the first king of the Medes, an Iranian people. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... Sogdiana, ca. ... Craterus (c. ... Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ...


During the Arab conquest of the Persian empire in the 8th century, Muslim technocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, theologians and sufis flocked from the rest of the Muslim world and many settled in Baluchistan and its tributory state until the rise of the Mughals. Numerous Baloch tribes, an Iranian people, moved into the area from the west in the 11th century to escape the Seljuk Turks. Western Baluchistan was conquered by Iran in the 19th century, and its boundary was fixed in 1872. Omani influence waned in the east and Oman's last possession, Gwadar, was bought by Pakistan in 1958. In 1998 Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in the Pakistani province of Baluchistan. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Baloch (Persian: بلوچ alternative transliterations Baluch, Balouch, Balooch, Balush, Balosh, Baloosh, Baloush et al. ... Iranian peoples are peoples who speak an Iranian language and/or belong to the Iranian stock. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the Strait of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf. ... Jan. ...


Famous people of Baluchistan

There are many famous people from Balochistan including the following:

Historical Personalities

Eastern Balochistan Mir Chakar Khan Rind (Urdu: میر چاکر خان رند) is considered a folk hero of Baloch people. ... Mir Sher Muhammad Talpur, popularly known as “The Lion of Sindh” (Sher-i-Sindh) belonged to the Mirpurkhas House of Royal Talpurs. ... Darya Khan Rind درياخان رند is a sindhi poet. ... Shahpur Chakar is a city near Shahdadpur in Sanghar District, Sindh, Pakistan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sassi Punnun (or Sassi Panhu) (Sindhi: سسي پنھون) is one of the four popular tragic romances of the Sindh. ... Hazrat Babajan (c. ...

Western Balochistan Mir Ghaus Bakhsh Bizenjo (Urdu: میرغوث بخش بزنجو ) was the Baloch politician in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Nawab Nauroz/Nowroz Khan, commonly known by Balochs as Babu Nowroz, was the head of the Zarakzai tribes of Balochistan. ... Prince Abdul Karim Khan was the younger brother of Khan of Kalat , Mir Ahmadyar Khan, the last ruler of Balochistan. ... Zafarullah Khan Jamali Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی) (born January 1, 1944) is a former Prime Minister of Pakistan. ... Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti Sardar Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti is the Tumandar (head) a section of the Bugti tribe, and leader armed resistance against the Pakistan Army & Government, operating in the Dera Bugti retion of Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Nawab Khair Bakhsh Marri (Urdu: نواب خیر بخش مری ) is a politician from Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Sardar Sherbaz Khan Mazari is a well known Pakistani politician hailing from the Baloch, Mazari tribe situated in Rojhan-Mazari. ... Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari (Urdu: سردار فاروق احمد خان لغاری) (b. ... Mir Balach Marri (Urdu: مير بالاچ مری ) is a prominent politician from Balochistan, Pakistan. ... General Rahimuddin Khan (21st July, 1926-) held the dual posts of Corps Commander and Governor of Balochistan, Pakistans largest province, during the regime of General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. ... Asif Ali Zardari (Urdu: آصف علی زرداری) (Sindhi: آصف علي زرداري) (born 21 July 1956) is a Pakistani politician and the Co-Chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP). ... Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi was born on the 14 August 1931 in the Province of Sind. ... Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry (Urdu: ) (born 12 December 1948), was the 20th Chief Justice of Pakistan. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef) (Arabic: ‎), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim (Arabic: ‎) and also known by dozens of aliases,[1][2] is a Kuwaiti of mixed Pakistani and Palestinian descent who was one of the planners of the... Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: Prosecution Exhibit from the trial of Zacarias Moussaoui Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, , commonly referred to as KSM and also known by as many as twenty-seven aliases[1] (b. ...

  • [[Mir Dost Mohammad Baranza
  • Abdulmalak Rigi
  • Yaqoub Mehrnehad
  • Rostam Mirlashari

Northern Balochistan Abdolmalek Rigi (also Abdul-Malek Rigi) is the leader of Jundallah, a militant organization based in Pakistan affiliated with Al-Qaeda, and Al-Qaeda in Iran. ...

  • Abdul Kariam Brahui

Baluchistan Separatist Movements

Regional

Eastern Balochistan Balochistan Liberation Front or BLF separatist group was founded by Jumma Khan in 1964 and played important role 1968-1980s insurgeny in Pakistani Balochistan and Iranian Balochistan. ... Jundullah (Army of God) (Persian: جنداللہ) is a militant Islamic organization that is based in Waziristan, Pakistan and affiliated with Al-Qaeda. ...

Western Balochistan Main article: History of Balochistan The Baloch Liberation Army (BLA) is an organisation dedicated to fighting for the independence of Balochistan. ... Balochistan Liberation Front or BLF separatist group was founded by Jumma Khan in 1964 and played important role 1968-1980s insurgeny in Pakistani Balochistan and Iranian Balochistan. ... Baloch Students Organization or BSO was founded by Khair Jan Baluch in 1967 a separatist militant group in Pakistani Balochistan. ... Baluch Peoples Liberation Front or BPLF was founded in the 1973 and supported by Iraq and Soviets. ... Popular Front for Armed Resistance or PFAR was founded in 1960s and is active since 1973 in Balochistan. ... Baloch Students Organization-Awami or BSO- Awami was founded 1972 by spliting from BSO. It also supported BPLF insurgency in Balochistan. ... Parrari or Parari was founded by Sher Mohammad Marri in the 1962. ...

Northern Balochistan Commanders Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Daad Shah, Mir Abdi,Overlords and Tribal Leaders Strength Unknow Unknow Casualties Unknow Unknow Mir Dad Shah or Mir Daad Shah دادشاه was a farmer who lived in Nillag village of Iranian Balochistan in the fifties. ... Baluchi Autonomist Movement or BAM was Baluchi ethnic guerrilla movement in Iranian Balochistan which led by Mowlawi Abdul Aziz Mollazadeh in the 1980s. ... Jundullah (Army of God) (Persian: جنداللہ) is a militant Islamic organization that is based in Waziristan, Pakistan and affiliated with Al-Qaeda. ...

  • Front of Nimruz

Baluchistan Political Parties

The Balochistan National Party is a regional political party in Balochistan, Pakistan. ... The Jamhoori Wattan Party (Republican National Party) is a political party in Pakistan. ... Baloch Students Organization or BSO was founded by Khair Jan Baluch in 1967 a separatist militant group in Pakistani Balochistan. ... Baloch Students Organization-Awami or BSO- Awami was founded 1972 by spliting from BSO. It also supported BPLF insurgency in Balochistan. ... Baluchi Autonomist Movement or BAM was Baluchi ethnic guerrilla movement in Iranian Balochistan which led by Mowlawi Abdul Aziz Mollazadeh in the 1980s. ... Millat Party was formed by Sardar Farooq Ahmad Khan Leghari, former president of Pakistan, once he was no longer the president, and needed a platform to survive politically. ... The Awami National Party (ANP, Awami meaning People)) is a nationalist political party (leftist) in Pakistan. ...

References

  1. ^ "New light on the Paratarajas" p11
  2. ^ "New light on the Paratarajas" p29-30
  • [1]

See also

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Main article: History of Iranian Balochistan
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Iranian part of Balochistan (or Baluchistan). ... Baluchistan is divided into three parts namely Northern Balochistan or Afghani Balochistan in Afghanistan, Western Balochistan or Iranian Balochistan in Iran and Eastern Balochistan or Central Balochistan in Pakistan. ... Balochistan, or Ballsforchinstan, Balochi, Pashto, Urdu: بلوچستان) is a province in Pakistan, the largest in the country by geographical area. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mehrgarh. ... The Bolan Pass (Urdu: درہ بولان) is a gap through the Toba Kakar Range of mountains in western Pakistan, 120 kilometers from the Afghanistan border. ... The Seistan Force, originally called East Persia Cordon, was a force of British Indian Army troops set up to prevent enemy infiltration from Persia into Afghanistan during World War I. The British were determined that Afghanistan should remain neutral, despite requests by the Caliph to join the war on the...

 
 

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