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Encyclopedia > Ballot
The Voting series:

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Politics and the Election series Ballots is a commune of the arrondissement of Château-Gontier in the Mayenne département of the Pays-de-la-Loire région of France. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... Image File history File links Vote_icon. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ...

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A ballot is a device (originally a small ball - see blackball (blacklist)) used to record choices made by voters. Each voter uses one ballot, and ballots are not shared. In the simplest elections, a ballot may be a simple scrap of paper on which each voter writes in the name of a candidate, but governmental elections use pre-printed to protect the secrecy of the votes. The voter casts their ballot in a box at a polling station. Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners. ... On an approval ballot, the voter can vote for any number of candidates. ... Bloc voting (or block voting) (also called Plurality-at-large) refers to a class of voting systems which can be used to elect several representatives from a single constituency. ... The Borda count is a single winner election method in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... Any election method conforming to the Condorcet criterion is known as a Condorcet method. ... The Coombs method, created by Clyde Coombs, is a voting system used for single-winner elections in which each voter rank-orders the candidates. ... Copelands method is a Condorcet method in which the winner is determined by finding the candidate with the most pairwise victories. ... A points method ballot design like this one is the most common for governmental elections using cumulative voting. ... The DHondt method (equivalent to Jeffersons method) is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation. ... The Droop quota is the quota most commonly used in elections held under the Single Transferable Vote (STV) system. ... Dynamically Distributed Democracy (DDD) uses a social network data structure as a means of a creating a holographic model of the voting behavior of the whole group within any subset of the population that is actively participating in the groups voting process. ... In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to get any seats in the parliament. ... The Hare quota is a formula used to calculate the minimum number, or quota, of votes required to capture a seat in some forms of single transferable vote or largest remainder method party-list proportional representation voting systems. ... The highest averages method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... Example ballot Instant-runoff voting (IRV) (also known as the Alternative Vote (AV) and by several other names) is an voting system used for single winner elections in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. ... The largest remainder method is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... Party lists are used in elections to legislatures which use Party-list proportional representation or additional member proportional representation to designate a partys nominees in the at-large portion of the vote. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... Preferential voting (or preference voting) is a type of ballot structure used in several electoral systems in which voters rank a list or group of candidates in order of preference. ... Proportional approval voting (PAV) is a theoretical voting system for multiple-winner elections, in which each voter can vote for as many or as few candidates as the voter chooses. ... Range voting (also called ratings summation, average voting, cardinal ratings, 0–99 voting, or the score system or point system) is a theoretical voting system for single-seat elections in which voters score each candidate, the scores are added up, and the candidate with the highest score wins. ... The Sainte-Laguë method of the highest average (sometimes identified with Websters method or divisor method with standard rounding) is one way of allocating seats proportionally for representative assemblies with party list voting systems. ... The Schulze method is a voting system developed in 1997 by Markus Schulze that selects a single winner using votes that express preferences. ... This STV ballot for the Australian Senate illustrates group voting tickets. ... In voting, a ballot paper is considered to be spoilt, void, or null if it is regarded by the election authorities to contain irregularities during vote counting, and hence cannot be recorded as a valid vote. ... The blackball was used in elections to membership of a Gentlemens club (and similarly organised institutions, such as Freemasonry). ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A government is a body that has the authority to make and the power to enforce laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace Wikisource has original text related to this article: A History of the Australian Ballot System in the United States The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ... A ballot box is a temporarily sealed container, usually cuboid, with a narrow slot in the top sufficient to accept a ballot paper in an election but which prevents anyone from accessing the votes cast until the close of the voting period. ... A polling station situated inside a suburban library in the north of Cambridge during the United Kingdom general election, 2005. ...

Contents

History

In Ancient Greece citizens used pieces of broken pottery to scratch in the name of the candidate in the procedures of ostracism. This was done because while parchment was expensive and had to be imported from Egypt, broken pottery was abundant and virtually free. Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around one thousand years. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... Ostracism (Greek ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which a prominent citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years. ...


The first use of paper ballots to conduct an election appears to have been in Rome in 139 BCE, and the first use of paper ballots in the United States was in 1629 to select a pastor for the Salem Church.[1]


In the United States initially paper ballots were pieces of paper marked and supplied by voters. Later on, political parties and candidates provided preprinted ballots for voters to cast.


The secret ballot was first introduced in Australia in the 1850s. The Polling by William Hogarth (1755); Before the secret ballot was introduced voter intimidation was commonplace Wikisource has original text related to this article: A History of the Australian Ballot System in the United States The secret ballot is a voting method in which a voters choices are confidential. ...

This German ballot has the constituency vote on the left and the party vote on the right.
This German ballot has the constituency vote on the left and the party vote on the right.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1504, 460 KB) Beschreibung: Stimmzettel zur Bundestagswahl 2005, Wahlkreis 252 Würzburg Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: Christian VisualBeo Horvat Datum: 31. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (792x1504, 460 KB) Beschreibung: Stimmzettel zur Bundestagswahl 2005, Wahlkreis 252 Würzburg Quelle: selbst fotografiert Fotograf: Christian VisualBeo Horvat Datum: 31. ...

Types of choices

Depending on the type of voting system used in the election, different ballots may be used. Ranked ballots allow voters to rank candidates in order, while ballots for first-past-the-post systems only allow voters to select one candidate. In party-list systems, lists may be open or closed. A voting system is a means of choosing between a number of options, based on the input of a number of voters. ... Term preferential voting (also known as the preference voting) has several different meanings: (1) A ranked ballot or preferential voting system is a type of voting system in which each voter casts their vote by ranking candidates in order of preference. ... The first-past-the-post electoral system is a voting system for single-member districts, variously called first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP), winner-take-all, plurality voting, or relative majority. ... Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... Open list describes any variant of party-list proportional representation where voters have at least some influence on the (by the political party itself supplied) order in which party candidates are elected. ... Closed list describes the variant of party_list proportional representation where voters can (effectively) only vote for political parties as a whole and thus have no influence on the (party-supplied) order in which party candidates are elected. ...


The United States has a unique politics of the long and short ballot. Before the Civil War, it was widely believed that democracy was enhanced by multiplying the number of elective offices to include such comparatively minor posts as the state-level secretary of state, county surveyor, register of deeds, county coroner, and city clerk. A larger number of elected offices necessarily required longer ballots, and at times the long ballot undoubtedly resulted in confusion and blind voting, though the seriousness of either problem can be disputed. A new generation of reformers attacked the long ballot during the so-called Progressive Era (circa 1893-1917). In the United States today, the term ballot reform sometimes refers to efforts to reduce the number of elected offices. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... A county surveyor is a public official in many counties of U.S. states, particularly in the Midwest and West. ... Recorder of deeds refers to the government office that maintains records of transfers of real estate, as well as many other public documents. ... A coroner is either the presiding officer of a special court, a medical officer, or an officer of law responsible for investigating deaths, particularly those happening under unusual circumstances. ... In the United States, a city clerk as an elected or appointed official who is charged with the responsibility of being the official keeper of the municipal records. ... // In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s through the 1920s. ...


Ballot design

Ballot design can aid or inhibit clarity in an election. A poor design leads to confusion and potentially chaos if large numbers of voters spoil or mismark a ballot.


The so-called butterfly ballot used in Florida in the U.S. presidential election, 2000 led to widespread allegations of mismarked ballots. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Some political scientists prefer a more explicit statement of the voter's actual tolerances and preferences, and believe that failure to reflect these in ballot design and voting system alternatives actually causes many problems and leads for calls for electoral reform. For instance, a non-binding referendum or poll, carried out on a ballot, carries much more weight than one carried out with only a public sampling in a less politically committed event than an election. For example, one might count the number of ballots whereon the voter had crossed out the name of the political party that nominated the candidate, even if (maybe only if) that voter had voted for him or her. This would indicate support for candidates but would be able to send signals to them that the "party line" was not why that voter voted for them, but rather, s/he expected them to act independently. Electoral reform projects seek to change the way that public desires are reflected in elections through electoral systems. ... Ballots of the Argentine plebiscite of 1984 on the border treaty with Chile A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ...


Such marking and counting could be carried out on an ordinary ballot with no provision for it, however, there would be risk of counting it as "spoiled" if the marks were unclear, and if ballot design had not allowed for it initially.

Perspective view of the famous 2000 Florida 'butterfly ballot'.
Perspective view of the famous 2000 Florida 'butterfly ballot'.

Image File history File links Perspective view of the infamous Florida butterfly ballot, reconstructed in 3-D from reproduction in Florida newspaper, to show how hard it is to identify which hole links to which name in real life, rather than the flat, shot from above way it is usually... Image File history File links Perspective view of the infamous Florida butterfly ballot, reconstructed in 3-D from reproduction in Florida newspaper, to show how hard it is to identify which hole links to which name in real life, rather than the flat, shot from above way it is usually...

Methods

  • In a jurisdiction using a paper system, a voter indicates his or her voter intent by personally marking a ballot that is pre-printed with the candidates and referenda. The ballot is manually counted by election officials after the polls have closed and may be recounted in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using an optical scan system, a voter indicates his or her choice(s) by personally filling an oval or completing an arrow on the ballot next to the printed candidates and referenda. The ballot is counted by a tabulating machine after the polls have closed and may be manually counted in the event of a dispute.
  • In a jurisdiction using a punch card system, a voter indicates his or her voter intent by removing a perforated chad from the ballot next to his or her choice(s). The ballot can be pre-printed with the candidates and referenda or a generic ballot placed under a printed list of candidates and referenda. The ballot is counted by a tabulating machine after the polls have closed and may be manually counted in the event of a dispute. Punch card voting systems are being replaced by other voting systems because of a high rate of inaccuracy related to the incomplete removal of the perforated chad and the inaccessibility to voters with disabilities.
  • In a jurisdiction using a mechanical voting system, a voter indicates his or her choice(s) by pulling down a lever next to a printed list of candidates and referenda. When the lever is pulled, it causes a connected gear in the machine to turn a counter wheel. The position of each counter wheel after the polls have closed will indicate the number of votes cast on each lever. The lever total is transcribed by the election official to the corresponding choice(s) determined at the election. No ballot is used in this system. Mechanical voting systems are being replaced by other voting systems because they are inaccessible to voters with disabilities, the exclusion of a ballot, and other reasons.
  • In a jurisdiction using an electronic direct record voting system (DRE), a voter indicates his or her choice(s) by pushing a button next to a printed list of candidates and referenda or touching the candidate or referenda box on a touchscreen interface. Once a selection is made the DRE creates an electronic ballot stored by in the memory components of the system. After the polls have closed, the system counts the votes cast and reports the totals to the election official. Many DREs include a communication device to transmit vote totals to a central tabulator.

There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners. ... There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... There exist various methods through which the ballots cast at an election may be counted, prior to applying a voting system to obtain one or more winners. ... Punched cards (or Hollerith cards, or IBM cards), are pieces of stiff paper that contain digital information represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ... Direct recording voting machine developed and used in 100% of Brazilian elections A direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine records votes by means of a ballot display provided with mechanical or electro-optical components that can be activated by the voter; that processes data by means of a computer program... It has been suggested that Touch panel be merged into this article or section. ... Direct recording voting machine developed and used in 100% of Brazilian elections A direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine records votes by means of a ballot display provided with mechanical or electro-optical components that can be activated by the voter; that processes data by means of a computer program... Direct recording voting machine developed and used in 100% of Brazilian elections A direct-recording electronic (DRE) voting machine records votes by means of a ballot display provided with mechanical or electro-optical components that can be activated by the voter; that processes data by means of a computer program...

See also

Look up ballot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Secret ballot - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (580 words)
Although the colony of Victoria enacted legislation for secret ballots on March 19, 1856, credit is generally given to South Australian Electoral Commissioner William Boothby for creating the system finally enacted into law in South Australia on April 2 of that same year (a fortnight later).
The UK secret ballot arrangements are sometimes criticised because it is possible to link a ballot paper to the voter that cast it.
When an elector is given a ballot paper, their number is noted down on the counterfoil of the ballot paper (which also carries the ballot paper number).
Ballot Access: A Formidable Barrier To Fair Participation (915 words)
By contrast, the campaign spending laws (for federal office) are uniform for the entire nation, leading to the strengths and weaknesses of the campaign spending laws for federal office being familiar to the press and most political activists.
The ballot access laws for new and minor parties to get on the ballot for Congress are so tough, that not since 1920 has any third party been able to place candidates for the U.S. House of Representatives on the ballot in even half of the districts!
Ballot access rules are the same for all parties in Great Britain and Canada.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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