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Encyclopedia > Balloon
Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions.
Balloons, like greeting cards or flowers, are given for special occasions.

A balloon is a flexible bag filled with a type of gas, such as helium, hydrogen, nitrous oxide or air. Early balloons were made of dried animal bladders. Modern balloons can be made from materials such as rubber, latex, polychloroprene or a nylon fabric. Some balloons are purely decorative, while others are used for specific purposes such as meteorology, medical treatment, military defense, or transportation. A balloon's properties, including its low density and relatively low cost, have led to a wide range of applications. Look up balloon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Photo by Quadell. ... Photo by Quadell. ... Greeting cards on display at retail. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... For other uses, see Nitrous oxide (disambiguation). ... Air redirects here. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Chemical Structure of Chloroprene Chloroprene is the common name for the organic compound 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, which has the chemical formula C4H5Cl. ... For other uses of this word, see nylon (disambiguation). ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... US Marine Corps barrage balloon, Parris Island, May 1942 A barrage balloon is a large balloon tethered with metal cables, used to defend against bombardment by aircraft by damaging the aircraft on collision with the cables. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word balloon was originally derived from the French word ballon, meaning large ball. This was in turn probably from the latin ballone, but another possible source for it was balla, meaning ball, from Old High German.[1] Other related words include the Middle English bal, which was probably from the Old English beall, both meaning ball. Another source may have been from the French word balle, meaning "ball."[2] For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Middle English is the name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late 15th century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the...


History

The first balloon was invented by Brazilian-born Portuguese priest, Bartolomeu de Gusm√£o, and the first public exhibition was to the Portuguese Court on August 8, 1709, in the hall of the Casa da India in Lisbon. The rubber balloon was invented by Michael Faraday in 1824; it was inflated with hydrogen and used in his experiments with that element.[3]. The more familiar latex balloons of today were first manufactured in London, 1847, by J.G. Ingram,[4] but mass production did not occur until the 1930s.[citation needed] Bartolomeu de Gusmão, born Bartolomeu Lourenço (1685, Santos, São Paulo, Brazil - November 18, 1724, Toledo, Spain), was a Portuguese priest and naturalist, recalled for his early work on lighter-than-air airship design. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... The Casa da Índia, or House of India, was a Portuguese organization that managed Portuguese trade in overseas goods, mainly in the 15th and 16th centuries. ... For other uses, see Lisbon (disambiguation). ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Applications

Decoration or entertainment

Decorative arches made of party balloons.
Decorative arches made of party balloons.

Party balloons are mostly made of natural latex tapped from rubber trees and can be filled with air, helium, water, or any other suitable liquid or gas. The rubber's elasticity makes the volume adjustable. Most of this rubber is made from recycled material, such as old tires and tennis shoes.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (830x562, 91 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Balloon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (830x562, 91 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Balloon Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... This article is about the typesetting system. ... Latex being collected from a wounded rubber tree The Pará rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a tree belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. ... Air redirects here. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Filling the balloon with air is done with the mouth, with a manual or electric inflater (such as a hand pump), or with a source of compressed gas. This article is about a mechanical device. ...


When rubber balloons are filled with helium so that they float, they typically retain their buoyancy for only a day or so. The enclosed helium atoms escape through small pores in the latex which are larger than the helium atoms. Balloons filled with air usually hold their size and shape much longer.


Even a perfect rubber balloon eventually loses the gas to the outside. The process by which a substance or solute migrates from a region of high concentration, through a barrier or membrane, to a region of lower concentration is called diffusion. The inside of balloons can be treated with a special gel (for instance, the polymer solution sold under the "Hi Float" brand) which coats the inside of the balloon to reduce the helium leakage, thus increasing float time to a week or longer. diffusion (disambiguation). ...

Metalized nylon animal-shaped balloons
Metalized nylon animal-shaped balloons

Beginning in the late 1970s, some more expensive (and longer-lasting) foil balloons have been made of thin, unstretchable, less permeable metalized plastic films. These balloons have attractive shiny reflective surfaces and are often printed with color pictures and patterns for gifts and parties. The most important attribute of metalized nylon for balloons is its light weight, increasing buoyancy and its ability to keep the helium gas from escaping for several weeks. However, there has been some environmental concern, since the metalized nylon does not biodegrade or shred as a rubber balloon does, and a helium balloon released into the atmosphere can travel a long way before finally bursting or deflating. Release of these types of balloons into the atmosphere is considered harmful to the environment. This type of balloon can also conduct electricity on its surface and released foil balloons can become entangled in power lines and cause power outages. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (837x1024, 669 KB) Summary metallized nylon animal-shaped balloons, author myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (837x1024, 669 KB) Summary metallized nylon animal-shaped balloons, author myself. ... Biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate (boPET) polyester film is used for its high tensile strength, chemical and dimensional stability, transparency, gas and aroma barrier properties and electrical insulation. ... Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. ...


Released balloons can land almost anywhere, including on nature preserves or other areas where they pose a serious hazard to animals through ingestion or entanglement. Latex balloons are especially dangerous to sea creatures because latex retains its elasticity for 12 months or more when exposed to sea water rather than air.[5] Because of the harm to wildlife and the effect of litter on the environment, some jurisdictions even legislate to control mass balloon releases. Legislation proposed in Maryland, USA was named after Inky, a pygmy sperm whale who needed 6 operations after swallowing debris, the largest piece of which was a mylar balloon.[6][7] State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich Official languages English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,296,486 (19th)  - Density 165 /km² (5th) Admittance into... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Sperm whale range (in blue) The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) is the largest of all toothed whales and is the largest toothed animal alive, with adult males measuring up to 20. ...


Professional balloon party decorators use electronic equipment to enable the exact amount of helium to fill the balloon. For non-floating balloons air inflators are used. Professional quality balloons are used, which differ from most retail packet balloons by being larger in size and made from 100% biodegradable latex.


Balloon modeling and balloons in art

Balloon artists are entertainers who twist and tie inflated tubular balloons into sculptures (see balloon animal). The balloons used for balloon sculpture are made of extra-stretchy rubber so that they can be twisted and tied without bursting. Since the pressure required to inflate a balloon is inversely proportional to the diameter of the balloon, these tiny tubular balloons are extremely hard to inflate initially. A pump is usually used to inflate these balloons. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Balloon modelling. ... This article is about proportionality, the mathematical relation. ...


Decorators may use hundreds of helium balloons to create balloon sculptures. Usually the round shape of the balloon restricts these to simple arches or walls, but on occasion more ambitious "sculptures" have been attempted. It is also common to use balloons as tables decorations for celebratory events. Table decorations normally appear with 3 or 5 balloons on each bouquet. Ribbon is curled and added with a weight to keep the balloons from floating away.Model of the Balloons


Water balloons

Water balloons are thin, small rubber balloons intended to be easily broken. They are usually used by children, who throw them at each other, trying to get each other wet, as a game or practical joke. They can be used in competitions or games. They are smaller than regular balloons. Exploding water balloon eight water balloons lying on pavement A water balloon, or water bomb, is a simple small latex rubber balloon filled with water. ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... An office cubicle with all the contents covered in aluminum foil. ...


Balloon rockets

Main article: Balloon rocket

Balloons are often deliberately released, creating so called balloon rocket or rocket balloon. Rocket balloons work because the elastic balloons contract on the air within them, and so when the mouth of the balloon is left open, the gas within the balloon shoots out, and, due to Newton's third law of motion, the balloon is propelled forward. This is fundamentally the same way that a rocket works.[8] A balloon rocket is a balloon filled with air (or also another gas). ... A balloon rocket is a balloon filled with air (or also another gas). ... Newtons laws of motion are the three scientific laws which Isaac Newton discovered concerning the behaviour of moving bodies. ...


Flying machines

Hot air balloons, San Diego, California
Hot air balloons, San Diego, California
Main article: Balloon (aircraft)

Large balloons filled with hot air or buoyant gas have been used as flying machines since the 18th century. The earliest flights were made with hot air balloons using air heated with a flame, or hydrogen; later, helium was used. A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... Hot air balloons are the oldest successful human flight technology, dating back to the Montgolfier brothers invention in Annonay, France in 1783. ... Earths atmosphere is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ...

Flying above the Ancient City during the Ferrara Balloons Festival, Italy
Flying above the Ancient City during the Ferrara Balloons Festival, Italy

Medicine

Angioplasty is a surgical procedure in which very small balloons are inserted into blocked or partially blocked blood vessels near the heart. Once in place, the balloon is inflated to clear or compress arterial plaque, and to stretch the walls of the vessel, thus preventing myocardial infarction. A small stent can be inserted at the angioplasty site to keep the vessel open after the balloon's removal.[9] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... In pathology, an atheroma (plural: atheromata) is an abnormal accumulation of inflammatory cells (macrophage white blood cells), lipids and a variable amount of connective tissue within the walls of arteries. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... Endoscopic image of self-expanding metallic stent in esophagus, which was used to palliatively treat esophageal cancer. ...


Balloon catheters are catheters that have balloons at their tip to keep them from slipping out. For example, the balloon of a Foley catheter is inflated when the catheter is inserted into the urinary bladder and secures its position.[10] Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that a health professional may insert into part of the body. ... Diagram of a foley catheter Foley catheters are flexible (usually latex) tubes that are passed through the urethra during urinary catheterization and into the bladder to drain urine. ... This article is about the urinary bladder. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Balloons
Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... An aerobot is an aerial robot, usually used in the context of an unmanned space probe. ... Mercury Atlas 9 rocket and capsule on pad The Atlas is a venerable line of space launch vehicles built by Lockheed Martin. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Balloon modelling. ... A balloon artist in Vienna, Austria Balloon modelling or balloon twisting is the shaping of special modelling balloons into almost any given shape, often a balloon animal. ... A balloon rocket is a balloon filled with air (or also another gas). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into aerostat. ... Cluster ballooning Cluster ballooning is an uncommon form of ballooning in which a single balloonist is attached by a harness to a cluster of relatively small helium-inflated rubber balloons. ... The first launch of a gas balloon by Jacques Charles, 27 August 1783, at the Champ de Mars, Paris. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... A hopper balloon (or simply hopper) is a small, one-person hot air balloon. ... An inflatable is an object that can be inflated, usually with air, but hydrogen, helium and nitrogen are also used. ... This is a list of uses of balloons toy balloons tiny balloon catheter small (volume of a few litres) toy balloon Papier-mâché balloon animal decoration solar balloon balloon mail as part of a balloon flight competition or to spread information Balloon helicopter Demonstration of rocket propulsion by letting... radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. ... A rockoon (derived from the terms rocket and balloon) was an extension to the rocket, which allowed the rocket to achieve further distance. ... The three most common speech ballons (top to bottom: speech, thought, scream). ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Definition of balloon (HTML). Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  2. ^ Definition of ball (HTML). Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  3. ^ Robertson, Patrick. The Book of Firsts, Bramhall House, NY, 1978.
  4. ^ Balloon History (HTML). BalloonsIT. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  5. ^ Andrady, A.L. (2006-08-06). "Plastics and Their Impacts in the Marine Environment". Proceedings of the International Marine Debris Conference on Derelict Fishing Gear and the Ocean Environment, Hawaii: Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary. Retrieved on 2006-12-02. 
  6. ^ MARP Sponsors Inky Legislation. Aquarium in Baltimore. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  7. ^ Legislation regulating the release of balloons. Clean Virginia Waterways. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  8. ^ Zimmerman Jones, Andrew. Scientific Explanation: Why the Rocket Balloon Works (HTML). How to Create a Rocket Balloon. About:Physics. Retrieved on 2007-04-29.
  9. ^ Berger, Alan (2006-05-30). Angioplasty (HTML). Medical Encyclopedia. MedlinePlus. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  10. ^ Bellis, Mary. History of the Catheter - Balloon Catheter - Thomas Fogarty (HTML). About: Inventors. About. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.

Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Screenshot of About. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ballooning into the Sky (734 words)
The pilot wears a harness, to which a cluster of large, helium-filled balloons are attached.
Control is achieved by releasing ballast to ascend, or by bursting balloons to descend.
Cluster balloons, like all balloons, are aircraft that require skill and training to operate safely.
Weather Forces Down NASA Balloon (341 words)
Intended as a cheap alternative to rocket-launched satellites, the helium-filled balloon is made from plastic as thin as sandwich wrap.
That balloon was destroyed when controllers brought it down by remote control a few hours into its flight after it sprang a leak.
The balloon is the largest single-chamber, high-pressure balloon ever flown, with a fully inflated diameter of 193 feet (59 meters) and a height of 115 feet (35 meters).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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