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Encyclopedia > Ballet
See also: Category:Ballet
Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872.
Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872.
Ballet
Ballet Portal

Classical ballet
Contemporary ballet
Neoclassical ballet

Ballet is a formalized form of dance with its origins in the Italian Renaissance court, further developed in France and Russia as a concert dance form. It is a highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary. It has been influential as a form of dance globally and is taught in ballet schools around the world which use their own culture and society to modernize the art. Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed, and also include mime, acting, and are set to music (usually orchestral but occasionally vocal). It is best known in the form of classical ballet, notable for its techniques, such as pointe work, turn-out of the legs; it's graceful, flowing, precise movements; and its ethereal qualities. Later developments include neoclassical ballet and contemporary ballet. Ballet may refer to one of the following. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1841, 458 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ballet ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2536x1841, 458 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ballet ... Degas redirects here. ... Image File history File links Ballerina-icon. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Dancer Drew Jacoby of contemporary ballet company Alonzo Kings LINES Ballet. ... Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ... Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Russian ballet is a method of ballet technique that originated in Russia. ... Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. ... One foot shown en pointe. ... For more on the equestrian movement, see pirouette (dressage). ... The Balanchine method is a technique that famous choreographer George Balanchine wanted his dancers to use, found at New York City Ballet initially, though the way they dance now is very far removed from the original. ... The Cecchetti method of ballet instruction was created by Enrico Cecchetti (1850-1928). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Performance dance. ... Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. ... For more on the equestrian movement, see pirouette (dressage). ... A dance studio is a studio which is established to teach dance. ... Look up Choreography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the theatrical medium and those who practice it. ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... Orchestra at City Hall (Edmonton). ... Harry Belafonte singing, photograph by C. van Vechten Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice, which is often contrasted with speech. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... One foot shown en pointe. ... First position of the feet turned out In ballet, turnout (also turn-out) is a rotation of the leg which comes from the hips, causing the knee and foot to turn outward, away from the center of the body. ... Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ... Dancer Drew Jacoby of contemporary ballet company Alonzo Kings LINES Ballet. ...


The etymology of the word "ballet" is related to the art form's history. The word ballet comes from French and was borrowed into English around the 17th century. The French word in turn has its origins in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo (dance). Ballet ultimately traces back to Latin ballare, meaning to dance.[1] Etymologies redirects here. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History of ballet

Main article: History of ballet

Ballet emerged in late 15 century Renaissance court of Italy, as a dance interpretation of fencing, and further developed in the French court from the time of Louis XIV in the 17th century. This is reflected in the French vocabulary of ballet. Subsequently, after 1850, ballet flourished in Denmark and Russia. It was from Russia that it returned to Western Europe and subsequently the globe. The Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev and its successors were particularly influential during this period. It has continued to draw on and be enriched by folk dance and local dance traditions. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Louis XIV redirects here. ... Léon Bakst: Firebird, Ballerina, 1910 There was also the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo from 1932 to 1963 The Ballets Russes was a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev and resident first in the Théâtre Mogador and Théâtre du Châtelet, Paris... Portrait of Sergei Diaghilev by Valentin Serov (1904) Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Russian: / Sergei Pavlovich Dyagilev), also referred to as Serge, (March 31, 1872 – August 19, 1929) was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ... Folk dance is a term used to describe a large number of dances, mostly of European origin, that tend to share the following attributes: They were originally danced in about the 19th century or earlier (or are, in any case, not currently copyrighted); Their performance is dominated by an inherited...


In the 20th century ballet has continued to develop and has had a strong influence on broader concert dance. For example, in the United States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet. Subsequent developments have included contemporary ballet and post- structural ballet, seen in the work of William Forsythe in Germany. George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ... Dancer Drew Jacoby of contemporary ballet company Alonzo Kings LINES Ballet. ... Post-structuralism encompasses the intellectual developments of continental philosophers and critical theorists that wrote with tendencies of twentieth-century French philosophy. ... William Forsythe (born December 30, 1949 in New York City) is an American dancer and choreographer who became known internationally for his work with the Frankfurt Ballet. ...


Classical ballet

Main article: Classical ballet

Classical ballet is the most formal of the ballet styles; it adheres to traditional ballet technique. There are variations relating to area of origin, such as Russian ballet, French ballet, and Italian ballet. The five most well-known styles of ballet are the Vaganova method, or Russian Method, after Agrippina Vaganova, the Cecchetti method, or Italian Method, after Enrico Cecchetti, the Bournonville Method, or Danish Method, after August Bournonville, the Balanchine Method, or ABT Method, after George Balanchine, and the Royal Academy of Dance Method, or R.A.D. Method, created in England. Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. ... Russian ballet is a method of ballet technique that originated in Russia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vaganova as Odette-Odile, 1900es Agrippina Yakovlevna Vaganova (July 6, 1879 - November 5, 1951) was an outstanding Russian ballet teacher who developed the Vaganova method. ... The Cecchetti method of ballet instruction was created by Enrico Cecchetti (1850-1928). ... Enrico Cecchetti (born: 21 June 1850, Rome - died: 13 November 1928, Milan) was an Italian ballet dancer, founder of the Cecchetti method. ...


Neoclassical ballet

Main article: Neoclassical ballet

Neoclassical ballet is a ballet style that uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is less rigid than the classical ballet. For example, dancers often dance at more extreme tempos and perform more technical feats. Spacing in neoclassical ballet is usually more modern or complex than in classical ballet. Although organization in neoclassical ballet is more varied, the focus on structure is a defining characteristic of neoclassical ballet. Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x1584, 2841 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Theatre Opera house Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts New York City Ballet New York City Opera Culture... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2816x1584, 2841 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Theatre Opera house Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts New York City Ballet New York City Opera Culture... , The New York State Theater at Lincoln Center, seen from the Lincoln Center Plaza. ... Logo of the New York City Ballet The New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein originally known as the American Ballet. ... Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ...


It is the style of 20th century classical ballet exemplified by the works of George Balanchine. It draws on the advanced technique of 19th century Russian Imperial dance, but strips it of its detailed narrative and heavy theatrical setting. Balanchine used flexed hands (and occasionally feet), turned-in legs, off-centered positions and non-classical costumes (such as leotards and tunics instead of tutus) to distance himself from the classical and romantic ballet traditions. What is left is the dance itself, sophisticated but sleekly modern, retaining the pointe shoe aesthetic, but eschewing the well upholstered drama and mime of the full length story ballet.


Balanchine also brought modern dancers in to dance with his company, the New York City Ballet; one such dancer was Paul Taylor, who in 1959 performed in Balanchine's piece Episodes. Balanchine also worked with modern dance choreographer Martha Graham, expanding his exposure to modern techniques and ideas. Also during this period, choreographers such as John Butler and Glen Tetley began to consciously combine ballet and modern techniques in experimentation. Logo of the New York City Ballet The New York City Ballet is a ballet company founded in 1948 by choreographer George Balanchine and Lincoln Kirstein originally known as the American Ballet. ... Paul Taylor photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1960 Paul Taylor (born July 29, 1930) is one of the foremost American choreographers of the 20th century. ... For the supercentenarian, see Martha Graham (supercentenarian). ...


Tim Scholl, author of From Petipa to Balanchine, considers George Balanchine's Apollo in 1928 to be the first neoclassical ballet. Apollo represented a return to form in response to Serge Diaghilev's abstract ballets. George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ... Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Сергей Павлович Дягилев) (March 19, 1872 – August 19, 1929), often known as Serge, was a Russian ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous dancers and choreographers would later arise. ...


Contemporary ballet

Main article: Contemporary ballet

Contemporary ballet is a form of dance influenced by both classical ballet and modern dance. It takes its technique and use of pointe work from classical ballet, although it permits a greater range of movement that may not adhere to the strict body lines set forth by schools of ballet technique. Many of its concepts come from the ideas and innovations of 20th century modern dance, including floor work and turn-in of the legs. Dancer Drew Jacoby of contemporary ballet company Alonzo Kings LINES Ballet. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ... Modern dance is often performed in bare feet. ...


George Balanchine is often considered to have been the first pioneer of contemporary ballet through the development of neoclassical ballet. George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ...


One dancer who danced briefly for Balanchine was Mikhail Baryshnikov, an exemplar of Kirov Ballet training. Following Baryshnikov's appointment as artistic director of American Ballet Theatre in 1980, he worked with various modern choreographers, most notably Twyla Tharp. Tharp choreographed Push Comes To Shove for ABT and Baryshnikov in 1976; in 1986 she created In The Upper Room for her own company. Both these pieces were considered innovative for their use of distinctly modern movements melded with the use of pointe shoes and classically-trained dancers -- for their use of "contemporary ballet". Angel Corella as Aminta in the 2006 production of Ashtons ballet Sylvia. ... // Tharp in a poster for a performance at the Winter Garden Theatre in New York City. ...


Tharp also worked with the Joffrey Ballet company, founded in 1957 by Robert Joffrey. She choreographed Deuce Coupe for them in 1973, using pop music and a blend of modern and ballet techniques. The Joffrey Ballet continued to perform numerous contemporary pieces, many choreographed by co-founder Gerald Arpino. Joffrey ballet school in NYC The Joffrey Ballet is both a school, founded in 1952, and a dance company, founded in 1956. ... Robert Joffrey (Dec 24, 1930 - March 25, 1988) was a ballet dancer, director and choreographer. ... Gerald Arpino (born January 14, 1928) American dancer and choreographer; Artistic Director of The Joffrey Ballet. ...


Today there are many explicitly contemporary ballet companies and choreographers. These include Alonzo King and his company, Alonzo King's Lines Ballet; Nacho Duato and Compañia Nacional de Danza; William Forsythe, who has worked extensively with the Frankfurt Ballet and today runs The Forsythe Company; and Jiří Kylián, currently the artistic director of the Nederlands Dans Theatre. Traditionally "classical" companies, such as the Kirov Ballet and the Paris Opera Ballet, also regularly perform contemporary works. The Forsythe Company is a dance ensemble of eighteen dancers based in Dresden, Germany founded by William Forsythe following the closure of the Frankfurt Ballet. ... Jiří Kilián (or Jiří Kylian) (born 1947) is a Czech dance choreographer He studied in Prague, as well as at the Royal Ballet School in London. ... Nederlands Dans Theater (Dutch Dance Theatre) is a contemporary dance company established in 1959 breaking away from a more traditionally oriented ballet company. ... The Mariinsky Ballet is one of the most famous ballet schools in history (formerly the Kirov Ballet, and also the Academic State Theatre), located in St. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ballet
Dance Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... A Drawing of Nicholas Grigorovich Sergeyev, made in 1929. ... Ballet daction is a modern ballet movement started by French choreographer Jean Georges Noverre in 1760. ... Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872. ... Dancer Drew Jacoby of contemporary ballet company Alonzo Kings LINES Ballet. ... Neoclassical ballet is a term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed. ... Pas de Quatre: Carlotta Grisi, Marie Taglioni, Lucile Grahn and Fanny Cerito The Romantic period in ballet occurred in the early to mid 1800s, and roughly corresponds to Romanticism movements in art and literature. ... Ballet technique is the method by which ballet steps are performed or taught. ... This article needs cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Cecchetti method of ballet instruction was created by Enrico Cecchetti (1850-1928). ... One foot shown en pointe. ... For more on the equestrian movement, see pirouette (dressage). ... Ballet as musical form is a musical composition intended for ballet performance. ... A ballet company is a group of dancers who perform ballets. ... Performers wearing Tutus. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Chantrell (2002), p. 42.

References

  • Anderson, Jack (1992). Ballet & Modern Dance: A Concise History, 2nd ed., Princeton, NJ: Princeton Book Company, Publishers. ISBN 0-87127-172-9. 
  • Bland, Alexander (1976). A History of Ballet and Dance in the Western World. New York: Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-53740-4. 
  • (2002) in Chantrell, Glynnis: The Oxford Essential Dictionary of Word Histories. New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 0-425-19098-6. 
  • Kirstein, Lincoln; Stuart, Muriel (1952). The Classic Ballet. New York: Alfred A Knopf. 
  • Lee, Carol (2002). Ballet In Western Culture: A History of its Origins and Evolution. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-94256X. 
  • Gordon, Suzanne (1984). Off Balance: The Real World of Ballet. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-023770-0. 
  • The Bournonville School The DVD, The Dance Programme, The Music. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Theatre, 2005.2 discs. 225 pp. 139 pp. Illustrated. Hardcover, http://www.kgl-teater.dk, http://www.dancebooks.co.uk

Photograph of Lincoln Kirstein taken by George Platt Lynes. ... Muriel Stuart (b. ...

External links


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