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Encyclopedia > Balkans Campaign
Balkan Campaign
Part of World War II

German paratroopers on Crete in 1941
Date April 1939 - June 1, 1941
Location Albania, Yugoslavia, Greece and the Greek islands
Result Axis victory
Casus belli Italian invasion of Greece
Territorial
changes
Albania, Yugoslavia and Greece under Axis control
Combatants
Germany
Italy
Bulgaria
Albania
Greece
United Kingdom
Australia
New Zealand
Yugoslavia
Commanders
Maximilian von Weichs
Giovanni Messe
Alexander Papagos
Henry Maitland Wilson
Balkans Campaign
Greco-Italian War – YugoslaviaGreeceCretePeople's Liberation War

The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italy's annexation of Albania in April 1939 and ended with the capture of Crete by German forces on June 1, 1941. Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead... From the German Historic Museum, item F 60/2017. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... This is a list of some of the 3000 islands of Greece: Chrysi Crete Dia Euboea Gavdos Koufonisi Ydra The Cyclades Amorgos Anafi Andros Antiparos Anydro Delos Donoussa Folegandros Gyaros Ios Irakleia Kea Keros Kimolos Kithnos Makronisos Milos Mykonos (Mikonos) Naxos Paros Pholegandros Santorini (also called Thira) Serifos Sifnos Sikinos... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Maximilian von Weichs Maximilian Maria Joseph Karl Gabriel Lamoral Reichsfreiherr von Weichs zu Glon (12 November 1881 - 27 September 1954) was a German Generalfeldmarschall and a military leader in World War II. He was born into a noble family at Dessau, a son of an Army colonel. ... Giovanni Messe Giovanni Messe (December 10, 1883 - December 19, 1968) was an Italian soldier, politician and quite possibly the most distinguished Italian Field Marshal. ... Alexander Papagos (in Greek:Αλέξανδρος Παπάγος, Alexandros Papagos). ... Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson of Libya (5 September 1881 - 31 December 1964), better known as Jumbo Wilson was a senior British General during World War II. He saw active service in the Boer War and the First World War. ... Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... Invasion of Yugoslavia Operation 25 was the german code-name for the so-called April War, the German attack on Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. ... Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 25,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–16,100 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning... Combatants Allied Powers: Yugoslav Partisans Axis Powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, Fascist Croatia, the Chetniks Commanders Josip Broz Tito many The Peoples Liberation War (Serbo-Croat: Narodnooslobodilački rat, Народноослободилачки рат) in Yugoslavia was fought from 1941 to 1945 between the Yugoslav Partisans and the forces of the Axis Powers in... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 25,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–16,100 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ...

Contents

Annexation of Albania

Albania's territorial integrity was confirmed at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, after U.S. President Woodrow Wilson dismissed a plan by the European powers to divide Albania amongst its neighbours. With the complete collapse of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires after World War I, the Albanians looked to Italy for protection against enemies. After 1925, however, Benito Mussolini sought to dominate Albania. In 1928 Albania became a kingdom under Zog I, a conservative Muslim clan chief and former prime minister. Zog failed to stave off Italian ascendancy in Albanian internal affairs. In April 1939 Mussolini's troops occupied Albania, overthrew Zog, and annexed the country. F*** YOU!! Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown from power. ... King Zog of Albania King Zog (October 8, 1895–April 9, 1961) was an Albanian politician and the first king of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ...


Greco-Italian War

Main article: Greco-Italian War

The Greco-Italian War, lasting from October 28, 1940 to April 30, 1941, was a part of World War II. The Italians invaded Greece, but were repulsed and driven back into Albania. Due to the success of the Greek counteroffensive, Germany was forced to intervene in April 1941, invading Yugoslavia and Greece.fadjs;flkjasd;flkajldkjfa;ldkjf;alkfja;pldfj; j; dj;a kjd;flj;jdf dj ;fjadfj Combatants Italy Greece Commanders Sebastiano Visconti Prasca Ubaldo Soddu Ugo Cavallero Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Strength 529,000 men Under 300,000 men Casualties 13,755 dead, 25,067 missing, 50,874 wounded, 12,368 incapacitated by frostbites, ca. ... Combatants Major Allied powers: United Kingdom Soviet Union United States Republic of China and others Major Axis powers: Nazi Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Harry Truman Chiang Kai-Shek Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead...


Invasion of Yugoslavia

Main article: Invasion of Yugoslavia

The Invasion of Yugoslavia (also known as Operation 25) began on April 6, 1941 and ended with the occupation and dismemberment of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, some parts of Croatia, and in Syrmia the puppet Independent State of Croatia was set up by Germany and Italy; in Serbia and Banat a puppet Serbian state was also set up by Germany; in Montenegro a puppet Independent State of Montenegro was set up by Italy. Invasion of Yugoslavia Operation 25 was the german code-name for the so-called April War, the German attack on Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Map of the Syrmia region Syrmia (Serbian: Srem (Cyrillic: Срем), Croatian: Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Warning: Value not specified for common_name Capital Zagreb Language(s) Croatian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - (1941-1943) Tomislav II1 Poglavnik  - (1941-1945) Ante Pavelić Legislature Hrvatski državni Sabor NDH (briefly in 1942) Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia April... Motto: none Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian, cyrillic script1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved June... Banat (Romanian: Banat; Serbian: Банат or Banat; German: Banat; Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság; Slovak: Banát) is a geographical and historical region in Southeastern Europe divided among three countries: the eastern part belongs to Romania (the counties of TimiÅŸ, CaraÅŸ-Severin, Arad, and MehedinÅ£i), the western... Nedićs Serbia (Nedićeva Srbija) is the popular name for the Serbian nazi puppet state that existed between 1941 and 1944, on the teritory of parts of todays Serbia. ... Anthem: Oj, svijetla majska zoro Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Serbian of the Ijekavian dialect1 Government Republic  - President Filip Vujanović  - Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence From Serbia and Montenegro   - Declared June 3, 2006   - Recognised June 8, 2006  Area  - Total 13. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Organizational structure Client state President  - 1941 Serafino Mazzolini  - 1941 - 1943 Alessandro Pirzio Biroli  - 1943 Curio Barbasetti di Prun  - 1943 - 1944 Theodor Geib  - 1944 Wilhelm Keiper Historical era World War II  - Invasion of Yugoslavia 1941  - Disestablished 1944 Currency Italian lira Montenegro existed as a separate...


Battle of Greece

Main Article Battle of Greece

The German Invasion of Greece - code-named Unternehmen Marita (Operation Marita) by Germany - was the direct result and continuation of the Greco-Italian War. On April 6, 1941, the German Army invaded northern Greece, while other elements launched an attack against Yugoslavia. Breaking through the Yugoslav lines in southern Yugoslavia allowed Germany to send reinforcements to the battlefields of northern Greece. The German army out-flanked the Greek Metaxas Line fortifications and, despite the assistance provided by a British expeditionary corps, set out to capture the southern Greek cities. The Battle of Greece ended with the German entry into Athens and the capture of the Peloponnese, although about 40,000 Allied soldiers were evacuated to Crete, prompting one of the largest airborne attacks in the history of warfare: Operation Merkur, or the Battle of Crete. Combatants Germany, Italy, Bulgaria Greece, United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List, Maximilian von Weichs Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Thomas Blamey Strength Germany: 680,000 men,[1] 1200 tanks, 700 aircraft, Italy: 529,000 men Greece: 350,000 men, British Commonwealth: 58,000 men Casualties Italy: 13,755... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Yugoslav refers to: Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Metaxas Line was a chain of fortifications constructed along the line of the Graeco-Bulgarian border, designed to protect Greece in case of a Bulgarian invasion during World War II. It was named after Ioannis Metaxas, the then dictatorial ruler of Greece, and chiefly consists of tunnels that led... The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For the famous World War II battle, see: Battle of Crete For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Operation Merkur

Main article: Battle of Crete
Crete in relation to mainland Greece
Crete in relation to mainland Greece

On May 20, 1941, German paratroopers were dropped over the airfields of northern Crete to occupy the island. They were met by heavy resistance from Allied forces and the local Cretan population but eventually the defenders were overwhelmed by the tactically superior German forces. However, the loss of so many paratroopers forced the Wehrmacht Supreme Command to reconsider its airborne warfare doctrine. Combatants Greece New Zealand Australia United Kingdom Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Freyberg Kurt Student Strength 43,000 25,000 Casualties 3,500 dead 1,900 wounded 17,500 captured 6,200–16,100 dead, wounded, or captured The Battle of Crete (German Luftlandeschlacht um Kreta; Greek Μάχη της Κρήτης) began on the morning... Map of Greek periphery File links The following pages link to this file: Crete Categories: GFDL images ... Map of Greek periphery File links The following pages link to this file: Crete Categories: GFDL images ... May 20 is the 140th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (141st in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ... Oberkommando der Wehrmacht OKW most notably stands for Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - the high Command of the Third Reich armed forces. ...


Aftermath

By June 1, 1941, all of Albania, Yugoslavia and Greece was under Axis control. Greece was placed under triple occupation, and Yugoslavia was dissolved and occupied. Germany had gained a significant strategic advantage: direct access to the Mediterranean. The Allied High Command feared that Crete and Greece would be used as "springboard" for an invasion of British Egypt or Cyprus. However, any plans for a large-scale invasion of Egypt and Palestine were abandoned when Operation Barbarossa commenced on June 22. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... German soldiers raising the Swastika over the Acropolis. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in South Slavic languages, Југославија (Serbian, Macedonian Cyrillic): Land of the South Slavs) describes three separate political entities that existed on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Joseph Stalin Strength ~ 3. ... June 22 is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 192 days remaining. ...


Throughout the remainder of the war, active Greek and Yugoslav resistance movements forced Germany and her allies to garrison hundreds of thousands of soldiers permanently in the two countries, denying them to the other fronts. The Rebellion The Yugoslav Partisans were the main resistance movement engaged in the fight against the Axis forces in the Balkans during World War II. // Origins The Yugoslav Partisans went under the official name of National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije...


External links

  • Summaries [1]
  • Timeline of the Balkans Campaign
  • World War Two Online Newspaper Archives - The Invasion of the Balkans: Yugoslavia, Greece and Crete, 1940-1941
  • U.S. Army - The German campaigns in the Balkans
  • World War II in the Balkans


Campaigns and theatres of World War II
European Theatre
Poland | Phony War | Denmark & Norway | France & Benelux countries | Britain
Eastern Front 1941-45 | Continuation War | Western Front 1944-45
Asian and Pacific Theatres
China | Pacific Ocean | South-East Asia | South West Pacific | Manchuria 1945
The Mediterranean, Africa and Middle East
Mediterranean Sea | East Africa | North Africa | West Africa | Balkans
Middle East | Madagascar | Italy
Other
Atlantic Ocean | Strategic bombing | Bombing of North America
Contemporary wars
Chinese Civil War | Soviet-Japanese Border War | Winter War | French-Thai War | Anglo-Iraqi War

  Results from FactBites:
 
PART FIVE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CAMPAIGNS IN THE BALKANS AND (1831 words)
While the campaigns in the Balkans were under way, the German Army hurriedly organized weak security divisions that were to be sent to western Europe and the Balkans for occupation duty.
German military authors state that the diversion in the Balkans had hardly any influence on the course of the subsequent campaign, since Germany's casualties were relatively low and the expenditure of materiel and supplies insignificant.
In the light of the gigantic struggle that was to begin a few weeks after their conclusion, the campaigns in the Balkans may be considered as the Wehrmacht's last blitz victories before the Germans met their fate in Russia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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