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Encyclopedia > Balkans
Balkan peninsula (as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line)
Balkan peninsula (as defined by the Danube-Sava-Kupa line)

The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe a region of southeastern Europe. Image File history File links Balkanpeninsula. ... Image File history File links Balkanpeninsula. ... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² (212,000 sq mi) and an approximate population of 55 million people. The archaic Turkish name for the Balkan Peninsula is the Peninsula of Haemus (Χερσόνησος του Αίμου, Chersónisos tou Aímou). The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains which run through the centre of Bulgaria into eastern Serbia. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... In Greek mythology, King Haemus (or Haimos) of Thrace was the son of Boreas. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

Contents

Definitions and boundaries

Balkan Peninsula

Line stretching from the northernmost point of the Adriatic to the northernmost point of the Black Sea[citation needed]
Line stretching from the northernmost point of the Adriatic to the northernmost point of the Black Sea[citation needed]

The Balkans are adjoined by water on three sides: the Black Sea to the east and branches of the Mediterranean Sea to the south and west (including the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean and Marmara seas). Image File history File links Balkan_peninsula_line. ... Image File history File links Balkan_peninsula_line. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


The Balkans

The identity of the Balkans is dominated by its geographical position; historically the area was known as a crossroads of various cultures. It has been a juncture between the Latin and Greek bodies of the Roman Empire, the destination of a massive influx of pagan Slavs, an area where Orthodox and Catholic Christianity met, as well as the meeting point between Islam and Christianity. For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... in Christianity: Eastern Christianity Oriental Orthodoxy Orthodox Christianity Orthodoxy by country in Judaism: Orthodox Judaism Modern Orthodox Judaism Jewish organisations: Orthodox Union Categories: ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


The Balkans today is a very diverse ethno-linguistic region, being home to multiple Slavic, Romance, and Turkic languages, as well as Greek, Albanian, and others. Through its history many other ethnic groups with their own languages lived in the area, among them Thracians, Illyrians, Romans, Uzes, Pechenegs, Cumans, Avars, Celts, Germans and various Germanic tribes.  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family that comprises all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Uzès is a picturesque town and commune in the Gard département, Languedoc, about 15 miles north-northeast of Nîmes. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation...


Possibly the historical event that left the biggest mark on the collective memories of the peoples of the Balkans was the expansion and later fall of the Ottoman Empire. Many people in the Balkans place their greatest folk heroes in the era of either the onslaught or the retreat of the Ottoman Empire. For Serbs, Miloš Obilić, for Albanians, Skanderbeg, for ethnic Macedonians, Nikola Karev, for Bosniaks, Husein Gradaščević and for Bulgarians, Vasil Levski. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... MiloÅ¡ Obilić MiloÅ¡ Obilić (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обилић)was a Serbian knight from Zeta (Montenegro) who, at the Battle of Kosovo between the Serbian Empire and the Ottoman Empire, killed the Ottoman Sultan Murat I. He is associated with ĐuraÄ‘ II Stracimirović of the ruling House of BalÅ¡ić of Zeta, that... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... The Macedonians (Македонци, Makedonci) - also referred to as Macedonian Slavs [1] - are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Nikola Karev (Bulgarian: ) (23 November 1877, KruÅ¡evo, Macedonia - 27 April 1905, Rajčani, Kočani, Macedonia) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, a member and a local leader of what later became known as the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO). ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Coin featuring Husein Gradaščević from the 19th century Husein-kapetan Gradaščević (1802 – August 17, 1834) was a Bosniak general who fought for Bosnian autonomy in the Ottoman Empire. ... Vasil Levski (Bulgarian: Васил Левски, also transliterated as Vassil Levski), born Vasil Ivanov Kunchev (Васил Иванов Кунчев) was a Bulgarian revolutionary, ideologist, strategist and theoretician of the Bulgarian national revolution and leader of the struggle for liberation from Ottoman rule. ...


In the 20th century, the Balkan nations—except Greece and Yugoslavia—were made part of the Warsaw pact (as a result of Soviet hegemony after the ending of World War II). Following the pact's collapse and the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Balkan states have acceded to the European Union, or are in the process of doing so. General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... -1... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ... The bumsItalic textBold text effects of World War II had far-reaching implications for the international community. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ...


Etymology and evolving meaning

The region takes its name from the "Balkan" mountain range in Bulgaria (from the Turkish balkan meaning "a chain of wooded mountains").[1] The name is still preserved in Central Asia where there exist the Balkan Mountains[2] and the Balkan Province of Turkmenistan. On a larger scale, one long continuous chain of mountains crosses the region in the form of a reversed letter S, from the Carpathians south to the Balkan range proper, before it marches away east into Anatolian Turkey. On the west coast, an offshoot of the Dinaric Alps follows the coast south through Dalmatia and Albania, crosses Greece and continues into the sea in the form of various islands. The word was based on Turkish balakan 'stone, cliff', which confirms the pure 'technical' meaning of the term. The mountain range that runs across Bulgaria from west to east (Stara Planina) is still commonly known as the Balkan Mountains. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... Balkan is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains The Stara Planina (Old Mountain) or Balkan mountain range is an extension of the Carpathian mountain range, separated from it by the Danube River. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ...


The first time the name "Balkan" was used in the West for the mountain range in Bulgaria was in a letter by Buonaccorsi Callimarco, an Italian humanist, writer and diplomat in 1490. An English traveler, John Morritt, introduced this term into the English literature at the end of the 18th century, and other authors started applying the name to the wider area between the Adriatic and the Black Sea. The concept of the “Balkan peninsula” was created by the German geographer August Zeune in 1808.[3] As time passed, the term gradually obtained political connotations far from its initial geographic meaning, arising from political changes from the late 1800s to the creation of post-World War I Yugoslavia (initially the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes). Zeune's goal was to have a geographical parallel term to the Italic and Iberian Peninsula, and seemingly nothing more. The gradually acquired political connotations are newer, and, to a large extent, due to oscillating political circumstances. The term Balkans is generally used to describe areas that remained under Turkish rule after 1699, namely: Bulgaria, Serbia (except for Vojvodina), Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro (except for the Boka Bay and Budva), Kosovo, and continental Greece. Vojvodina and Transylvania, it is argued, do not belong to Balkans. After the split of Yugoslavia beginning in June 1991, the term 'Balkans' again received a negative meaning, even in casual usage. Over the last decade, in the wake of the former Yugoslav split, Slovenes have rejected their former label as 'Balkan nations'. This is in part due to the pejorative connotation of the term 'Balkans' in the 1990s, and continuation of this meaning until now. Today, the term 'Southeast Europe' is preferred or, in the case of Slovenia and Croatia, 'Central Europe'. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... Satellite view of the Peninsula in spring The Italian Peninsula or Apennine Peninsula (Italian: Penisola italiana or Penisola appenninica) is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1,000 km from the Alps in the north to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


Southeastern Europe

Due to the aforementioned connotations of the term 'Balkan', many people prefer the term Southeastern Europe instead. The use of this term is slowly growing; a European Union initiative of 1999 is called the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, and the online newspaper Balkan Times renamed itself Southeast European Times in 2003. Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe is an institution aimed at strengthening peace, democracy, human rights and economy in the countries of South Eastern Europe. ... Southeast European Times is a news website for southeastern Europe. ...


The use of this term to mean the Balkan peninsula (and only that) technically ignores the geographical presence of northern Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, and Ciscaucasus, which are also located in the southeastern part of the European continent. The North Caucasus, also called Ciscaucasus, Forecaucasus, or Front Caucasus (Russian: ), is the northern part of the Caucasus region. ...


Western Balkans

European Union institutions and member states use the term "Western Balkans" to refer to Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia, as well as Kosovo.[4] The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development uses "Western Balkans" to refer to the above states, minus Croatia.[5][6][7][8] Founded in 1991, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) uses the tools of investment to help build market economies and democracies in 27 countries from central Europe to central Asia. ...


Ambiguities and controversies

The northern border of the Balkan peninsula is usually considered to be the line formed by the Danube, Sava and Kupa rivers and a segment connecting the spring of the Kupa with the Kvarner Bay. This article is about the Danube River. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... Kupa (Slovenian Kolpa) is a river in Croatia and on the border with Slovenia. ... The Kvarner bay (Croatian kvarnerski zaljev, Italian Golfo del Quarnero/Quarnaro/Carnaro; sometimes also Kvarner gulf) is a bay in northern Adriatic Sea, located between the Istria peninsula and the northern Croatian seacoast. ...


Some other definitions of the northern border of the Balkans have been proposed:

Balkan peninsula with northwest border Soča-Krka-Sava
Balkan peninsula with northwest border Soča-Krka-Sava

The most commonly used Danube-Sava-Kupa northern boundary is arbitrarily set as to the physiographical characteristics, however it can be easily recognized on the map. It has a historical and cultural substantiation. The region so defined (excluding Montenegro, Dalmatia, and the Ionian Islands) constituted most of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire from the late 15th to the 19th century. Kupa forms a natural boundary between south-eastern Slovenia and Croatia and has been a political frontier since the 12th century, separating Carniola (belonging to Austria) from Croatia (belonging to Hungary). This article is about the Danube River. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... Krka is a river in Slovenia, with length circa 111 km; it is a right tributary of the river Sava near Brežice. ... Area: 269. ... The river at at Kanal ob Soči The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... The river at at Kanal ob Soči The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... For other uses of TimiÅŸ, see TimiÅŸ (disambiguation). ... Location of Zagreb within Croatia Coordinates: , Country RC diocese 1094 Free royal city 1242 Unified 1850 Government  - Mayor Milan Bandić Area [1]  - Total 641. ... For other uses, see Triglav (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... Location in Slovenia Coordinates: , Country Founded AD 15 (as Colonia Iulia Aemona) Government  - Mayor and governor Zoran Janković (Lista Zorana Jankovića) Area  - Total 275. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1278, 748 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Balkans ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1278, 748 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Balkans ... The river at at Kanal ob Soči The Isonzo near its outflow into the Adriatic, Isola di Cane, Italy The Soča (Italian: ) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ... Krka is a river in Slovenia, with length circa 111 km; it is a right tributary of the river Sava near Brežice. ... Sava also Save (in Serbian: Сава; German: Save; Hungarian: Száva) is a river in Europe, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi NÄ“soi) are a group of islands in Greece. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ...


The Danube-Sava-Krka-Postojnska Vrata-Vipava-Isonzo line ignores some historical and cultural characteristics, but can be seen as a rational delimitation of the Balkan peninsula from a geographical point of view. It assigns all the Karstic and Dinaric area to the Balkan region. The other separation is Danube-Sava-Una, which is a natural border between Croatia, and Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovnia.


The Sava bisects Croatia and Serbia and the Danube, which is the second largest European river (after Volga), forms a natural boundary between both Bulgaria and Serbia and Romania. North of that line lies the Pannonian plain and (in the case of Romania) the Carpathian mountains. For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ...


Although Romania (with the exception of Dobrudja) is not geographically a part of the Balkans, it is often included in the Balkans in public discourse. Dobruja or sometimes Dobrudja (Dobrogea in Romanian, Dobrudzha in Bulgarian, Dobruca in Turkish) is the territory between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, which includes the Danube Delta and the Romanian sea-shore. ...


The northern boundary of the Balkan peninsula can also be drawn otherwise, in which case at least a part of Slovenia and a small part of Italy (Province of Trieste) may be included in the Balkans.[citation needed] Trieste (It. ...


Croatia is located by half in the Balkan Peninsula and it is generally included to the Balkan states.


Slovenia is also sometimes regarded as a Balkan country due to its association with the former Yugoslavia. When the Balkans are described as a twentieth-century geopolitical region, the whole Yugoslavia is included (in which case Slovenia, Croatia and Vojvodina would also be considered Balkan). General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...


Current common definition

In most of the English-speaking, western world, the countries commonly included in the Balkan region are:[11][12][13][14][15][16]

Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Croatia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost...

Related countries

Some other countries are sometimes included in the list as well:

Other countries not included in the Balkan region that are close to it and/or play or have played an important role in the region's geopolitics, culture and history: Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. ...

Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... For Auguste Piccards deep-sea submersible Trieste, see Bathyscaphe Trieste. ... The history of the Republic of Venice began with the city of Venice, which originated as a collection of lagoon communities banded together for mutual defence from the Lombards as the power of the Byzantine Empire dwindled in northern Italy in the late seventh century. ... One of the first Serbian states, Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been...

Regional organizations

Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe      members     observers      supporting partners
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)      members      former members, joined the EU
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)      members      former members, joined the EU
Central European Initiative (CEI) member states
Central European Initiative (CEI) member states
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)      members      observers
Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI)      members      observers
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers
Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC)      members      observers

See also the Black Sea Regional organizations Image File history File links SEECP_members. ... Image File history File links SEECP_members. ... Southeast European Cooperation Process member states The South East European Co-operation Process (SEECP) was launched on Bulgarias initiative in 1996. ... Image File history File links SP_for_SEE_members. ... Image File history File links SP_for_SEE_members. ... Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe is an institution aimed at strengthening peace, democracy, human rights and economy in the countries of South Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links CEFTA_members_2007. ... Image File history File links CEFTA_members_2007. ... Map of Europe indicating current CEFTA members Type Trade agreement Member states 7 Balkan states, Kosovo Establishment  -  Signed 21 December 1992  Area  -  Total 298. ... Image File history File links CEI_members. ... Image File history File links CEI_members. ... The Central European Initiative or CEI, is a cultural and scientific international cooperative of at present 17 countries, founded in 1991/92 as a successor of the Pentagonale group1. ... Image File history File links SECI_members. ... Image File history File links SECI_members. ... Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI) In the Southeast European Cooperative Initiative (SECI), Romania has had an opportunity to demonstrate its leadership in the region. ... Image File history File links BSEC_members. ... Image File history File links BSEC_members. ... On 25 June 1992, the Heads of State and Government of eleven countries signed in Istanbul the Summit Declaration and the Bosphorus Statement giving birth to the Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Nature and natural resources

Southeastern Europe as seen from NASA's Terra Satellite

Most of the area is covered by mountain ranges running from north-west to south-east. The main ranges are the Dinaric Alps in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia, the Šar massif which spreads from Albania to Republic of Macedonia and the Pindus range, spanning from southern Albania into central Greece. In Bulgaria there are ranges running from east to west: the Balkan mountains and the Rhodope mountains at the border with Greece. The highest mountain of the region is Musala in Bulgaria at 2925 m, with Mount Olympus in Greece, the throne of Zeus, being second at 2919 m and Vihren in Bulgaria being the third at 2914. SE Europe, cut from http://earthobservatory. ... SE Europe, cut from http://earthobservatory. ... Mt Orjen at the Bay of Kotor is the heaviest karstified range of the dinarids View of the central part of the Dinaric Alps (north=down) Valbona pass, northern Albania. ... The Šar mountain (Serbian Шар планина, Šar Planina; Albanian Malet e Sharrit, Sharr) is a mountain on the border of Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... The Pindus (Greek: Πίνδος, Albanian: Pino) mountains are a range located in northern Greece, roughly 160 km (100 miles) long, with a maximum elevation of 2636 m (8650 ft), along the border of Thessaly and Epirus. ... Stara Planina, Rhodope, Rila and Pirin Mountains View from Ray Resthouse towards the Central Balkan Mountains. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over... Musala (Bulgarian: Мусала) is the highest peak in Bulgaria and the entire Balkan Peninsula, standing at 2,971 m (9,747 ft). ... Mount Olympus (Greek: ; also transliterated as Mount Ólympos, and on modern maps, Óros Ólimbos) is the highest mountain in Greece at 2,919 meters high (9,576 feet)[1]. Since its base is located at sea level, it is one of the highest mountains in Europe, in real absolute altitude...


On the coasts the climate is Mediterranean, in the inland it is moderate continental. In the northern part of the peninsula and on the mountains, winters are frosty and snowy, while summers are hot and dry. In the southern part winters are milder.  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ...


During the centuries many woods have been cut down and replaced with bush and brush. In the southern part and on the coast there is evergreen vegetation. In the inland there are woods typical of Central Europe (oak and beech, and in the mountains, spruce, fir and pine). The tree line in the mountains lies at the height of 1800-2300 m. Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), which are listed in the List of Quercus species, and some related genera, notably... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ... Species About 35; see text. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... In this view of an alpine tree-line, the distant line looks particularly sharp. ...


The soils are generally poor, except on the plains where areas with natural grass, fertile soils and warm summers provide an opportunity for tillage. Elsewhere, land cultivation is mostly unsuccessful because of the mountains, hot summers and poor soils, although certain cultures such as olives and grapes flourish. Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... This article is about the fruits of the genus Vitis. ...


Resources of energy are scarce. There are some deposits of coal, especially in Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia and Bosnia. Lignite deposits are widespread in Greece. Petroleum is most notably present in Romania, although scarce reserves exist in Greece, Serbia, Albania and Croatia. Natural gas deposits are scarce. Hydropower stations are largely used in energetics. Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Strip mining lignite at Tagebau Garzweiler near Grevenbroich, Germany Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is the lowest rank of coal and used almost exclusively as fuel for steam-electric power generation. ... Petro redirects here. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ...


Metal ores are more usual than other raw materials. Iron ore is rare but in some countries there is a considerable amount of copper, zinc, tin, chromite, manganese, magnesite and bauxite. Some metals are exported. For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Chromite, iron magnesium chromium oxide: (Fe,Mg)Cr2O4, is an oxide mineral belonging to the spinel group. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... This article is about the ore. ...


History and geopolitical significance

Political history of the Balkans
Main article: History of the Balkans

The Balkan region was the first area of Europe to experience the arrival of farming cultures in the Neolithic era. The practices of growing grain and raising livestock arrived in the Balkans from the Fertile Crescent by way of Anatolia, and spread west and north into Pannonia and Central Europe. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (744 × 618 pixels, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/gif) // The 1800s see the Balkans controlled by Austria-Hungarian Empire to the north and the Ottoman Empire to the south. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 722 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (744 × 618 pixels, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/gif) // The 1800s see the Balkans controlled by Austria-Hungarian Empire to the north and the Ottoman Empire to the south. ... Current political map of the Balkans. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For other uses, see Pannonia (disambiguation). ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


In pre-classical and classical antiquity, this region was home to Greek city-states, Illyrians, Paeonians, Thracians, Epirotes, Mollosians, Thessalians, Dacians and other ancient groups. Later the Roman Empire conquered most of the region and spread Roman culture and the Latin language but significant parts still remained under classical Greek influence. During the Middle Ages, the Balkans became the stage for a series of wars between the Byzantine, Bulgarian and Serbian Empires. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Paionia (Romanized as Paeonia) was, in ancient geography, the land of the Paionians (or Paiones, Paeonians), the exact boundaries of which, like the early history of its inhabitants, are very obscure. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Inhabitants of Epirus. ... The Molossians were a tribe of ancient Epirus. ... Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Dacian kingdom during the reign of Burebista, 82 BC The Dacians (Lat. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско Царство, Srpsko Carstvo) was a medieval empire in the Balkans that emerged from the medieval Serbian kingdom in the 14th century. ...

The Balkans at the end of the 19th century
The Balkans at the end of the 19th century

By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire became the controlling force in the region, although it was centered around Anatolia. In the past 550 years, because of the frequent Ottoman wars in Europe fought in and around the Balkans, and the comparative Ottoman isolation from the mainstream of economic advance (reflecting the shift of Europe's commercial and political centre of gravity towards the Atlantic), the Balkans has been the least developed part of Europe. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe are also sometimes referred to as the Ottoman Wars or as Turkish Wars, particularly in older, European texts. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ...


The Balkan nations began to regain their independence in the 19th century (Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro), and in 1912-1913 a Balkan League reduced Turkey's territory to its present extent in the Balkan Wars. The First World War was sparked in 1914 by the assassination in Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina) of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... For other uses, see Franz Ferdinand (disambiguation). ...


After the Second World War, the Soviet Union and communism played a very important role in the Balkans. During the Cold War, most of the countries in the Balkans were ruled by Soviet-supported communist governments. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


However, despite being under communist governments, Yugoslavia (1948) and Albania (1961) fell out with the Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, led by marshal Josip Broz Tito (1892–1980), first propped up then rejected the idea of merging with Bulgaria, and instead sought closer relations with the West, later even joining many third world countries in the Non-Aligned Movement. Albania on the other hand gravitated toward Communist China, later adopting an isolationist position. Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Tito redirects here. ... Occident redirects here. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the electronic album, see Isolationism (album). ...


The only non-communist countries were Greece and Turkey, which were (and still are) part of NATO. This article is about the military alliance. ...


In the 1990s, the region was gravely affected by armed conflict in the former Yugoslav republics, resulting in intervention by NATO forces in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo and the Republic of Macedonia. The status of Kosovo and ethnic Albanians in general is still mostly unresolved. Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez Janša, Franjo Tuđman, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... This article is about Albanians as an ethnic group. ...


Balkan countries control the direct land routes between Western Europe and South West Asia (Asia Minor and the Middle East). Since 2000, all Balkan countries are friendly towards the EU and the USA. Europes road system incorporates a series of European routes, which are numbered E1 and up. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Greece has been a member of the European Union since 1981; Slovenia and Cyprus since 2004. Bulgaria and Romania became members in 2007. In 2005 the European Union decided to start accession negotiations with candidate countries Croatia and Turkey and the Republic of Macedonia was accepted as a candidate for the European Union membership. As of 2004, Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia are also members of NATO. Bosnia and Herzegovina and what was then Serbia and Montenegro started negotiations with the EU over the Stabilisation and Accession Agreements, although shortly after they started, negotiations with Serbia and Montenegro were suspended for lack of co-operation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


All other countries have expressed a desire to join the EU but at some date in the future.


Population composition by nationality and religion

Ethnic map of the Balkans prior to the First Balkan War, by Paul Vidal de la Blache.
Ethnic map of the Balkans prior to the First Balkan War, by Paul Vidal de la Blache.

The region's principal nationalities include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 596 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1258 × 1266 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Carte ethnique des Balkans Source: Histoire Et Géographie - Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris, 1898 Author: Scan... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 596 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1258 × 1266 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Carte ethnique des Balkans Source: Histoire Et Géographie - Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache, Librairie Armand Colin, Paris, 1898 Author: Scan... Belligerents Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Ivan Fichev, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev, Georgi Todorov Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik... Paul Vidal de la Blache (Pézenas, 1845 - Tamaris, 1918) was a French regional geographer. ...

The region's principal religions are (Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic) Christianity and Islam. A variety of different traditions of each faith are practiced, with each of the Eastern Orthodox countries having its own national church. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Eastern Orthodoxy is the principal religion in the following countries: ...

Roman Catholicism is the principal religion in the following countries: The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... The Church of Greece (Greek: Ekklēsía tês Helládos, IPA: /eklisia tis elaðos/) is one of the fifteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches which make up the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Transliteration: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

  • Croatia
  • Slovenia

Islam is the principal religion in the following countries: For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

  • Albania
  • Bosnia & Herzegovina (40% Muslim majority)
  • Turkey

The following countries have significant minority religious groups of the following denominations:

  • Albania: Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism.
  • Bulgaria: Islam.
  • Croatia: Serbs of the Serbian Orthodox Church.
  • Republic of Macedonia: Albanian and Turkish minorities are predominantly Muslim.
  • Montenegro: Albanians and Bosniaks and other Slavic Muslims are followers of Islam.
  • Serbia: Albanians and Bosniakss and other Slavic Muslims (e.g. Gorani) are followers of Islam, Hungarians and Croats are mostly Catholic, Slovaks are mostly Protestant (Evangelic).

For more detailed information and a precise ethnic breakdown see articles about particular states: Gorani could be the name of: Gorani, (a. ...

Demographics of Albania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... // Population pyramid 4,498,976 (July 2006 est. ... Natality, Mortality and Natural increase per 1,000 population in Bulgaria; year 2006, data of the Bulgarian National Statistical Institute. ... The Demographics of Greece refer to the demography of the population that inhabits the Greek peninsula, a region where the Greek language has been continuously spoken for over 3500 years. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Demographics of Montenegro (based on the 2003 census) Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the census The 2003 census was undertaken by Montenegro, which, together with Serbia, constitutes Serbia and Montenegro. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... // Demographics of the Republic of Macedonia , Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Ethnic map of Serbia // Demographics of Serbia Population of Serbia (including Kosovo) Serbs 66% Albanians 17% Hungarians 3. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Balkan." (English). Encarta World English Dictionary. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  2. ^ "Balkhan Mountains." (English). World Land Features Database. Land.WorldCityDB.com. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  3. ^ Pavic, Silvia (2000-11-22). "Some Thoughts About The Balkans." (English). About, Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  4. ^ Western Balkans: Enhancing the European Perspective. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council (2008-03-05). Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
  5. ^ Marjola Xhunga. "Western Balkans Initiative launched", European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2006-05-21. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  6. ^ http://www.ebrd.com/pubs/factsh/themes/wbalkans.pdf
  7. ^ Marjola Xhunga. "Western Balkans Initiative launched", European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 2006-05-21. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. 
  8. ^ http://www.ebrd.com/pubs/factsh/themes/wbalkans.pdf
  9. ^ http://runeberg.org/salmonsen/2/2/0604.html
  10. ^ http://www.rastko.org.yu/istorija/srbi-balkan/jilic-knot.html
  11. ^ britannica.com - Balkans, comprising Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Kosovo, Montenegro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Moldova
  12. ^ encarta.msn.com - commonly known as the Balkan states: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, and Bulgaria
  13. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia - The Balkan Peninsula therefore includes most of Slovenia, Croatia, and Serbia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Macedonia, continental Greece (including the Peloponnesus), Bulgaria, European Turkey, and SE Romania. These countries, successors to the Ottoman Empire, are called the Balkan States. Historically and politically the region extends north of this line to include all of Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, and Romania.
  14. ^ http://geo.international.gc.ca/canada-europa/croatia/right_nav/about_croatia-en.asp
  15. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9113768/CROATIA
  16. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9112720/CROATIA
  17. ^ Only the European section of it (traditionally called Rumelia or Eastern Thrace) is in the Balkans. "Balkan Peninsula." (English). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. Microsoft Corporation. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • Stavrianos, L. S. [1958] (2000-05-01). The Balkans since 1453, with Traian Stoianovich, New York: NYU Press. ISBN 978-0814797662. 
  • Stoianovich, Traian (September 1994). Balkan Worlds: The First and Last Europe, Sources and Studies in World History. New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1563240324. 

Ivo Banac is a Croatian historian and politician. ... The American Historical Review (AHR) is the official publication of the American Historical Association (AHA), a body of academics, professors, teachers, students, historians, curators and others, founded in 1884 for the promotion of historical studies, the collection and preservation of historical documents and artifacts, and the dissemination of historical research. ... The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the U.S. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals including Critical Inquiry, and a wide array of texts covering... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... John Komlos John Komlos (born December 28, 1944 in Budapest, Hungary) is an American economic historian at the University of Munich where he is professor of economics and chair of economic history. ... Mark Mazower is a notable British historian. ... The Modern Library Chronicles are a series of short books, between 170-210 pages, intended to introduce readers to a period of history. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... Leften Stavros Stavrianos (1913 - March 23, 2004) was an American historian. ...

See also

Current political map of the Balkans. ... This is a list of major historical regions of the Balkan Peninsula. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... This is a list of languages spoken in the Balkans. ... The Balkan sprachbund or linguistic area is the ensemble of areal features—similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various branches of Indo-European, such as Slavic, Greek, Romance and Albanian. ... Balkanization is a geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region into smaller regions that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. ... For other uses, see Orient Express (disambiguation). ... The music of Southeastern Europe or the Balkans is a type of music distinct from others in Europe. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina’s Slavic population underwent a large-scale conversion to Islam after the region’s conquest and occupation by the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the 15th century, giving it a unique character within the Balkan region. ...

External links

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Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Balkan Connection - Business & Opportunities (3636 words)
The Balkans are sometimes referred to as the Balkan peninsula as they are surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean, Marmara and Black seas from the southwest, south and southeast.
The northern border of the Balkan peninsula is generally considered be the line formed by the Danube, Sava and Kupa rivers and a segment connecting the spring of the Kupa with the Kvarner Bay.
The Balkan nations began to regain their independence in the 19th century, and in 1912-1913 a Balkan League reduced Turkey''''s territory to its present extent in the Balkan Wars.
Balkans - definition of Balkans in Encyclopedia (1728 words)
The Balkans are generally considered to comprise the lands to the south of the Kupa, Sava and Danube rivers, which bisect Croatia and Serbia and form a natural boundary between Bulgaria and Romania.
The Balkan land mass is sometimes referred to as the Balkan peninsula as it is surrounded by the Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean, Marmara and Black seas from the southwest, south and southeast.
The Balkan nations began to regain their independence in the 19th century, and in 1912-1913 a Balkan League reduced Turkey's territory to its present extent in the Balkan Wars.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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