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Encyclopedia > Balkan Wars
Balkan Wars

Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War
Date October 8, 1912 - July 18, 1913
Location Balkan Peninsula
Result Treaty of London, Treaty of Bucharest
Combatants
Ottoman flag Ottoman Empire Balkan League:
Bulgaria
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Serbia Serbia
Flag of Montenegro Montenegro
Commanders
Ottoman Empire: Nizam Paşa, Zeki Paşa, Esat Paşa, Abdullah Paşa, Ali Rıza Paşa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev
Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis
Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojović, Stepa Stepanović, Živojin Mišić
Montenegro: King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923 population transfer between Greece and Turkey)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923 population transfer between Greece and Turkey)
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1922, Racial Map Of Europe by Hammond & Co.
Distribution of ethnic groups in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1922, Racial Map Of Europe by Hammond & Co.

The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912–1913 in the course of which the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Montenegro, Greece, and Serbia) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia, Albania and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the spoils. Download high resolution version (1044x1471, 281 KB)Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ... The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on August 10, 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria_(1878-1944). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Image File history File links Old_Flag_of_Montenegro. ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Nizam Pasha was the Chief of Staff of the Army of the Ottoman Empire during the First Balkan War. ... Ali Rizah Pasha was the commanding officer (probably with the rank of mushir-field marshal in the Army of theOttoman Empire) of the Western Turkish Army during the First Balkan War. ... Vladimir Minchev Vazov is a Bulgarian officer, lieutenant-general. ... Constantine I, King of the Hellenes (Greek: Κωνσταντίνος A, Βασιλεύς των Ελλήνων) (2 August 1868 - 11 January 1923) ruled Greece from 1913-1917 and from 1920-1922. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Admiral Kountouriotis Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis (1855-1935) (Greek: Παύλος Κουντουριώτης) was an acclaimed Greek military man, and twice the President of Greece. ... Marshal Radomir Putnik Radomir Putnik, also known as Vojvoda Putnik, (Радомир Путник - Војвода Путник) (born January 24, 1847 in Kragujevac, died May 17, 1917) was a Serbian Field Marshal and Chief of General Staff in the Balkan Wars and the First World War, and took part in all wars that Serbia waged from 1876... Petar Bojović (Serbian: Петар Бојовић) (born July 16, 1858 in MiÅ¡evica near Nova VaroÅ¡, died January 20, 1945 in Belgrade) was a Serbian army field-marshal, and one of four Serbian vojvodas (dukes) in Balkan Wars and World War I. He fought in Serbian-Ottoman Wars from 1876 to 1878 as... Stepa Stepanović (Степа Степановић; March 2, 1856 - April 29, 1929) was a field-marshal (vojvoda) of the Serbian Army who distinguished himself in Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Field Marshal Zivojin Misic (portrait by Uros Predic) Živojin MiÅ¡ić (Живојин Мишић) (1855-1921) was a Vojvoda (Field Marshal) and the most successful Serbian commander who participated in all Serbias wars from 1876 to 1918. ... Coat of arms of Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ King Nikola I Mirkov Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Никола I Мирков Петровић-Његош) (October 7 [O.S. September 25] 1841 – March 1, 1921) was the only king of Montenegro, reigning as king from 1910 to 1918 and as prince from 1860 to 1910. ... Danilo Aleksander Petrović-NjegoÅ¡ (Anglicised: Daniel Alexander Petrovich-Niegosh) (1871 - 1939) was the Crown Prince of Montenegro. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojovi... The battle of Sarantaporo took place on the 9th of October 1912. ... On the 19th of October the Greek army defeat another Ottoman army in the Balkan Wars. ... Epic battle of the First Balkan War of 1912 during which the Serbian forces of Field Marchal Radomir Putnik crushed the Ottoman army of General Zekki north of Uskub, known today as Skopje, the modern capital of Macedonia. ... The Battle of Kirk Kilisse was part of the First Balkan War. ... The Greek army destroys an Ottoman army in a 7 day battle from 24th to 30th October 1912 during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Prilep in the First Balkan War took place on the November 3, 1912. ... The battle of Lule-Burgas was a battle between the Bulgarians and the Ottomans. ... The Battle of Vevi took place on November 2, 1912. ... The Battle of Bitola took place near Bitola from the 16th to the 19th of November 1912. ... The Battle of Elli was a naval battle that took place between the Ottoman Empire and Greece during the Balkan Wars. ... The Battle of Adrianople, Siege of Adrianople, Bulgarian Battle of Odrin or Serbian Battle of Jedrene during the First Balkan War began in mid-November, 1912 and ended with the capture of Adrianople by the Bulgarian 2nd Army under the command of General Vazov (brother of the famous Bulgarian writer... The Battle of Lemnos (January 5-18, 1913) was a naval battle during the First Balkan War. ... This was the last piece of action the Greek army show in the Balkan Wars and it was the last Ottoman ever to enter Macedonia and Epirus. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Combatants Greece Bulgaria Commanders King Constantine I General Ivanov Strength ca. ... Combatants Serbia Bulgaria Commanders General Ivanov Strength ca. ... The battle of Kalimansti was fought between the Serbian army and Bulgarian army during the Second Balkan War. ... The Battle of Kresna Gorge was fought between the Greeks and the Bulgarians during the Second Balkan War. ... Download high resolution version (1237x868, 319 KB)Distribution of Races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923 taken from [Castaneda Library Map Collection] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1237x868, 319 KB)Distribution of Races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923 taken from [Castaneda Library Map Collection] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...

Contents

Background

See also: Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire

The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century. Serbians had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although it lost a small area to the Ottoman Empire in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885). All three as well as Montenegro sought additional territories within the large Ottoman-ruled region known as Roumelia, comprising Eastern Roumelia, Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace (see map). With the rise of national states and their histories, it is very hard to find reliable sources on the Ottoman concept of a nation. ... Combatants Russia, Romania Ottoman Empire The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 had its origins in the Russian goal of gaining access to the Mediterranean Sea and liberating the Orthodox Christian Slavic peoples of the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgarians, Serbians) from the Islamic-ruled Ottoman Empire. ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Proposed flag of Eastern Rumelia. ...


Policies of the Great Powers

Throughout the 19th Century, the Great Powers had different aims over the "Eastern Question", the integrity of the Ottoman Empire. Russia wished for access to the "warm waters" of the Mediterranean and followed a pan-Slavic foreign policy, supporting Bulgaria and Serbia. Britain wished to deny Russia access to the "warm waters" and supported the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, though it also supported a limited expansion of Greece as a backup plan in case integrity of the empire was no longer possible. France wished to strengthen her position in the region, especially in the Levant. Austria-Hungary wished for a continuation of the existence of the Ottoman Empire, since both were multinational entities ruled by a small elite and thus the collapse of the one would affect the other as well. Also, in the eyes of the Habsburg (or Hapsburg) empire, with its large Serbian and Croatian populations, the strengthening of Serbia was highly undesirable. While it has been argued that Italy from that time already wished to recreate the Roman empire, her main aim at the time seems to have been primarily the denial of access to the Adriatic Sea of another major sea power. Germany in turn, under the "Drang nach Osten" policy, aspired to turn the empire into its own de-facto colony, and thus supported its integrity. One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic people. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Balkan countries themselves (except Serbia) sent armed bands inside the Empire (in Macedonia and Thrace) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to protect their own nationals and terrorize those of other nationalities. Low intensity warfare had broken out inside Macedonia between Greek and Bulgarian bands and the Ottoman army after 1904, the so-called Macedonian Struggle. After the Young Turk revolution of July 1908, the situation changed somewhat drastically. Macedonian Struggle(1904-1908) is the name used in Greece to refer to the conflict over Macedonia at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Arabic: تركيا الفتاة) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of the Ottoman Empire. ...


The Young Turk revolution

Main article: Young Turk Revolution

It is no surprise that the "Young Turk" revolution occurred in the troubled European provinces of the Empire. There the threat to its integrity was the most pronounced, and the need for reforms was most evident. When the revolt broke out, it was supported by intellectuals, the army, and almost all the ethnic minorities of the Empire, and forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II to readopt the long defunct Ottoman constitution of 1877, ushering the so-called Second Constitutional Era. Hopes were raised among the Balkan ethnicities of reforms and autonomy, and elections were held to form a representative, multi-ethnic, Ottoman parliament. However, following the Sultan's attempted countercoup, the liberal element of the Young Turks was sidelined and the nationalist element became dominant. Public demonstration in the Sultanahmet district of Istanbul, 1908 The Young Turk Revolution of 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan Abdul Hamid II, marking the onset of the Second Constitutional Era. ... The storming of the Bastille, 14 July 1789 during the French Revolution. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: İkinci Abdülhamid) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... The Countercoup (March 1909) is the famous coup against the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire, which was established by Young Turk Revolution of 1908, aimed to dismantle the Second Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire) and brining the monarchy of Abdul Hamid II with a dethroned Sultans bid for a...


At the same time, in October 1908, Austria-Hungary seized the opportunity of the Ottoman political upheaval to annex the de jure Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which it had occupied since 1878 (see Bosnian Crisis), and Bulgaria declared itself a fully independent kingdom. The Greeks of the autonomous Cretan state proclaimed unification with Greece, though the opposition of the Great Powers prevented the latter action from taking practical effect. Motto None Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members Željko KomÅ¡ić1 NebojÅ¡a Radmanović2 Haris Silajdžić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... The Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 was caused by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in October, 1908. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ...


Reaction in the Balkan States

Frustrated in the north by Austria-Hungary's incorporation of Bosnia with its 975,000 Orthodox Serbs (and many more Serbs and Serb-sympathizers of other faiths), and forced (March 1909) to accept the annexation and restrain anti-Habsburg agitation among Serbian nationalist groups, the Serbian government looked to formerly Serb territories in the south, notably "Old Serbia" (the Sanjak of Novi Pazar and the province of Kosovo).[citation needed] Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Sanjak of Novi Pazar in 1878 The Sanjak of Novi Pazar (Serbian: Новопазарски санџак Novopazarski sandžak; Turkish: Yeni Pazar sancağı) was an Ottoman sanjak (second-level administrative unit) that existed until the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 in the territory of present day Serbia and Montenegro. ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ...


On August 28, 1909, a group of demonstrating Greek officers (Stratiotikos Syndesmos) urging constitutional revision, removal of the royal family from the leadership of the armed forces and a more nationalist foreign policy secured the appointment of a more sympathetic government which they hoped would resolve the Cretan issue in Greece's favour and reverse the defeat of 1897. Bulgaria, which had secured Ottoman recognition of her independence in April 1909 and enjoyed the friendship of Russia, also looked to districts of Ottoman Thrace and Macedonia populated mainly by Bulgarians. In March 1910, an Albanian insurrection broke out in Kosovo which was covertly supported by the young Turks. In August 1910 Montenegro followed Bulgaria's precedent by becoming a kingdom. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


The Balkan League

Bulgarian forces waiting to commence their assault on Adrinople
Bulgarian forces waiting to commence their assault on Adrinople
See also: Italo-Turkish War

Following Italy's victory in the Italo-Turkish War of 1911-1912 the Young Turks fell from power after a coup. The Balkan countries saw this as an opportunity to attack and fulfill their desires of expansion. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 495 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 990 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) , 1912 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Balkan Wars Metadata This file... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 495 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 990 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) , 1912 File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Balkan Wars Metadata This file... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in...


Initially under the encouragement of Russian agents, a series of agreements were concluded between Serbia and Bulgaria in March 1912. Military victory against the Ottoman empire was not possible while it could bring reinforcements from Asia. The condition of the Ottoman railways of the time were primitive, thus most reinforcement would come by sea through the Aegean. Greece was the only Balkan country with a navy powerful enough to deny use of the Aegean to the Turks. Thus a treaty was signed between Greece and Serbia in May 1912. Montenegro subsequently concluded agreements between Serbia and Bulgaria respectively in October 1912. The alliance formed by the agreements became known as the Balkan League, whose existence was undesirable by all the Great powers. Furthermore the league was loose at best, a secret liaison officer between the Greek and the Serbian army was exchanged after the war broke out. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Serbia and Bulgaria had signed treaties to split between them the land of Vardar Macedonia. Greece did not take part in it though. After Greece vetoed the breakout of war several times in the summer, in order to better prepare her navy, the First Balkan War broke out in October 1912 following an impossible ultimatum given to the Porte.


The First Balkan War

Main article: First Balkan War
Territorial changes as a result of the First Balkan war, as of April 1913
Territorial changes as a result of the First Balkan war, as of April 1913

No formal plan existed between the Balkan allies on how to wage the war, except for some cooperation between Serbia and Montenegro over Novi Pazar. The war was practically four different wars fought against the same enemy, at the same time, and in the same region. The Ottoman plans called for the use of an army from Syria to be transferred in the Balkans as part of the defense. Due to Greek maritime operations this proved impossible. The Turks raised their normal forces and in order to make up for the shortfall they raised the Army of Axios, which proved to be of low quality. Combatants Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Esat Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik, Petar Bojovi... Download high resolution version (1144x1056, 365 KB)Ottoman territories occupied by Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro after the First Balkan War Taken from Endowment for International Peace. ... Download high resolution version (1144x1056, 365 KB)Ottoman territories occupied by Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro after the First Balkan War Taken from Endowment for International Peace. ... Centar,Novi Pazar Novi Pazar (Serbian Cyrillic: Нови Пазар,  ) is a city and municipality located in the RaÅ¡ka District of Serbia at 43. ...


Before the ultimatum Montenegro first declared war on October 5th. The main thrust was towards Shkodra, with secondary operations in the Novi Pazar area. Bulgaria attacked towards Eastern Thrace, being stopped only at the outskirts of Constantinople in the Chataldja line. Serbia attacked south towards Skopje and Bitola. Meeting the Greek army later, they turned west towards the Adriatic. Greece landed forces in the Halkidiki peninsula while the main force of the army attacked from Thessaly into Macedonian through the Sarantaporo straight. After the liberation of Thessaloniki (October 26 1912, Julian calendar) the Greek army linked up with the Serb army north and they turned west. Another Greek army had attacked into Epirus, and forces were deployed to that front. Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Chataldja was a defencive position 30-40 km. ... The church of St. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitola, babam Bitola Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vlademir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... ... Map showing Thessaly periphery in Greece Thessaly (Θεσσαλια; modern Greek Thessalía; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is one of the 13 peripheries of Greece, and is further sub-divided into 4 prefectures. ... Sarantaporo (Σαραντάπορο) is a municipality in the Larissa Prefecture, Greece. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ...


Following the declaration of war the Ottoman Navy did not dare exit the safety of the Dardanelles and spent most of its time in Nagaras. The Greek Navy was free to liberate the islands of the Aegean, starting with Lemnos which was used as a base to monitor the Dardanelles. Following a ceasefire in December between the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, the Turkish fleet twice exited the Dardanelles but was twice defeated in the battles of Elle and Lemnos. In January after a coup, Turkey decided to continue the war. Bulgarian forces managed to conquer Adrianople while Greek forces liberated Ioannina. The war was ended with the Treaty of London on May 17 1913. Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Hellenic Navy Jack The Hellenic Navy, (Greek: Πολεμικό Ναύτικο), is the naval force of the modern nation of Greece (Hellenic Republic). ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... The Treaty of London was convened in May 1913 to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War. ...


Second Balkan War

Main article: Second Balkan War

Though the Balkan allies had fought together against the common enemy, that was not enough to overcome their mutual rivalries. While Serbian and Bulgarian claims, or Serbian and Greek claims, could be compromised upon, Greek and Bulgarian claims proved irreconcilable. When the Greek army entered Thessaloniki, the Bulgarian 7th division was only a day away, and they asked to allow a Bulgarian battalion to enter the city. Greece accepted in exchange for allowing a Greek unit to enter the city of Serres. The Bulgarian unit that entered Thessaloniki turned out to be a brigade instead of a battalion and caused concern among the Greeks, who viewed it as an attempt to establish a condominium over the city. It was removed (along with the Greek unit from Serres) by mutual treaty and was transported to Dedeağaç (modern Alexandroupolis), leaving only a small force behind. Greece had also allowed the Bulgarians to control the stretch of the Thessaloniki-Constantinople railroad that lay in Greek-occupied territory, since Bulgaria controlled the largest part of this railroad anyway. Bulgaria however was not satisfied with the territory it controlled in Macedonia and asked Greece to relinquish control of land even west of Thessaloniki, in Pieria. This alarmed Greece, which decided to maintain a high level of alert on its army. Furthermore tension between Serbia and Bulgaria was rising. Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev Serbia: Radomir Putnik, Greece:King Constantine, Romania: Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 200,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... Serres (Greek: Σέρρες, older form: Σέρραι, Turkish: Serez or Siroz, Slavic: Серез/Serez, Сяр/Syar or Сер/Ser) is a city in the Greek region of Macedonia. ... This article refers to a form of housing. ... Alexandroupolis (Greek: Αλεξανδρούπολη) is a city of Greece and the capital of the Evros Prefecture in Thrace. ... Pieria (Πιερία) is one of the fifty-one prefectures of Greece. ...


After a series of negotiations Greece and Serbia signed a treaty of mutual defence against an attack on any part, not only Bulgarian but also Austro-Hungarian on May 19/June 1, 1913. With this treaty a mutual border was agreed between the two and an agreement for mutual diplomatic support. Both countries decided to remain on the defensive and not attack Bulgaria. Still the Serbians kept the entire Vardar Macedonia because of the majority of population and historical claims. Claiming that the Serbians did not recognize the border treaty they signed, it was Bulgaria that first attacked, without formally declaring war. On June 17, 1913 they attacked the Serbian army in Gevgelija and then the Greek army in Nigrita. Gevgelija on the map of Republic of Macedonia Coat of arms of Gevgelija Gevgelija (Macedonian: Гевгелија, Greek: Γευγελή, Yevyelí) is a town with a population of 20,362 located in the very southeast of the Republic of Macedonia along the banks of the Vardar River, situated at the countrys main border... Nigrita (Greek: Νιγρίτα) is a town and a municipality situated almost between the Strymonian plain of the Strymon river and the Vertiskos mountains featuring the mountaintop Trani Rachi to the southwest. ...


While the Serbian army faced superior Bulgarian forces and had problems, the Greek army was more successful. Retreating according to plan for two days while Thessaloniki was cleared of remaining Bulgarian detachments, the Greek army counterattacked and defeated the Bulgarians at Kilkis-Lahanas. However, the Greek army did not enter the city of Serres in time to prevent it being razed by irregular Bulgarian units. The Greek army then divided their forces and advanced in two directions. Part proceeded east and occupied all land west of the Mesta River. The rest of the Greek army advanced up the Struma River valley, defeating the Bulgarian army in the battles of Doiran and Mt. Beles before themselves being defeated at the Kresna straights. The Greeks offered a ceasefire and the Bulgarians accepted due to the danger posed by the Romanian army in the north. Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... Combatants Greece Bulgaria Commanders King Constantine I General Ivanov Strength ca. ... Mesta (Bulgarian: Места) or Nestos (Greek: Νέστος) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... The Struma (Bulgarian: Струма, Greek: Strimonis, Turkish: Karasu (meaning black water in Turkish)) is a river in Bulgaria and Greece. ... Combatants Great Britain, Greece Bulgaria Commanders George Milne Vladimir Vazov Strength - English: 4 divisions, Greeks: 2 divisions - 9-th Infantry division, with parts of 11-th Infantry division and the Mountain Division (Total: 34,500) Casualties English: 47,000 Greeks: 12,000 494 The Battle of Doiran was fought from... The Battle of Kresna Gorge was fought between the Greeks and the Bulgarians during the Second Balkan War. ...


Seeing the military position of the Bulgarian army, Romania and the Ottoman Empire decided to intervene. Romania raised an army and declared war on Bulgaria on June 27. They encountered little resistance from the Bulgarians, and by the time of the ceasefire were only 30 kilometers from Sofia. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Position of Sofia in Bulgaria Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Boyko Borisov Area  - City 1,349 km²  (520. ...


The Ottomans managed to retake Adrianople (Edirne) which had historic significance for the Turks, being a former Ottoman capital city (see Adrianople). The Ottomans also managed to recover eastern Thrace which was largely lost in the First Balkan War, and thus regained a land mass in Europe which was only slightly larger than the present-day European territory of the Republic of Turkey. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ... Edirne is a city in (Thrace), the westernmost part of Turkey, close to the borders with Greece and Bulgaria. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ...


The Bucharest treaty and the borders of Albania

This section is in need of expansion.


Aftermath

The wars were an important precursor to World War I, to the extent that Austria-Hungary took alarm at the great increase in Serbia's territory and regional status. This concern was shared by Germany, which saw Serbia as a satellite of Russia. Serbia's rise in power thus contributed to the two Central Powers' willingness to risk war following the assassination in Sarajevo of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in June 1914. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Satellite state or client state is a political term that refers to a country which is formally independent but which is primarily subject to the domination of another, larger power. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... A plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, a member of Young... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ...


Then the Austro-Hungarian Army had a 3-year struggle to annex Serbia and Montenegro. This was accomplished when Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria joined the central powers along with Germany.


Urlanis estimated in Voini I Narodo-Nacelenie Europi (1960) that in the first and second Balkan wars there were 122,000 killed in action, 20,000 dead of wounds, and 82,000 dead of disease.

Ethnic exchanges & expulsions between 1912 and 1915
Ottomans Greeks Bulgarians
Greek Macedonia 100,000 50,000
Greek+Serbian Macedonia 100,000
Thrace 150,000–160,000
Eastern section of Thrace 51,000
Western section of Thrace 40,000–50,000
Bulgaria-Ottoman Empire Border 47,000 49,000
Totals 190,000–200,000 150,000–160,000 250,000

Notes

See also

Since the area has been referred to as the Balkans, notable conflicts have included: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... The Serbo-Bulgarian War (Bulgarian: Сръбско-българска война, Srabsko-balgarska voyna; Serbian: Српско-бугарски рат, Srpsko-bugarski rat) was a war between Serbia and Bulgaria that erupted on November 14, 1885 and lasted until November 28 the same year. ... Combatants Central Powers Triple Entente, Serbia, Romania The Balkans Campaign of World War I was fought between Serbia and later Romania who sided with the Allied Powers against the Central Powers, mostly Austria-Hungary and Germany as well as Bulgaria. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Germany Italy Bulgaria Albania Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Yugoslavia Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Giovanni Messe Alexander Papagos Henry Maitland Wilson The Balkans Campaign was the Italian and German invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia during World War II. It began with Italys annexation of Albania in April... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
balkan wars - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (571 words)
The wars were an important precursor to World War I, to the extent that Austria-Hungary took alarm at the great increase in Serbia's territory and regional status.
The background to the wars lies in the incomplete emergence of nation-states on the fringes of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth century.
Serbians had gained substantial territory during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, while Greece acquired Thessaly in 1881 (although she lost a small area to Turkey in 1897) and Bulgaria (an autonomous principality since 1878) incorporated the formerly distinct province of Eastern Rumelia (1885).
AllRefer.com - Balkan Wars (Wars And Battles) - Encyclopedia (427 words)
Balkan Wars, 1912–13, two short wars, fought for the possession of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire.
The outbreak of the war (Oct., 1912), in which Greece and Montenegro joined the original allies, was followed by the speedy expulsion of the Turks from all of European Turkey, except the Constantinople area.
The Balkan Wars prepared the way for World War I by satisfying some of the aspirations of Serbia and thereby giving a great impetus to the Serbian desire to annex parts of Austria-Hungary; by alarming Austria and stiffening Austrian resolution to crush Serbia; and by giving causes of dissatisfaction to Bulgaria and Turkey.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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