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Encyclopedia > Balinese gamelan
Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra
Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra

A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. The term refers more to the set of instruments than the players of those instruments. A gamelan as a set of instruments is a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are not interchangeable. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 378 KB) Traditional instruments - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 378 KB) Traditional instruments - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who gather to perform music. ... Generally speaking, a metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet. ... Xylophone in Bali 1937 The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia (Nettl 1956, p. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A gong is any one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ...


The word "gamelan" comes from the Javanese word "gamel", meaning to strike or hammer, and the Malay-Indonesian suffix "an" makes the root a collective noun. The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ...

Contents


Instruments and characteristics

Javanese Drums at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
Javanese Drums at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

Gamelan are found in the Indonesian islands of Java, Madura, Bali, and Lombok (and other Sunda Islands), in a wide variety of ensemble sizes and formations. In Bali and Lombok today, and in Java through the 18th century, the term "gong" has been preferred to or synonymous with gamelan. Traditions of gamelan-like ensembles (sometimes called "gong-chime ensembles" by ethnomusicologists) also exist in the Philippines, Malaysia and Suriname, sometimes due to emigration, trade, or diplomacy. More recently, through immigration and local enthusiasm, gamelan ensembles have become active throughout Europe, The Americas, Asia, and Australia. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 296 KB) Traditional Indonesian drums - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Drum Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 296 KB) Traditional Indonesian drums - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Drum Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Madura is an Indonesian island off the northeastern coast of Java, near the port of Surabaya. ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , , one of the Lesser Sunda Islands. ... Satellite photograph of Lombok, showing its volcano. ... The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in west part of the Indonesian Archipelago. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ...

Javanese gongs at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
Javanese gongs at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

Although gamelan ensembles sometimes include solo and choral voices, plucked and/or bowed string and wind instruments, they are most notable for the large number of metal percussion instruments. A central Javanese gamelan ensemble includes: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 417 KB) Traditional instruments - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gong Gamelan Music of Indonesia Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 417 KB) Traditional instruments - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gong Gamelan Music of Indonesia Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... A string instrument (also stringed instrument) is a musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. ... A wind instrument is a musical instrument that contains some type of resonator (usually a tube), in which a column of air is set into vibration by the player blowing into (or over) a mouthpiece set at the end of the resonator. ... Percussion instruments are music instruments played by being struck, shaken, rubbed or scraped, hence the percussive name. ...

The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali
The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali

Metals used include bronze, brass, and iron, with a 10:3 copper-to-tin bronze alloy usually considered the best material. In addition, there are gamelan ensembles composed entirely of bamboo-keyed instruments, of bamboo flutes, of zithers, or of unaccompanied voices with the functions of metallophones or gongs in the metal ensemble transferred to surrogates. Generally speaking, a metallophone is any musical instrument consisting of tuned metal bars which are struck to make sound, usually with a mallet. ... Saron barung (front, with wooden mallets) and saron panerus (in back, with horn mallet) The saron is a musical instrument of Indonesia, which is used in the gamelan. ... A Gendér is a type of metallophone which is used a lot in Balinese and Javanese Gamelan music. ... A gangsa is a type of metallophone which is used a lot in Balinese and Javanese Gamelan music. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Most orchestral glockenspiels are mounted in a case. ... A gong is any one of a wide variety of metal percussion instruments. ... Bonang of Bali The bonang is an instrument used in the gamelan. ... The kenong is one of the instruments used in the Indonesian gamelan. ... A kempul is an Indonesian musical instrument. ... Two gong rails; the two sets (on unconnected stands) are pélog and sléndro. ... Xylophone in Bali 1937 The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia (Nettl 1956, p. ... A gambang is a metallophone-like percussive instrument of Indonesian origin, with wooden bars as opposed to the metallic ones in a Western metallophone; it forms part of a gamelan ensemble. ... Kendang of Java Kendang (Javanese: Kendhang) is the primary drum used in gamelan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1049x676, 244 KB)A performance of Gamelan jegog performed in Peliatan, Bali circa 1989. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1049x676, 244 KB)A performance of Gamelan jegog performed in Peliatan, Bali circa 1989. ... Jegog is a form of gamelan music indigenous to Bali, Indonesia played on instruments made of Bamboo. ... Assorted ancient bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Brass is the term used for alloys of copper and zinc in a solid solution. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Atomic mass 55. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A Musima Guitar Zither 45 strings with 21 melody, 24 chords The zither is a musical string instrument, mainly used in folk music. ...


There are many ways to look at the musical structure of gamelan music. One is to consider three layers: a fixed melodic outline, with punctuated by lower pitched instruments and decorated by higher pitched instruments. A Javanese classification also adds a leader of the melody and a leader of time. Many of the music forms will be marked at the end by the largest gong in the ensemble, although there are some exceptions.


Varieties of gamelan ensembles

Balinese gamelan varieties

Playing gamelan instruments - Bpk. Soegito at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
Playing gamelan instruments - Bpk. Soegito at the Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 326 KB) Traditional Indonesian instrument being played - Indonesian Embassy File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Music of Indonesia Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/December-2005 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Playing... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 326 KB) Traditional Indonesian instrument being played - Indonesian Embassy File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Music of Indonesia Wikipedia:Featured pictures visible User talk:Fir0002 Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/December-2005 Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Playing... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Angklung is a style of gamelan found primarily in Bali, Indonesia. ... A gambang is a metallophone-like percussive instrument of Indonesian origin, with wooden bars as opposed to the metallic ones in a Western metallophone; it forms part of a gamelan ensemble. ... Gamelan gong kebyar is a modern style or genre of Balinese gamelan music. ... Jegog is a form of gamelan music indigenous to Bali, Indonesia played on instruments made of Bamboo. ... Joged bumbung is a style of gamelan music from Bali, Indonesia on instruments made primarily out of bamboo. ... Gamelan selunding is a sacred ensemble of gamelan music from Bali. ... Gamelan semar pegulingan is an old variation of the Balinese music genre gamelan. ... Kecak (pronounced: KEH-chahk, alternate spellings: Ketjak, Ketjack, and Ketiak), a form of Balinese music drama, originated in the 1930s and is performed primarily by men. ... Gamelan beleganjur is one of the most popular styles of gamelan music in Bali. ... Saron barung (front, with wooden mallets) and saron panerus (in back, with horn mallet) The saron is a musical instrument of Indonesia, which is used in the gamelan. ...

Javanese gamelan varieties

  • Central Java
    • Ritual or "archaic" gamelan
    • Classical gamelan
    • Gamelan Gadhon
    • Gamelan Siteran
    • The court gamelan
      • Mangkunagaran
      • Pakualaman
      • Surakarta
      • Yogyakarta
    • Banyumas
      • Bamboo gamelan
      • Gamelan without instruments
  • Cirebon (Northwest Java)
    • Gamelan Prawa
    • Gamelan Pelog
    • Renteng
    • Sekati
    • Dengung
    • Gamelan Kedempling
  • East Java
  • Sunda (West Java)

A Gamelan Gadhon is an ensemble consisting of the soft instruments of the Javanese gamelan. ... A typical large, double gamelan in contemporary Solo (Surakarta) will include, in the sléndro set, one saron panerus (or saron peking), two saron barang (music), one or two saron demung, one gender panerus, one gender barung, one slenthem (or gender panembung), one bonang panerus and one bonang barung (each... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... Dr. Gugum Gumbira Tirasondjaja, often known just as Gugum Gumbira, is a Sundanese composer, orchestra leader, choreographer, and entrepreneur from Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. ... Kliningan is a Sundanese musical genre that includes the Juru Kawih (singer) accompanied by gamelan. ... Kecapi is a group of string instruments which are plucked, and the suling is a javan flute made of bamboo. ...

Other Indonesian gamelan varieties

Non-Indonesian gamelan varieties

American Gamelan is a style of gamelan based on Javanese gamelan instruments and music, but using primarily American made instruments and compositions. ...

Cultural context

Gamelan is often used to accompany dance, wayang puppet performances, and rituals. Some performances are associated with royalty, such as visits by the sultan of Yogyakarta. Certain gamelans are associated with rituals, such as the Gamelan Sekaten, which is used in celebration of Mawlid an-Nabi (Muhammad's birthday). In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance. Wayang is an Indonesian word for theater. ... Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono is the title of The Sultan that rules Yogyakarta Sultanate in Yogyakarta Special Region province of Indonesia. ... Mawlid, Mawlid an-Nabi or Milad al-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad, the final prophet of Islam; also known as The Seal of the Prophets. Sunni Muslims celebrate this day on the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal in the Islamic calendar; whereas Twelver Shia... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


In the West, gamelan is often performed in a concert context, but may also incorporate dance or wayang.


Tuning

Celempung - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.
Celempung - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra.

The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems: sléndro, pélog. There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis, similar to a European "natural" minor scale). In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason (octave), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. Colin McPhee (1966) remarks, "Deviations in what is considered the same scale are so large that one might with reason state that there are as many scales as there are gamelans." However, this is a view that is contested by some teachers of gamelan, and there have been efforts to combine multiple ensembles and tuning structures into one gamelan so as to ease transportation issues at the times of festivals. One such ensemble is gamelan Manikasanti, which can play the repertoire of many different ensembles. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Traditional Indonesian stringed instrument - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 262 KB) Traditional Indonesian stringed instrument - the Indonesian Embassy in Australia File links The following pages link to this file: Gamelan Wikipedia:Reference desk archive/Humanities/December 2005 ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... In music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice The act of tuning an instrument or voice. ... Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a pentatonic (five tone) scale, one of the two most common scales used in Indonesian gamelan music. ... Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. ... Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. ... The word diapason (pronounced ) is another name for the musical interval of the octave, especially in the context of Pythagorean intervals. ... In music, an octave (sometimes abbreviated 8ve or 8va) is the interval between one musical note and another with half or double the frequency. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ...


A peculiarity of gamelans is that, although the intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next. The occasion for the word approximately is that it is common in Balinese gamelan that instruments are played in pairs which are tuned slightly apart so as to produce interference beating which are ideally at a consistent speed for all pairs of notes in all registers. It is thought that this contributes to the very "busy" and "shimmering" sound of gamelan ensembles. In the religious ceremonies that contain Gamelan, these interference beats are meant to give the listener a feeling of a god's presence or a stepping stone to a meditative state. Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... In acoustics, a beat is an interference between two sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as periodic variations in volume whose rate is the difference between the two frequencies. ...


Influence on Western music

The gamelan has been appreciated by several western composers of classical music, most famously Claude Debussy who heard a Javanese gamelan play at the Paris Exposition of 1889 (World's Fair). (The gamelan Debussy heard was in the near-diatonic madenda scale and was played by Sundanese musicians.[citation needed]) Despite his enthusiasm, direct citations of gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, or ensemble textures have not been located in any of Debussy's own compositions. However, the equal-tempered pentatonic scale appears in his music of this time and afterward, and a Javanese gamelan-like heterophonic texture is emulated on occasion, particularly in "Pagodes," from Estampes (solo piano, 1903), in which the great gong's cyclic punctuation is symbolized by a prominent perfect fifth. Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... Claude Debussy Achille-Claude Debussy (IPA ) (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918) was a French composer. ... The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a Worlds Fair held in Paris, France from May 5, to October 31, 1889. ... A Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... Two gong rails; the two sets (on unconnected stands) are pélog and sléndro. ... Colotomy is a term coined by the ethnomusicologist Jaap Kunst to describe the rhythmic patterns of the gamelan. ...


Direct homages to gamelan music are to be found in works for western instruments by Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Colin McPhee, Benjamin Britten and Steve Reich. In more recent times, American composers such as Barbara Benary, Lou Harrison, Dennis Murphy, Michael Tenzer, Evan Ziporyn, Daniel James Wolf and Jody Diamond as well as Australian composers such as Peter Sculthorpe, Andrew Schultz and Ross Edwards have written several works with parts for gamelan instruments or full gamelan ensembles. I Nyoman Windha is among contemporary Indonesian composers that have written compositions using western instruments along with Gamelan. American folk guitarist John Fahey included elements of gamelan in many of his late-60s sound collages, and again in his 1997 collaboration with Cul de Sac, The Epiphany of Glenn Jones. The experimental art-rock band King Crimson, while not using Gamelan instruments, used interlocking rhythmic paired guitars that were influenced by Gamelan. [1] Experimental pop groups His Name is Alive and Xiu Xiu use Gamelan percussion in many songs. Béla Bartók in 1927 For other uses, see Bartok (disambiguation). ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer. ... Olivier Messiaen. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten, OM CH (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer, conductor, and pianist. ... Steve Reich Steve Reich (born Stephen Michael Reich, October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... Barbara Benary is an American composer and ethnomusicologist specializing in Indonesian and Indian music. ... Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 - February 2, 2003) was an American composer. ... Dennis Murphy (born January 19, 1934) is a composer, musician, instrument maker and artist. ... Michael Tenzer (born 1957) is a composer, performer, educator and scholar. ... Evan Ziporyn is composer of jazz and of music for Balinese gamelans, who plays the clarinet and the metallophone. ... Daniel James Wolf (born September 13, 1961 in Upland, California) is an American composer of serious music and a music scholar. ... Jody Diamond is an American composer, performer, writer, publisher, editor, and educator. ... Peter Sculthorpe (born April 29, 1929) is a noted Australian composer from Launceston, Tasmania. ... Ross Edwards (b. ... I Nyoman Windha is one of the leading musicians and contemporary composers of Balinese Gamelan Music. ... John Fahey ( February 28, 1939–February 22, 2001) was an American guitarist and composer, and one of the first guitarists to perform solo instrumental steel-string acoustic guitar. ... Cul de Sac are a rock music group formed in 1990 in Boston, Massachusetts and led by guitarist Glenn Jones. ... King Crimson is an English musical group founded by guitarist Robert Fripp and drummer Michael Giles in 1969. ... His Name Is Alive is a band from Livonia, Michigan, essentially the personal project of musician Warren Defever. ... A promotional photo of Caralee and Jamie Copyright Angel Ceballos. ...


Many Americans were first introduced to the sounds of gamelan by the popular anime film Akira. Gamelan elements are used in this film to punctuate several exciting fight scenes, as well as to symbolize the emerging psychic powers of the tragic hero, Tetsuo. The gamelan in the film's score was performed by the members of the Japanese musical collective Geinoh Yamashirogumi. Akira may refer to: Akira - an anime and manga series Akira - a London three-piece alternative rock/post-rock band Akira class starship in the Star Trek fictional universe A female Scottish name, a Japanese given name or surname — See below: Akira as a common name Akira is a female... Geinoh Yamashirogumi is a Japanese musical collective founded in 1974 by Shoji Yamashiro, consisting of hundreds of people from all walks of life: journalists, doctors, engineers, students, businessmen, etc. ...


Gamelan outside Indonesia

Australia

Most of the gamelans in Australia are associated with universities or schools. One of the most famous is the gamelan Digul, made in the Digul prison camp in 1927 and brought to Australia during World War II. [2]


The Netherlands

The first gamelans outside of Indonesia were in the Netherlands, the country which had colonized the islands. Before World War II, the Javanese dancer Jodjana had a small gamelan group in the Netherlands, which accompanied his performances. He had to train Dutch musicians. Early during the war, the resistance fighter Bernard IJzerdraat Sr. was killed by the Germans. His son Bernard then left home and in Amsterdam heard a group of stranded javanese sailors play a gamelan at the Colonial Museum (later: Museum of the Tropics). He took lessons with them and soon started his own group with friends from his school in Haarlem. This became Babar Layar, the first serious gamelan group in the Netherlands. Babar Layar played in Yogyakarta style, after Bernard studied one full year in the kraton. They often accompanied Mas Pakun, a Yogyanese dancer who studied theology in Amsterdam. When Mantle Hood came to Amsterdam to write his dissertation on pathet, Bernard trained him to play gamelan. (Mas Pakun died a few years later in a tragic traffic accident after his return to Indonesia.) Mantle Hood later taught ethnomusicology in the U.S., and is regarded as the founding father of gamelan in that country. Bernard married a Sundanese wife and emigrated to Indonesia in 1954, where he became known as Suryabrata, working for RRI Jakarta and Universitas Nasional. Combatants Allies: Soviet Union United Kingdom United States and others Axis Powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Winston Churchill Franklin Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tojo Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000,000 Total dead: 50,000,000 Military dead: 8,000... ... Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province of Indonesia on the island of Java. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Mantle Hood (? - July 31, 2005) was an American ethnomusicologist who specialized in tn studying gamelan music from Indonesia. ... The pathet (Javanese spelling; also patet) is an organizing concept in gamelan music. ... Ethnomusicology (from the Greek ethnos = nation and mousike = music), formerly comparative musicology, is the study of music in its cultural context, cultural musicology. ... Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) is the state radio network of Indonesia. ...


In 1971, the ethnomusicologist Ernst Heins invited K.R.M.T. Ronosuripto of the Mangkunagaran palace, Surakarta to Amsterdam. This gave a new impetus to the performance of gamelan and Javanese dance in the Netherlands. Together with Mr and Mrs Ronosuripto, the Amsterdam Gamelan group played many concerts and performances with Javanese dance and shadow puppetry (wayang kulit). Rien Baartmans, who as a child had been taking lessons from Bernard IJzerdraat, studied wayang and kendhang with Pak Ripto, which very much stimulated his own group Ngesthi Raras in Haarlem. Wayang is the Indonesian term for puppet, and the term refers to any and all of the numerous varieties of puppetry found in the archipelago. ... Kendang of Java Kendang (Javanese: Kendhang) is the primary drum used in gamelan. ...


In 1978 the new gamelan society Naga acquired a gamelan from Solo. This gamelan was used by several groups, performing traditional and modern music for gamelan. In the same year Elsje Plantema (a musician specializing in Javanese gamelan) and Rien Baartmans (dhalang) founded Raras Budaya, with the aim of performing wayang kulit in Dutch. Between 1980 and 1992, Raras Budaya performed numerous wayang plays. When Naga was dissolved in 1995, their gamelan was given to Raras Budaya, and is still used by gamelan groups conducted by Elsje Plantema and Jurrien Sligter (a musician who is interested in modern compositions for gamelan). Surakarta (its formal name; locally it is referred to as Solo) is an Indonesian city of approximately 500,000 people located in Central Java. ... A dalang manipulating puppets - The Indonesian Embassy in Australia The dalang (Javanese: dhalang) is the puppeteer in wayang kulit performance of Indonesia. ...


Today, several Javanese and Balinese gamelan groups are active in the Netherlands. Javanese style groups exist in Amsterdam, Delft, The Hague, Renkum and Arnhem. Balinese groups can be found in Amsterdam and The Hague. A Sundanese group exists in Leiden (Leyde).


North America

Gamelan music was introduced to the Western hemisphere at the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago. A Sundanese gamelan was imported as part of the Java Village exhibit and was acquired by the Field Museum of Natural History following the exposition. After the gamelan was restored in the late 1970s, it was used for instruction by a community arts organization, which gave its first performance in May of 1978. The organization incorporated in 1980 as Friends of the Gamelan and continues to perform with two central Javanese gamelan sets that it has acquired. There are more than 100 gamelan ensembles in the United States. ... One-third scale replica of Daniel Chester Frenchs Republic, which stood in the great basin at the exposition, Chicago, 2004 The Worlds Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago Worlds Fair), a Worlds fair, was held in the U.S. city of Chicago in 1893 to celebrate... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ...


Many schools, universities and other institutions in North America own sets of Gamelan instruments. These gamelans are typically played by mixed-gender groups of students, a practice that's rare in Indonesia for religious reasons. Among the earliest such groups were Wesleyan University [1] and UCLA [2]. Established institutional gamelan ensembles in the U.S. include Gamelan Nyai Saraswati at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gamelan Burat Wangi and Gamelan Kyai Dorodasih at California Institute of the Arts [3], Gamelan Galak Tika at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Gamelan Lila Muni at Eastman School of Music, Gamelan Semara Santi at Swarthmore College, Gamelan Saraswati at University of Maryland, College Park, Gamelan Kembang Atangi at Loyola Marymount University, Gamelan Giri Kusuma at Pomona College, and the Javanese Court Gamelan, “Son of the Good Earth,” at Creighton University. Wesleyan University founded in 1831, is a private, liberal arts university in Middletown, Connecticut. ... The University of California, Los Angeles, generally known as UCLA, is a public, coeducational university whose main campus is in the residential area of Westwood, Los Angeles, California. ... The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. ... Entrance to CalArts on McBean Parkway The California Institute of the Arts is commonly referred to as CalArts. ... The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, or MIT, is a private research university located in the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. Its mission and culture are guided by an emphasis on teaching and research grounded in practical applications of science and technology. ... The Eastman School of Music is the University of Rochesters college and graduate school of music. ... Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college in the United States, with an enrollment of about 1450 students. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in College Park, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., USA. As the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland, the university is most often referred to as the University of Maryland... Loyola Marymount University (LMU) is a prestigious co-educational private Roman Catholic Jesuit university in Los Angeles, California. ... The Smith Campus Center Fountain at Pomona College during the inauguration of David Oxtoby Pomona College is a small private residential liberal arts college located 30 miles (48 km) east of Downtown Los Angeles in Claremont, California. ... Creighton University, founded in 1878, is a Jesuit-Catholic college located in Omaha, Nebraska. ...


There are also professional gamelan ensembles. Gamelan Son of Lion, a group that focuses on newly-composed music by both the composer-members of the group and invited composers from around the world. Gamelan Son of Lion is a new-music gamelan ensemble based in New York City. ...


Since 1979 a few gamelan ensembles have been organized as community arts organizations or clubs. The first Javanese community group was the Boston Village Gamelan [4] in Massachusetts, and the first Balinese community group was Gamelan Sekar Jaya in California. Other community Balinese gamelan ensembles are Gamelan Mitra Kusuma in Washington, D.C., and Gamelan Tunas Mekar [5] in Denver. Gamelan Sari Raras is an active Javanese ensemble in Berkeley, California; the name was given to the group by Widiyanto (aka Midiyanto), and the instruments, brought to the U.S. from Java in 1971, are named Kyai Udan Mas, or Venerable Golden Rain. Gamelan X (formerly Onepeoplevoice) is based in Oakland. Gamelan Sekar Jaya is a Balinese gamelan ensemble located in the San Francisco Bay Area. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... Nickname: The Mile-High City Location of Denver in Colorado Coordinates: City-County Denver (coextensive) Founded November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area    - City 401. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... Oakland, founded in 1852, is a major American city on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in Northern California in the United States. ...


United Kingdom

There are over fifty gamelans of various kinds in the United Kingdom, many of them based at colleges or community centres. University of York was the first British university to purchase a gamelan, named Kyai Sekar Patak; it is still played by students there. The oldest community Gamelan group in the UK is the Oxford Gamelan Society, which plays Kyai Madu Laras, donated to the University of Oxford's Bate Collection of musical instruments by the Indonesian ministry of Forestry in 1985. Other active groups exist at the University of Aberdeen, University of Cambridge playing Gamelan Duta Laras, the University of Durham, Kingston University and City University London, amongst others. A program of classes usually runs at the South Bank Centre, which also has a performing group of gamelan professionals, the South Bank Gamelan Players. The Glasgow based Gamelan Naga Mas regularly gives performances and introductory workshops, teacher and special needs courses in Scotland. The London Symphony Orchestra[6] holds a Balinese gamelan at LSO St Luke's; this is used by schools, a community group, players of the orchestra and Balinese composers. This article is about the British university. ... The University of Oxford (often called Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Bate Collection is a collection of musical instruments, mainly for Western classical music from medieval times onwards. ... This article is about the year. ... The University of Aberdeen is one of the ancient universities of Scotland. ... The University of Cambridge (often called Cambridge University, or just Cambridge), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Durham University is a university in England. ... Kingston University is a university in the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, south-west London. ... City University could be City University of Hong Kong City University, London City University of New York City University, Washington or Dublin City University Oakland City University Oklahoma City University New Jersey City University Osaka City University This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... The South Bank Centre is a complex of arts buildings located on the south bank of the River Thames beside the Hungerford Bridge. ... The London Symphony Orchestra (frequently abbreviated to LSO) is one of the major orchestras of the United Kingdom. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Kulintang is a term for various musical instruments and musical genres which are indigenous to the South-East Asian islands presently known as Indonesia and the Philippines. ... Indonesia is culturally diverse, and every one of the 13, 000 islands has its own cultural and artistic history and character. ... Publicity poster for original release (note misspelled word) Legong: Dance of the Virgins was one of the last feature films shot using the two-color Technicolor process. ...

Further reading

  • Balinese Music (1991) by Michael Tenzer, ISBN 0-945971-30-3. Included is an excellent sampler CD of Balinese Music.
  • Gamelan: Cultural Interaction and Musical Development in Central Java (1995) by Sumarsam, ISBN 0-226-78010-4 (cloth) 0226780112 (paper)
  • Music in Java: History Its Theory and Its Technique (1949) edited by Jaap Kunst, ISBN 90-247-1519-9. An appendix of this book includes some statistical data on intervals in scales used by gamelans.
  • Gamelan Gong Kebyar: The Art of Twentieth-Century Balinese Music (2000) by Michael Tenzer, ISBN 0-226-79281-1 and ISBN 0-226-79283-8.
  • Music in Bali (1966) by Colin McPhee. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Michael Tenzer (born 1957) is a composer, performer, educator and scholar. ... Jaap Kunst (or Jakob) (b. ... Colin McPhee photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 Colin McPhee (February 15, 1900 in Montreal or Toronto, Canada - January 7, 1964 in Los Angeles, CA) was a Canadian composer and musicologist. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://www.progressiveears.com/frippbook/ch09.htm
  2. ^ http://www.monash.edu.au/muma/exhibitions/past/1999/gamelan.html and http://www.urpress.com/80460887.HTM

External links

Groups

There are more than 100 gamelan ensembles in the United States. ...

Listening


 
 

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