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Encyclopedia > Bali
Bali


Motto: Bali Dwipa Jaya
("Prosperous Bali Island")
Bali is the name of: As a place: Bali - an island in Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Bali_emblem. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ...

Map showing Bali within Indonesia
Capital Denpasar
Governor Dewa Made Beratha
Area 5,632.86 km² (2,175 sq mi)
Population 3,150,000  (2000)
Density 559.2/km² (1,448.3/sq mi)
Ethnic groups Balinese (89%), Javanese (7%), Baliaga (1%), Madurese (1%) [1]
Religion Hindu (93.18%), Muslim (4.79%), Christian (1.38%), Buddhist (0.64%)
Languages Indonesian (official), Balinese
Time zone UTC+8
Web site www.bali.go.id

Bali is an Indonesian island located at 8°25′23″S, 115°14′55″ECoordinates: 8°25′23″S, 115°14′55″E, the western most of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. It is one of the country's 33 provinces with the provincial capital at Denpasar towards the south of the island. The island is home to the vast majority of Indonesia's small Hindu minority. It is also the largest tourist destination in the country and is renowned for its highly developed arts, including dance, sculpture, painting, leather, metalworking and music. Province of Indonesia (Color of Bali has been tweaked from green to red to improve contrast. ... Each Provinces of Indonesia has its own capital, where local judicial, administrative and legislative duties are centred. ... Gajah Mada Street Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Dewa Made Beratha(July 12, 1941 in Gianyar, Bali) is the current governor of Bali. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... The Balinese population of 3. ... Javanese is a term used to describe a native of the Indonesian island of Java. ... The Madurese are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura but now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ... In Indonesia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Indonesian Western Standard Time (Indonesian: Waktu Indonesia Barat/WIB) (UTC+7) WIB is observed in islands of Sumatra, Java, provinces of West Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan Indonesian Central Standard Time (Waktu Indonesia Tengah/WITA) (UTC+8) WITA... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... The province (Indonesian: provinsi) is the highest tier of local government subnational entity in Indonesia. ... Gajah Mada Street Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Tourist redirects here. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Indonesia is culturally diverse and is home to hundreds of forms of music, with those from the islands of Java, Sumatra and Bali being the most frequently recorded. ...

Contents

History

Bali has been inhabited since early prehistoric times firstly by descendants of a prehistoric race who migrated through mainland Asia to the Indonesian archipelago, thought to have first settled in Bali around 3000 BC.[citation needed] Stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the island's west. Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... World map depicting Malay Archipelago The Malay Archipelago is a vast archipelago located between mainland Southeastern Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... (31st century BC - 30th century BC - 29th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2925 - 2776 BC - First Dynasty wars in Egypt 2900 BC - Beginning of the Early Dynastic Period I in Mesopotamia. ...


Balinese culture was strongly influenced by Indian, and particularly Sanskrit, culture, in a process beginning around the 1st century AD. The name Balidwipa has been discovered from various inscriptions, including the Blanjong charter issued by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 913 AD and mentioning Walidwipa. It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice. Some religious and cultural traditions still in existence today can be traced back to this period. The Hindu Majapahit Empire (12931520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343. When the empire declined, there was an exodus of intellectuals, artists, priests and musicians from Java to Bali in the 15th century. Events The Shiite Fatimid state in modern day Tunisia launches a failed military campaign against Egypt Births Deaths Eadwulf, Anglo-Saxon Earl of Bernicia who ruled the land north of the Tees Alexander III of Byzantium Categories: 913 ... Subak is a system of water management used for growing rice in Bali, centered around the Balinese water temples, in which key decisions about the allocation of water are made by a priest. ... The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. ... Events May 20 - King Sancho IV of Castile creates the Study of General Schools of Alcala The Minoresses (Franciscan nuns) are first introduced into England Births Deaths Categories: 1293 ... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... This article is about a type of political territory. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ...


The First European contact with Bali is thought to have been when Dutch explorer Cornelis de Houtman arrived in 1597, though a Portuguese ship had foundered off the Bukit Peninsula as early as 1585.[citation needed] Dutch rule over Bali came later, was more aggressively fought for, and was never as well established as in other parts of Indonesia such as Java and Maluku. The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... A portrait of de Houtman Cornelis de Houtman (April 2, 1565 - August 1599), brother of Frederick de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and managed to begin the Dutch spice trade. ... For other uses, see: 1597 (number). ... The Bukit Peninsula is at the southern end of the island of Bali, Indonesia. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ...


In the 1840s, a presence in Bali was established, first in the island's north, by playing various distrustful Balinese realms against each other. The Dutch mounted large naval and ground assaults first against the Sanur region and then Denpasar. The Balinese were hopelessly overwhelmed in number and armament, but rather than face the humiliation of surrender, they mounted a final defensive but suicidal assault, or puputan. Despite Dutch demands for surrender, an estimated 4,000 Balinese marched to their death against the invaders. Afterwards the Dutch governors were able to exercise little influence over the island, and local control over religion and culture generally remained intact. // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ...


Japan occupied Bali during World War II during which time a Balinese military officer, Gusti Ngurah Rai, formed a Balinese 'freedom army'. Following Japan's Pacific surrender in August 1945, the Dutch promptly returned to Indonesia, including Bali, immediately to reinstate their pre-war colonial administration. This was resisted by the Balinese rebels now using Japanese weapons. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


On 20 November 1946, the Battle of Marga was fought in Tabanan in central Bali. Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai, 29 years old, finally rallied his forces in east Bali at Marga Rana, where they made a suicide attack on the heavily armed Dutch. The Balinese battalion was entirely wiped out, breaking the last thread of Balinese military resistance. In 1946 the Dutch constituted Bali as one of the 13 administrative districts of the newly-proclaimed Republic of East Indonesia, a rival state to the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed and headed by Sukarno and Hatta. Bali was included in the "Republic of the United States of Indonesia" when the Netherlands recognised Indonesian independence on Dec. 29, 1949. In 1950 Bali officially renounced the Dutch union and legally became a province within the Republic of Indonesia. is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, and knows that they will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... Mohammad Hatta (August 12, 1902 - March 14, 1980) was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The 1963 eruption of Mount Agung killed thousands, created economic havoc and forced many displaced Balinese to be transmigrated to other parts of Indonesia. Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ...


In 1965, after a failed coup d'etat in Jakarta against the national government of Indonesia, Bali, along with other regions of Indonesia most notably Java, was the scene of widespread killings of (often falsely-accused) members and sympathizers of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) by right-wing General Suharto-sponsored militias. Possibly more than 100,000 Balinese were killed although the exact numbers are unknown to date and the events remain legally undisclosed.[2] Many unmarked but well known mass graves of victims are located around the island[citation needed]. Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... The Communist Party of Indonesia (in Indonesian: Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI) was a communist party in Indonesia. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


On October 12, 2002, a car bomb attack in the tourist resort of Kuta killed 202 people, largely foreign tourists and injured a further 209. Further bombings occurred three years later in Kuta and nearby Jimbaran Bay. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The 2002 Bali bombings occurred on 12 October 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Street Kuta is a town in southern Bali, Indonesia. ... Wikinews has news related to: Fatal explosions hit Bali The 2005 Bali bombings were a series of explosions that occurred on October 1, 2005, in Bali, Indonesia. ...


Geography

Topography of the island
Topography of the island

Bali lies 3.2 km east of Java and approximately 8 degrees south of the equator. East to west, the island is approximately 153 km wide and 112 km north to south (95 by 69 miles, respectively), with a surface area of 5,632 km². The highest point is Mount Agung at 3,142 m (10,308 feet) high, an active volcano that last erupted in March 1963. Mountains cover centre to the eastern side, with Mount Agung the easternmost peak. Mount Batur (1,717 m) is also still active. About 30,000 years ago it experienced a catastrophic eruption — one of the largest known volcanic events on Earth. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1166, 1424 KB) Created by Flominator Based on Image:Topography of Bali. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1166, 1424 KB) Created by Flominator Based on Image:Topography of Bali. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Categories: Indonesia geography stubs | Volcanoes of Bali | Mountains of Indonesia ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The historically active Mount Batur (Gunung Batur) is located at the center of two concentric calderas north west of Mount Agung, Bali, Indonesia. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


In the south the land descends to form an alluvial plain, watered by shallow rivers, drier in the dry season and overflowing during periods of heavy rain. An alluvial plain is a relatively flat and gently sloping landform found at the base of a range of hills. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The principal cities are the northern port of Singaraja, the former colonial capital of Bali, and the present provincial capital and largest city, Denpasar, near the southern coast. The town of Ubud (north of Denpasar), with its art market, museums and galleries, is arguably the cultural center of Bali. Singaraja is the second largest city in Bali, Indonesia after Denpasar. ... Gajah Mada Street Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. ... Mother and child in the Ubud Monkey Forest Statue of a Komodo Dragon in the Ubud Monkey Forest Ubud is a town in central Bali, Indonesia, considered the arts and culture center of the island. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ...


There are major coastal roads and roads that cross the island mainly north-south. Due to the mountainous terrain in the island's center, the roads tend to follow the crests of the ridges across the mountains. There are no railway lines.


The island is surrounded by coral reefs. Beaches in the south tend to have white sand while those in the north and west black sand. The beach town of Padangbai in the south east has both: the main beach and the secret beach have white sand and the south beach and the blue lagoon have much darker sand. Pasut Beach, near Ho River and Pura Segara, is a quiet beach 14 km southwest of Tabanan. The Ho River is navigable by small sampan. Black sand beaches between Pasut and Klatingdukuh are being developed for tourism, but apart from the seaside temple of Tanah Lot, this is not yet a tourist area. Part of a coral reef. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Black sand is a heavy, weakly magnetic, glossy, semi-metallic mixture of usually fine sands, found as part of a placer deposit. ... The white sand beach near Padangbai from the north The white sand beach from the south The white sand beach from the Lombok Strait On the white sand beach A bit of street art on the way to the beach. ... A sampan carrying passengers to the outlying islands off the Sai Kung Peninsula in Hong Kong Sampan on the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), China A sampan (舢舨) is a relatively flat bottomed Chinese wooden boat from twelve to fifteen feet long. ... Pura Tanah Lot Tanah Lot is a famous rock formation off the Indonesian island of Bali. ...


To the east, the Lombok Strait that separates Bali from Lombok marks the biogeographical division between the fauna of the Indomalayan ecozone and the distinctly different fauna of Australasia that is known as the Wallace Line, for Alfred Russel Wallace, who first remarked upon the distinction between these two major biomes. When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, Bali was connected to Java and Sumatra and to the mainland of Asia and shared the Asian fauna, but the deep water of the Lombok Strait continued to keep Lombok and the Lesser Sunda archipelago isolated. The Lombok Strait is a strait connecting the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean, located between the islands of Bali and Lombok. ... Gunung Rinjani from Gili Trawangan Lombok (1990 pop. ... Biogeography is the science which deals with patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in such patterns. ... The Indomalaya Ecozone was previously called the Oriental region. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Wallaces line between Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... A biome is a climate and geographical area of ecologically similar communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, often referred to as ecosystems. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ...


Administrative divisions

The province is divided into 8 regencies (kabupaten) and 1 city (kota): A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is a political subdivision of a province in Indonesia. ... Along with regencies / kabupaten, cities / kota are subdivisions of Indonesian Provinces. ...

Badung is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Bangli is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Buleleng is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Gajah Mada Street Denpasar is the capital city of the province of Bali, Indonesia. ... Gianyar is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Jembrana is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Karangasem is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ... Klungkung (Semarapura) is a town on the east coast of Bali, Indonesia. ... Tabanan is a regency (kabupaten) of Bali, Indonesia. ...

Economy

Three decades ago, the Balinese economy was largely agriculture based both in terms of output and employment. Tourism is now the largest single industry and Bali is as a result one of Indonesia’s wealthiest regions. The economy, however, has suffered significantly as a result of the terrorist bombings of 2002 and 2005. The 2002 Bali bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the tourist district of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Explosions hit Bali Map showing Bali within Indonesia A series of explosions occurred on October 1, 2005 in Bali, Indonesia. ...


Although in terms of output, tourism is the economy’s largest industry, agriculture is still the island’s biggest employer [citation needed], most notably rice cultivation. Crops grown in smaller amounts include fruit, vegetables and other cash and subsistence crops.[citation needed] A significant number of Balinese are also fishermen. Bali is also famous for its artisans who produce batik and ikat cloth and clothing, wooden carvings, stone carvings and silverware. RICE is a treatment method for soft tissue injury which is an abbreviation for Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. ... In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for money. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... This article is about the textile dyeing technique. ... Ikat weaving from the Island of Sumba, Indonesia Ikat is a style of weaving that uses a tie-dye process on either the warp or weft before the threads are woven to create a pattern or design. ... Artists can use woodworking to create delicate sculptures. ...


Although significant tourism exists in the north, centre and east of the island, the tourist industry is overwhelmingly focused in the south. The main tourist locations are the town of Kuta (with its beach), and its outer suburbs (which were once independent townships) of Legian and Seminyak, Sanur, Jimbaran, Ubud, and the newer development of Nusa Dua. The Ngurah Rai International Airport is located near Jimbaran, on the isthmus joining the southernmost part of the island to the main part of the island. Another increasingly important source of income for Bali is what is called "Congress Tourism" from the frequent international conferences held on the island, especially after the terrorist bombings of 2002; ostensibly to resurrect Bali's damaged tourism industry as well as its tarnished image. Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Street Kuta is a town in southern Bali, Indonesia. ... Seminyak is a mixed tourist / residential area on the west coast of Bali just north of Kuta and Legian. ... Sa-Nur (‎, lit. ... Restaurants on the beach near Jimbaran Jimbaran is a fishing village and tourist resort in Bali, Indonesia. ... Mother and child in the Ubud Monkey Forest Statue of a Komodo Dragon in the Ubud Monkey Forest Ubud is a town in central Bali, Indonesia, considered the arts and culture center of the island. ... Nusa Dua is a peninsula in the south of Bali. ... Ngurah Rai Airport (IATA: DPS, ICAO: WADD), also known as Bali International Airport, is located in southern Bali, 13 km south of Denpasar. ... For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Demographics

The population of Bali is 3,151,000 (as of 2005). Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Religion

Unlike most of Muslim-majority Indonesia, about 93.18% of Bali's population adheres to Balinese Hinduism, formed as a combination of existing local beliefs and Hindu influences from mainland Southeast Asia and South Asia. Minority religions include Islam (4.79%), Christianity (1.38%), and Buddhism (0.64%). These official statistical figures do not include immigrants from other parts of Indonesia. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Agama Hindu Dharma is the formal name of Hinduism in Indonesia. ... Balinese mythology is the traditional mythology of the people of the Indonesian island of Bali, before the majority adoption of Hinduism. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ...


Immigrants from other parts of Indonesia have drastically changed the demographics in Bali.[citation needed] Although the majority of the population of Bali adheres to Balinese Hinduism, recent years have brought an influx of people from other islands seeking to benefit from the tourist industry, export of local handicrafts and other factors, making Bali the most affluent island in the region. The bombings in Bali by Muslim militants and the numbers of wealthy Muslims from Jakarta with political connections buying prime real estate for development has started to create Hindu-Muslim tensions where none existed before.


Language

Balinese and Indonesian are the most widely spoken languages in Bali, and like most Indonesians, the vast majority of Balinese people are bilingual or trilingual. There are several indigenous Balinese languages, but most Balinese can also use the most widely spoken option: modern common Balinese. The usage of different Balinese languages was traditionally determined by the Balinese caste system and by clan membership, but this tradition is diminishing. Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ... The term bilingualism (from bi meaning two and lingua meaning language) can refer to rather different phenomena. ... A multilingual person or a polyglot is someone with a high degree of proficiency in several languages. ... The Balinese caste system is a system of social organization similar to the Indian caste system. ...


English is a common third language (and the primary foreign language) of many Balinese, owing to the requirements of the large tourism industry. Staff working in Bali's tourist centres are often, by necessity, multilingual to some degree, speaking as many as 8 or 9 different languages to an often surprising level of competence. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A tourist boat travels the River Seine in Paris, France Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. ... The term multilingualism can refer to rather different phenomena. ...


Culture

Ogoh-ogoh monster at Kuta

Bali is famous for many forms of art, including painting, sculpture, woodcarving, handcrafts, and performing arts. Balinese gamelan music is highly developed and varied. The dances portray stories from Hindu epics such as the Ramayana. Famous Balinese dances include pendet, legong, baris, topeng, barong, and kecak (the monkey dance). Image File history File links Ogahogah. ... Image File history File links Ogahogah. ... Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Street Kuta is a town in southern Bali, Indonesia. ... Gamelan - Indonesian Embassy in Canberra A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesian origin typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Pendet is a traditional Balinese dance, in which offerings are made to purify the temple or theater as a prelude to ceremonies or other dances. ... Baris is a traditional dance of Bali, in which a solo dancer depicts the feelings of a young warrior prior to battle. ... Topeng is an Indonesian form of dance drama in which one or more dancers wear masks and perform ancient stories, often concerning semi-mythical kings and princes. ... Barong is a fictional character in the Mythology of Bali. ... A Kecak dance being performed at Uluwatu, in Bali Kecak (pronounced: KEH-chahk, alternate spellings: Ketjak, Ketjack, and Ketiak), a form of Balinese music drama, originated in the 1930s and is performed primarily by men. ...


National education programs, mass media and tourism continue to change Balinese culture. Immigration from other parts of Indonesia, especially Java, is changing the ethnic composition of Bali's population.


The Hindu new year, Nyepi, is celebrated in the spring by a day of silence. On this day everyone stays at home and tourists are encouraged to remain in their hotels. On the preceding day large, colorful sculptures of ogoh-ogoh monsters are paraded and finally burned in the evening to drive away evil spirits. Other festivals throughout the year are specified by the Balinese pawukon calendrical system. Nyepi is a Balinese Day of Silence that falls on Balis Lunar New Year (March 30, 2006). ... The Pawukon is a 210 day calendar that has its origins in the Hindu religion in Bali, Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Calendar (disambiguation) A page from the Hindu calendar 1871–1872. ...


Kertha Wisesa

Bali Silat Grand Master Made Sujana Balok in Traditional Costume
Bali Silat Grand Master Made Sujana Balok in Traditional Costume

The Grand Master of Kertha Wisesa began his journey in 1972 travelling to the mountain areas around the mother temple district teaching the art and philosophy of traditional Silat Bali. Today, across the entire island one organization stands out as being ubiquitous in every district and every village. It is called Kertha Wisesa and teaches the traditional Martial Art of Silat Bali. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ...


Each day between 5pm and 6pm you will see children and adults dressed in traditional black uniform gathering to practice traditional Silat. This tradition differs from the more modern sport version of Silat called Pencak Silat that has world and national championship competitions. It involves a deeper understanding of the religious and ceremonial world in which the Balinese people live as well as being more combat oriented. Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... The Balinese population of 3. ...


Environment And Wildlife

The Bali Starling lives only on Bali. As few as six may exist in the wild
The Bali Starling lives only on Bali. As few as six may exist in the wild

Bali has around 280 species of birds, including the critically endangered Bali Starling. The only endemic mammal of the island, the Bali tiger, became extinct in the 1930s. The Bali Barat National Park is a refuge for wildlife such as the pangolin, common muntjac, chevrotain, leopard cat, black giant squirrel, macaque and leaf monkey. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1118, 746 KB) Bali Starling in the aviary at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1118, 746 KB) Bali Starling in the aviary at Bristol Zoo, Bristol, England. ... Binomial name Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912 The Bali Starling, Leucopsar rothschildi also known as Rothschild’s Mynah, Bali Myna or Bali Mynah is a medium-sized, up to 25cm long, stocky myna, almost wholly white with a long, drooping crest, and black tips on the wings and tail. ... An endangered species is a species whose population is so small that it is in danger of becoming extinct. ... Binomial name Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912 The Bali Starling, Leucopsar rothschildi also known as Rothschild’s Mynah, Bali Myna or Bali Mynah is a medium-sized, up to 25cm long, stocky myna, almost wholly white with a long, drooping crest, and black tips on the wings and tail. ... Trinomial name Panthera tigris balica (Schwarz, 1912) The Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), also called the Balinese tiger, is an extinct subspecies of tiger found solely on the small Indonesian island of Bali. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Bali Barat National Park is located on the north western side of Bali, Indonesia. ... Manis redirects here. ... Binomial name Zimmermann, 1780 The Common Muntjac, also called Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) is the most numerous muntjac deer species. ... The four species of chevrotain, also known as mouse deer (not to be confused with deer mice, Peromyscus), make up the family Tragulidae. ... Binomial name Felis bengalensis (Kerr, 1792) The Leopard Cat (Felis bengalensis) is a small wild cat of Southeast Asia. ... Binomial name (Sparrman, 1778) The Black Giant Squirrel (Ratufa bicolor) is a species of rodent in the Sciuridae family. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Genera Colobus Piliocolobus Procolobus Trachypithecus Presbytis Semnopithecus Pygathrix Rhinopithecus Nasalis Simias Colobinae is a subfamily of the Old World monkey family that includes 58 species in 10 genera, including the skunk-like black-and-white colobus, the large-nosed Proboscis Monkey, and the gray langurs, sacred to India. ...


Gallery

Further reading

  • Grant, Gaia (2002). A Patch of Paradise: A Women's Search for a Real Life on Bali. Sydney: Bantam Books. ISBN 1-86325-360-2. 
  • Helmi, Rio; Walker, Barbara (1995). Bali Style. London: Times Editions Pte Ltd. ISBN 0-500-23714-X. 
  • Lansing, J. Stephen (1983). Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali (Princeton Studies in Complexity). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691027277. 
  • Lansing, J. Stephen (1983). The Three Worlds of Bali. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 003063816X. 
  • McPhee, Colin (2003). A House in Bali. Periplus Editions, Singapore, 2000 (first published in 1947 by Victor Gollancz Ltd., London). ISBN 0-7864-1572-X. 
  • Shavit, David (2003). Bali and the tourist industry : a history, 1906-1942. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co.. ISBN 962-593-629-7. 
  • Vaasmmiuyttredhft[114586632000254545]ickers, Adrian (1994). Travelling to Bali: Four Hundred Years of Journeys. Oxford University Press. ISBN 967-65-3081-6. 
  • Whitten, T; Soeriaatmadja, R. E., Suraya A. A. (1996). The Ecology of Java and Bali. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd. 
  • Wijaya, M. (2002). Architecture of Bali: A source book of traditional and modern forms. Archipelago Press, Singapore. ISBN 981-4068-25-X. 

References

  1. ^ (2003) Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 
  2. ^ 'Bali', in Robert Cribb, ed., The Indonesian killings of 1965-1966: studies from Java and Bali (Clayton, Vic.: Monash University Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash Papers on Southeast Asia no 21, 1990), pp. 241-248
  • Miguel Covarrubias, Island of Bali, 1946. ISBN 962-593-060-4

See also

The Balinese population of 3. ... Jimbaran Beach, Bali. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
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