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Encyclopedia > Balfour Declaration of 1917

The Balfour Declaration of 1917 (dated November 2, 1917) was a classified formal statement of policy by the British government on the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the World War I. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3811x4520, 2124 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arthur Balfour List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom User:Lofty ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3811x4520, 2124 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Arthur Balfour List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom User:Lofty ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Classified information is secret information to which access is restricted by law or corporate rules to a particular hierarchical class of people. ... Look up policy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire, Military Mission of the German Empire Russian Empire, Armenia, British Empire, Australia, India, Newfoundland, New Zealand, United Kingdom, France Strength 2,850,000 2, max strength: 800,000 Casualties 550,000 KIA 3, 891,000 WIA, 240,000 sick, 103,731 MIO, 239,000-250,000 POW...


The letter stated the position, agreed at a British Cabinet meeting on October 31, 1917, that the British government supported Zionist plans for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine, with the condition that nothing should be done which might prejudice the rights of existing communities there. In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. The Cabinet is actually a committee of the Privy Council and all Cabinet members are also Privy Councillors and therefore have the prefix of... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ...


The "Balfour Declaration" was later incorporated into the Sèvres peace treaty with Turkey and the Mandate for Palestine. The declaration was made in a letter from Arthur James Balfour (Foreign Secretary) to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. The document is kept at the British Library. The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Flag Britain unilaterally closed the territory east of the Jordan River (Transjordan) to Jewish settlement and organized Transjordan as an autonomous state in 1923. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild (February 8, 1868 - August 27, 1937) was a British banker and zoologist from the international Rothschild financial dynasty. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... A community usually refers to a sociological group in a large place or collections of plant or animal organisms sharing an environment. ... The Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the British Zionist Federation or simply the Zionist Federation (ZF), was established in 1899 to campaign for a permanent homeland for the Jewish people. ... A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... It has been suggested that Organizing be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Text of the declaration

The declaration, a typed letter signed in ink by Balfour, reads as follows:

Foreign Office,
November 2nd, 1917.

Dear Lord Rothschild,
I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet:
"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country".
I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation.

Yours sincerely
Arthur James Balfour
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, (25 July 1848-19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1902 to 1905. ...

Text development and differing views

The record of discussions that led up to the final text of the Balfour Declaration clarifies some details of its wording. The phrase "national home" was intentionally used instead of "state", and the British devoted some effort over the following decades, including Churchill's 1922 White Paper, to denying that a state was the intention. However, in private, many British officials agreed with the interpretation of the Zionists that a state would be the eventual outcome.[1] Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English politician, soldier in the British Army, orator, and strategist, and is studied as part of the modern British and world history. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ...


An early draft used the word that in referring to Palestine as a Jewish homeland, which was changed to in Palestine to avoid committing to it being the whole of Palestine. Similarly, an early draft did not include the commitment to not prejudicing the rights of the non-Jewish communities. These changes came about partly as the result of the urgings of Edwin Samuel Montagu, an influential anti-Zionist Jew and Secretary of State for India, who, among others, was concerned that the declaration without those changes could result in increased anti-Semitic persecution. Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ...


At that time the British were busy making promises. Henry McMahon had exchanged letters with Hussein ibn Ali, Sherif of Mecca in 1915, in which he had promised the Arabs control of the Arab lands, exclusive of the Mediterranean coast. The extent of the coastal exclusion is not clear. Hussein protested that the Arabs of Beirut would greatly oppose isolation from the Arab state or states, but did not, it seems, bring up the matter of the Jerusalem area, which included a good part of Palestine. This suggests either that the area of Jerusalem and Palestine was not part of the inclusion and was promised to the Arabs, as shown in some maps, and is believed by pro-Arab historians, or that Palestine was included, but that Hussein did not protest. The latter version is supported by Dr. Haim Weizmann in his autobiographical book Trial and Error. This interpretation was also convenient for the British , and was supported explicitly by the British government in the 1922 White Paper. The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ...


Milner as the chief author

In his posthumously published 1982 book The Anglo-American Establishment, Carroll Quigley, phD in history from Harvard and a professor of history at Georgetown, revealed that the Balfour Declaration was actually drafted by Lord Alfred Milner, who was the head of the Rhodes-Milner Round Table Groups that Cecil Rhodes called for in his will to be "Churches for the extension of the British Empire." Milner was the trustee of Rhodes' will and both Milner and Rhodes were self-described British race-patriots. The recipient of the Balfour Declaration, Lord Rothschild, was also a close friend of Rhodes and was at an earlier time the trustee of Rhodes' will. Here is what Quigley wrote: This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner (23 March 1854 _ 13 May 1925), was British statesman and colonial administrator. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and a politician. ...

"This declaration, which is always known as the Balfour Declaration, should rather be called 'the Milner Declaration,' since Milner was the actual draftsman and was apparently, its chief supporter in the War Cabinet. This fact was not made public until 21 July 1936. At that time Ormsby-Gore, speaking for the government in Commons, said, 'The draft as originally put up by Lord Balfour was not the final draft approved by the War Cabinet. The particular draft assented to by the War Cabinet and afterwards by the Allied Governments and by the United States. . .and finally embodied in the Mandate, happens to have been drafted by Lord Milner. The actual final draft had to be issued in the name of the Foreign Secretary, but the actual draftsman was Lord Milner."1

Negotiation

One of the main proponents of a Jewish homeland in Palestine was Dr. Chaim Weizmann, the leading spokesman for organized Zionism in Britain. Weizmann was a chemist who had developed a process to synthesize acetone via fermentation. Acetone is required for the production of cordite, a powerful propellant explosive needed to fire ammunition without generating tell-tale smoke. Germany had cornered supplies of calcium acetate, a major source of acetone. Other pre-war processes in Britain were inadequate to meet the increased demand in the Great War, and a shortage of cordite would have severely hampered Britain's war effort. Lloyd-George, then Minister for Munitions, was grateful to Weizmann and so supported his Zionist aspirations. Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in... The chemical compound acetone (also known as propanone, dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and β-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Cordite is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom from the late 19th Century to replace Gunpowder as a military propellant for large weapons, such as tank guns, artillery and naval guns. ... The chemical compound calcium acetate is the calcium salt of acetic acid. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


During the first meeting between Weizmann and Balfour in 1906, Balfour asked what payment Weizmann would accept for use of his process and was told, "There is only one thing I want: A national home for my people." Balfour asked Weizmann why Palestine — and Palestine alone — should be the Zionist homeland. "Anything else would be idolatry", Weizmann protested, adding: "Mr. Balfour, supposing I was to offer you Paris instead of London, would you take it?" "But Dr. Weizmann", Balfour retorted, "we have London", to which Weizmann rejoined, "That is true, but we had Jerusalem when London was a marsh."[2] 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Weizmann eventually received both monetary compensation for his discovery and his place in history as first President of the state of Israel.


Contradictory assurances

In his November, 2002 interview with the New Statesman magazine, the UK Foreign Secretary, Jack Straw blamed Britain's imperial past for many of the modern political problems, including the Arab-Israeli conflict.[3] The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...


"The Balfour declaration and the contradictory assurances which were being given to Palestinians in private at the same time as they were being given to the Israelis—again, an interesting history for us, but not an honourable one," he said.


In a 1919 memorandum he wrote as a Cabinet Minister, Balfour wrote of these contradictory assurances as follows:

The contradiction between the letter of the Covenant is even more flagrant in the case of the independent nation of Palestine than in that of the independent nation of Syria. For in Palestine we do not propose even to go through the form of consulting the wishes of the present inhabitants of the country, though the American Commission has been going through the forms of asking what they are. The four great powers are committed to Zionism and Zionism, be it right or wrong, good or bad, is rooted in age-long tradition, in present needs, in future hopes, of far profounder importance than the desire and prejudicies of the 700,000 Arabs who now inhabit that ancient land. In my opinion, that is right.[4]

References

  1. ^ Mansfield, Peter (1992). The Arabs. London: Penguin Books, 176-77. 
  2. ^ B. Dugdale (1939): "Arthur James Balfour", Vol I, p. 326 & 327
  3. ^ British Empire blamed for modern conflicts Jack Straw said serious mistakes had been made (BBC) 5 November, 2002
  4. ^ Edward Said (1992). Question of Palestine. Vintage Books Edition. ISBN 0679739882. 

John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ...

See also

1804 print, in which Napoleon grants the Jews freedom to worship, represented by the hand given to the Jewish woman The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte proved an important event in the emancipation of the Jews of Europe from old laws restricting them to Jewish ghettos, as well as the many... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... Flag Britain unilaterally closed the territory east of the Jordan River (Transjordan) to Jewish settlement and organized Transjordan as an autonomous state in 1923. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... The Madagascar Plan was a policy of the Third Reich government of Nazi Germany to forcibly relocate the entire Jewish population of Europe to the French island colony of Madagascar, off the coast of Africa. ... The British Uganda Program was a plan to give a portion of British East Africa to the Jewish people as a homeland. ...

External links

ISRAEL IS ETERNAL !


  Results from FactBites:
 
Balfour Declaration, 1917 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2046 words)
The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization.
Language from the Declaration was later incorporated into the Sèvres peace treaty with Turkey and the Mandate for Palestine.
Finally, the messages within the Balfour Declaration could not help but sow seeds of doubts within the minds of those ruling the Central Powers as to where the loyalty of their own domestic Jewish populations lay.
Balfour Declaration: 1917 (794 words)
It was thought that the declaration should contain two principles, (1) the recognition of Palestine as the national home of the Jewish people, (2) the recognition of the Zionist Organization."2 With this new insight, Sokolow revised the draft3 and sent it on to Lord Rothschild.
In their possession they had Balfour's declaration and two others: a revised text of the Milner-Amery draft declaration6, and the Curzon memorandum.
After Balfour addressed two issues laid out by Curzon, concerning the inadequacy of Palestine as a home for the Jewish people or any other people, and the potential difficulty between the Jews and other people groups living in Palestine, a vote was taken and Balfour's revised draft was passed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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