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Encyclopedia > Baldwin II of Jerusalem

Baldwin of Bourcq (died August 21, 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 9 - Tintern Abbey is founded. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... Events William II of England dies in a hunting accident - Henry I becomes King of England King Henry I proclaims the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a constitution. ... Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ...

Contents


Ancestry

Baldwin was the son of Hugh, count of Rethel, and his wife Melisende of Montlhéry. He had two younger brothers, Gervase and Manasses, and two sisters Matilda and Hodierna. Baldwin was called a cousin of the brothers Eustace III of Boulogne, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Baldwin of Boulogne, but the exact manner in which they are related has never been discovered. He left his own family behind to follow his cousins on the First Crusade in 1096. This is a list of counts and dukes of Rethel. ... Montlhéry is a commune of the Essonne département, in France. ... Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. ... Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... Baldwin of Boulogne (died 1118), count of Edessa (1098—1100), then the second monarch and first titled king of Jerusalem (1100—1118), was the brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, son of Eustace II of Boulogne. ... The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II to regain control of the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Christian Holy Land from Muslims. ... Events Bernhard becomes Bishop of Brandenburg First documented teaching at the University of Oxford Beginning of the Peoples Crusade, the German Crusade, and the First Crusade Vital I Michele is Doge of Venice Peter I, King of Aragon, conquers Huesca Phayao, now a province of Thailand, is founded as...


Count of Edessa

In the aftermath of the crusade, Baldwin of Boulogne became the first count of Edessa, while Baldwin of Bourcq entered the service of Bohemund of Taranto, Prince of Antioch, acting as an ambassador between Antioch and Edessa. Baldwin of Bourcq also became regent of the Principality, when Bohemund was taken prisoner by the Danishmends in 1100. That year, Baldwin of Boulogne was elected king of Jerusalem upon the death of Godfrey, and Baldwin of Bourcq was appointed count of Edessa in his stead. As count, in 1101 Baldwin married Morphia of Melitene, the daughter of the Armenian prince Gabriel of Melitene. He also helped ransom Bohemund from the Danishmends, preferring Bohemund to his nephew Tancred, who was now regent. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Bohemund I of Antioch (c. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The Danishmend dynasty was a Turcoman dynasty ruling in eastern Anatolia in the 11th and 12th centuries. ... Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Morphia of Melitene, or Morfia, (died c. ... Tancred (1072 - 1112) was a leader of the First Crusade, and later became regent of the Principality of Antioch and Prince of Galilee. ...


In 1102 Baldwin and Tancred assisted King Baldwin against the Egyptians at Ascalon. In 1104 the Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa, and with help from Antioch Count Baldwin met them at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous and Count Baldwin was captured; Tancred became regent of Edessa in his absence. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own Seljuk prisoners for money rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to him, but with the support of the Armenians, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli. Events Valencia is captured by the Almoravids. ... Ashkelon or Ashqelon (Hebrew אשקלון; Arabic عسقلان ʿAsqalān; Latin Ascalon) was an ancient Philistine seaport on the east coast of the Mediterranian sea just north of Gaza. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks... The Battle of Harran took place on May 7, 1104 between the Crusader states of the Principality of Antioch and the County of Edessa, and the Seljuk Turks. ... MosÅ«l (36°22′ N 43°07′ E Arabic: al-Mawsil, Kurdish: Mûsil, or Nineveh, Assyrian: ܢܝܢܘܐ, Ninewa) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ... Joscelin of Courtenay or Joscelin I ruled over the County of Edessa during its zenith, from 1118 to 1131. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events Battle of Naklo Battle of Hundsfeld Fulk of Jerusalem becomes count of Anjou Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile Crusaders capture Tripoli Anselm of Laon becomes chancellor of Laon Births July 25 - Afonso, first king of Portugal Deaths Alfonso VI of Castile Anselm of Canterbury, philosopher and... Tripoli (Arabic طرابلس Trablus, academically transliterated Ṭarābulus) is the second-largest city in Lebanon. ...


King of Jerusalem

Upon the death of Baldwin I in 1118, the crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III, but Joscelin of Courtenay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq, despite Count Baldwin having exiled Joscelin from Edessa in 1113. Baldwin of Edessa accepted and was crowned king of Jerusalem as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, April 14, 1118. Almost immediately, the kingdom was simultaneously invaded by the Seljuks from Syria and the Fatimids from Egypt, although by showing himself ready and willing to defend his territory, Baldwin forced the Muslim army to back down without a battle. In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem. Roger of Salerno, prince of Antioch, would not wait for Baldwin's reinforcements, and the Antiochene army was destroyed in a battle the crusaders came to call Ager Sanguinis (the Field of Blood). Although it was a crushing blow, Baldwin helped Antioch recover and drove out the Seljuks later that year. Events Knights Templar founded Baldwin of Le Bourg succeeds his cousin Baldwin I as king of Jerusalem John II Comnenus succeeds Alexius I as Byzantine emperor Gelasius II succeeds Paschal II as pope Births November 28 - Manuel I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1180) Andronicus I Comnenus, Byzantine Emperor (died 1185... Events Pierre Abélard opens his school in Paris End of Kyanzitthas reign in Myanmar Alaungsithus reign begins in Myanmar Suryavarman Is reign begins in the Khmer Empire Bridlington Priory founded Births August 24 - Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou (died 1151) Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona... Easter is the most important religious holiday of the Christian liturgical year, observed in March, April, or May to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, which Christians believe occurred after his death by crucifixion in AD 30-33 (see Good Friday). ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Roger of Salerno or Roger of the Principate (died June 28, 1119) was regent of the Principality of Antioch from 1112 to 1119. ... The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood or the Battle of Sarmada, took place between the Crusader Principality of Antioch and the Ortoqid ruler of Aleppo in 1119. ...


Around this time, the first two military orders were created. In 1118, Hughes de Payens founded the Knights Templar in Jerusalem, while the Knights Hospitaller, which had been founded in 1113, evolved into a military order from the charitable order that they had originally been. Baldwin also called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom, and extended rights and privileges to the growing bourgeois communities. A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... Hughes de Payens or de Pains (c. ... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, & Order of St John of Jerusalem) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ...


In 1122 Joscelin, who had been appointed count of Edessa when Baldwin became king, was captured in battle. Baldwin returned to the north to take over the regency of the county, but he too was taken captive by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa 1123, and was held captive with Joscelin. Eustace Grenier acted as regent in Jerusalem, and defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin and Joscelin escaped from captivity with help from the Armenians in 1124. Meanwhile, the crusaders besieged and captured Tyre, with help from a Venetian fleet. This would lead to the establishment of Venetian and other Italian trading colonies in the coastal cities of the kingdom, which were autonomous and free from taxes and military duties. Events Resolution of Investiture Controversy in the Concordat of Worms Pierre Abélard writes Sic et Non Births Ben Lancaster, Gradutate, Dynamite dancer. ... Events First Council of the Lateran confirms Concordat of Worms and demands that priests remain celibate End of the reign of Emperor Toba of Japan. ... Eustace Grenier (also Garnier, Granarius or Grenarius) (died June 15, 1123) was an important crusader lord, and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ...


In 1125 Baldwin assembled the knights from all the crusader territories and met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz. Although the Seljuk army was much larger, the crusaders were victorious, and they restored much of the influence they had lost after the Ager Sanguinis. Had Antioch and Edessa not been fighting amongst themselves after the battle, Baldwin may have been able to attack Aleppo; however, Aleppo and Mosul were soon united under Zengi in 1128. Unable to attack either of those cities, Baldwin attempted to take Damascus in 1129 with the help of the Templars, but the attempt failed. Events May 23 - Lothair of Saxony becomes Holy Roman Emperor on the death of Henry V. War ends between Toulouse and Provence. ... The Battle of Azaz took place between the Crusader States and the Seljuk Turks on June 11, 1125. ... Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ... MosÅ«l (36°22′ N 43°07′ E Arabic: al-Mawsil, Kurdish: Mûsil, or Nineveh, Assyrian: ܢܝܢܘܐ, Ninewa) is a city in northern Iraq. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki) (1087- September 14, 1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. His father was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Karbuqa, the governor of Mosul. ... Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria. ... Events Emperor Toba of Japan begins his cloistered rule sharing power with Sutuku, ex-emperor Shirakawas son. ...


Succession

Also assisting Baldwin during the attack on Damascus was his new son-in-law, Fulk V of Anjou. Baldwin had no sons with Morphia, but four daughters: Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. In 1129 Baldwin named Melisende his heir, and arranged for her to marry Fulk. His daughters Alice and Hodierna also married important princes, Bohemund II of Antioch and Raymond II of Tripoli respectively (his fourth daughter Ioveta became a nun in Bethany). In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on August 21, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Fulk of Anjou (1092 – November 10, 1143), king of Jerusalem from 1131, was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ... A queen accepting fealty from a vassal, possibly Melisende herself, from the Melisende Psalter Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ... Alice of Antioch (also Haalis, Halis, or Adelicia) was Princess of Antioch through her marriage to Bohemund II. She was the third daughter of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Morphia of Melitene. ... Hodierna of Tripoli (c. ... Ioveta (1120-c. ... Bohemund II Guiscard (1108-1131) was the Prince of Antioch between 1111 and 1131. ... Raymond II of Tripoli (c. ... Bethany was a village on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, less than two miles (3 km) from Jerusalem, remembered by Christians as the home of Mary, sister of Lazarus, Martha and Lazarus in the New Testament. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called the Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis in Greek and Սուրբ Õ€Õ¡Ö€Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶ Surp Harutyun in Armenian) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church...


William of Tyre described Baldwin as "a devout and God-fearing man, notable for his loyalty and for his great experience in military matters," and said that he was nicknamed "the Thorny" (cognominatus est Aculeus). Ibn al-Qalanisi, who calls him "Baldwin the Little" (Baghdawin al-ru'aiuis) to distinguish him from Baldwin I, remarked that "after him there was none left amongst them possessed of sound judgment and capacity to govern." Melisende, by law the heir to the kingdom, succeeded her father with Fulk as her consort. The new queen and king were crowned on September 14. William of Tyre (c. ... Hamza ibn Asad abu Yala ibn al-Qalanisi (c. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (258th in leap years). ...


Sources

  • William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E. A. Babcock and A. C. Krey. Columbia University Press, 1943.
  • Hans Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford University Press, 1965.
  • Alan V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: A Dynastic History 1099-1125. Prosopographia & Genealogia, 2000.
  • Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades, Vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press, 1952.
Preceded by:
Baldwin I
Count of Edessa
1100-1118
Succeeded by:
Joscelin I
King of Jerusalem
1118-1131
Succeeded by:
Melisende and Fulk

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baldwin III of Jerusalem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1884 words)
He was the eldest son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, and the grandson of Baldwin II of Jerusalem.
Baldwin was among the second generation of children born to the descendents of the original crusaders.
Baldwin was unable to help defend Turbessel, the last remnant of the county of Edessa, and was forced to cede it to Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1150.
Baldwin II of Jerusalem - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1130 words)
Baldwin of Bourcq (died August 21, 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death.
In 1119, the crusader Principality of Antioch was invaded, and Baldwin hurried north with the army of Jerusalem.
In 1131 Baldwin fell sick and died on August 21, and was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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