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Encyclopedia > Bald eagle
Bald Eagle

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Falconiformes
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Haliaeetus
Species: H. leucocephalus
Binomial name
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
(Linnaeus, 1766)
Bald Eagle range      Resident, breeding      Summer visitor, breeding      Winter visitor      On migration only Star: accidental records
Bald Eagle range

     Resident, breeding      Summer visitor, breeding      Winter visitor      On migration only Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 419 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 4286 pixel, file size: 4. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Families Accipitridae Pandionidae Falconidae Sagittariidae The order Falconiformes is a group of about 290 species of birds that include the diurnal birds of prey. ... Subfamilies Elaninae Perninae Milvinae Accipitrinae Buteoninae Aegypiinae Circinae Circaetinae The Accipitridae is one of the two main families within the order Falconiformes (the diurnal birds of prey). ... Species Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Haliaeetus pelagicus Haliaeetus vocifer Haliaeetus leucogaster Haliaeetus sanfordi Haliaeetus vociferoides Haliaeetus leucoryphus The sea-eagles are a group of birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus[1] of the bird of prey family (Accipitridae). ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixels Full resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/png) MAP LEGEND Bald Eagle Distribution  Winter  Year-round  Breeding  Migrant File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on...

Star: accidental records
Subspecies
  • H. l. leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766)
    Southern Bald Eagle
  • H. l. washingtoniensis (Audubon, 1827)
    Northern Bald Eagle
Synonyms

Falco leucocephalus Linnaeus, 1766
This article is about the zoological term. ... John James Audubon (April 26, 1785 – January 27, 1851) was an American ornithologist, naturalist, hunter, and painter. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

The Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) is a bird of prey found in North America that is most recognizable as the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. This sea eagle has two known sub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle. Its range includes most of Canada and Alaska, all of the contiguous United States and northern Mexico. It is found near large bodies of open water with an abundant food supply and old-growth trees for nesting. Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... North American redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Species Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Haliaeetus pelagicus Haliaeetus vocifer Haliaeetus leucogaster Haliaeetus sanfordi Haliaeetus vociferoides Haliaeetus leucoryphus The sea-eagles are a group of birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus[1] of the bird of prey family (Accipitridae). ... In biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the scientific definition of species — that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other — but which are not morphologically distinguishable. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Light Green: nesting area Blue: wintering area Dark Green: all-year Synonyms Falco albicilla Linnaeus, 1758 Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus The White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla[1]), also known as the Sea Eagle, Erne (sometimes Ern), or White-tailed Sea-eagle is a very... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ...


The Bald Eagle is a large bird, with a body length of 71–96 centimeters (28–38 in), a wingspan of 168–244 centimeters (66–88 in), and a mass of 3–6.3 kilograms (6.6–14 lb); females are about 25 percent larger than males.[2] The adult Bald Eagle has a brown body with a white head and tail, and bright yellow irises, taloned feet, and a hooked beak; juveniles are completely brown except for the yellow feet. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration. Its diet consists mainly of fish, but it is an opportunistic feeder. It hunts fish by swooping down and snatching the fish out of the water with its talons. It is sexually mature at four years or five years of age. The Bald Eagle builds the largest nest of any North American bird, up to 4 meters (13 ft) deep, 2.5 meters (8 ft) wide, and one tonne (1.1 tons) in weight.[2] Genera Several, see text. ... In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Deep cup nest of the Great Reed-warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


The species was on the brink of extirpation in the continental United States (while flourishing in much of Alaska and Canada) late in the 20th century, but now has a stable population and has been officially removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangered species. The Bald Eagle was officially reclassified from "Endangered" to "Threatened" on July 12, 1995 by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. On July 6, 1999, a proposal was initiated "To Remove the Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife." It was delisted on June 28, 2007. Extirpation is the localized extinction of a species. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... United States Government redirects here. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The threatened categories (IUCN Red List) Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, insects, bugs, etc. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Contents

Description

The plumage of an adult Bald Eagle is evenly brown with a white head and tail. The tail is moderately long and slightly wedge-shaped. Males and females are identical in plumage coloration, however females display reverse sexual dimorphism and are 25 percent larger than males.[2] The beak, feet, and irises are bright yellow. The legs are unfeathered, and the toes are short and powerful with large talons. The highly developed talon of the hind toe is used to pierce the vital areas of prey while it is held immobile by the front toes.[3] The beak is large and hooked, with a yellow cere.[4] Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which, in addition to eating, is used for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, probing for food, courtship, and feeding their young. ... A cere is a fleshy, often waxy area above a birds beak. ...


The plumage of the immature is brown, speckled with white until the fifth (rarely fourth, very rarely third) year, when it reaches sexual maturity.[2][3] Immature Bald Eagles are distinguishable from the Golden Eagle in that the former has a more protruding head with a larger bill, straighter edged wings which are held flat (not slightly raised) and with a stiffer wing beat, and feathers which do not completely cover the legs.[5] Also, the immature Bald Eagle has more light feathers in the upper arm area, especially around the very top of the arm. For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ...


Body length ranges from 71 to 96 cm (28–38 in). Adult females have a wingspan of up to 2.44 m (88 in), while adult males may be as small as 1.68 m (66 in).[2] Adult females weigh approximately 5.8 kg (12.8 lb), males weigh 4.1 kg (9 lb).[6] The size of the bird varies by location; the smallest specimens are those from Florida, where an adult male may barely exceed 2.3 kg (5 lb) and a wingspan of 1.8 m (6 ft). The largest are Alaskan birds, where large females may exceed 7.5 kg (16.5 lb) and have a wingspan of over 2.4 m (8 ft).[4] Kg redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...


Taxonomy

Bald Eagle of subspecies H. l. washingtoniensis in flight, Alaska
Bald Eagle of subspecies H. l. washingtoniensis in flight, Alaska

This sea eagle gets both its common and scientific names from the distinctive appearance of the adult's head. Bald in the English name is derived from the word piebald, and refers to the white head and tail feathers and their contrast with the darker body. The scientific name is derived from Haliaeetus, New Latin for "sea eagle" (from the Ancient Greek haliaetos), and leucocephalus, Latinized Ancient Greek for "white head," from λευκος leukos ("white") and κεφαλη kephale ("head").[7][8] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3042 × 2339 pixel, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 780 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3042 × 2339 pixel, file size: 4. ... Species Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Haliaeetus pelagicus Haliaeetus vocifer Haliaeetus leucogaster Haliaeetus sanfordi Haliaeetus vociferoides Haliaeetus leucoryphus The sea-eagles are a group of birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus[1] of the bird of prey family (Accipitridae). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A piebald horse A piebald is an animal, especially a horse, that has a spotting pattern of large white and black patches. ... New Latin (or Neo-Latin) is a post-medieval version of Latin, now used primarily in International Scientific Vocabulary cladistics and systematics. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


The Bald Eagle was one of the many species originally described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae, under the name Falco leucocephalus.[9] Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Cover of the tenth edition of Linnaeuss Systema Naturae (1758). ...


There are two recognized subspecies of Bald Eagle:[2][10] This article is about the zoological term. ...

  • H. l. leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1766) is the nominate subspecies. It is separated from H. l. alascanus at approximately latitude 38° N, or roughly the latitude of San Francisco.[11] It is found in the southern United States and Baja California.[12]
  • H. l. washingtoniensis (Audubon, 1827), synonym H. l. alascanus Townsend, 1897, the northern subspecies, is larger than southern nominate leucocephalus. It is found in the northern United States, Canada and Alaska.[2][12] This subspecies reaches further south than latitude 38° N on the Atlantic Coast, where they occur in the Cape Hatteras area.[11]

The Bald Eagle forms a species pair with the Eurasian White-tailed Eagle. This species pair consists of a white-headed and a tan-headed species of roughly equal size; the White-tailed Eagle also has overall somewhat paler brown body plumage. The pair diverged from other Sea Eagles at the beginning of the Early Miocene (c. 10 Ma BP) at the latest, but possibly as early as the Early/Middle Oligocene, 28 Ma BP, if the most ancient fossil record is correctly assigned to this genus.[13] The two species probably diverged in the North Pacific, as the White-tailed Eagle spread westwards into Eurasia and the Bald Eagle spread eastwards into North America.[14] This article is about the geographical term. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Location within Mexico Municipalities of Baja California Country Capital Municipalities 5 Largest City Tijuana Government  - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)  - Federal Deputies PAN: 8  - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN) Rafael Díaz (PAN) Fernando Castro (PRI) Area Ranked 12th  - Total 69,921 km² (26,996. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... An aerial view of the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse prior to its 1999 relocation. ... In biology, a cryptic species complex is a group of species that satisfy the scientific definition of species — that is, they are reproductively isolated from each other — but which are not morphologically distinguishable. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Light Green: nesting area Blue: wintering area Dark Green: all-year Synonyms Falco albicilla Linnaeus, 1758 Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla Haliaeetus albicilla groenlandicus The White-tailed Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla[1]), also known as the Sea Eagle, Erne (sometimes Ern), or White-tailed Sea-eagle is a very... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Pacific redirects here. ...


Habitat and range

Immature (second or third year) Bald Eagle in Alaska
Immature (second or third year) Bald Eagle in Alaska

The Bald Eagle prefers habitats near seacoasts, rivers, large lakes, and other large bodies of open water with an abundance of fish. Studies have shown a preference for bodies of water with a circumference greater than 11 km (7 miles), and lakes with an area greater than 10 km² (3.8 square miles) are optimal for breeding bald eagles.[15] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3000 × 2000 pixel, file size: 3. ...


The Bald Eagle requires old-growth and mature stands of coniferous or hardwood trees for perching, roosting, and nesting. Selected trees must have good visibility, an open structure, and proximity to prey, but the height or species of tree is not as important as an abundance of comparatively large trees surrounding the body of water. Forests used for nesting should have a canopy cover of less than 60 percent, and as low as 20 percent, and be in close proximity to water.[15] Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † “Conifer” redirects here. ... Beech is a typical temperate zone hardwood For the record label, see Hardwood Records. ...


The Bald Eagle is extremely sensitive to human activity, and occurs most commonly in areas free of human disturbance. It chooses sites more than 1.2 km (0.75 miles) from low-density human disturbance and more than 1.8 km (1.2 miles) from medium- to high-density human disturbance.[15]


The Bald Eagle's natural range covers most of North America, including most of Canada, all of the continental United States, and northern Mexico. It is the only Sea Eagle native to only North America. The bird itself is able to live in most of North America's varied habitats from the bayous of Louisiana to the Sonoran Desert and the eastern deciduous forests of Quebec and New England. Northern birds are migratory, while southern birds are resident, often remaining on their breeding territory all year. The Bald Eagle previously bred throughout much of its range but at its lowest population was largely restricted to Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, northern and eastern Canada, and Florida.[16] The continental United States is a term referring to the United States situated on the North American continent. ... Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off of U.S. Route 59. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Map of the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... Flock of Barnacle Geese during autumn migration Bird migration refers to the regular seasonal journeys undertaken by many species of birds. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ...

Juvenile bald eagle, with salmon in Alaska
Juvenile bald eagle, with salmon in Alaska

It has occurred as a vagrant twice in Ireland; a juvenile was shot illegally in Fermanagh on January 11, 1973 (misidentified at first as a White-tailed Eagle), and an exhausted juvenile was captured in Kerry on November 15, 1987.[17] Bald Eagles will also congregate in certain locations in winter. From November until February, one to two thousand birds winter in Squamish, British Columbia, about halfway between Vancouver and Whistler. The birds primarily gather along the Squamish and Cheakamus Rivers, attracted by the salmon spawning in the area.[18] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 632 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 948 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 632 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,000 × 948 pixels, file size: 1. ... Vagrancy is a phenomenon in biology whereby individual animals appear well outside their normal range; individual animals which exhibit vagrancy are known as vagrants. ... County Fermanagh (Fear Manach in Irish) is often referred to as Northern Irelands Lake District. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Tralee Code: KY Area: 4,746 km² Population (2006) 139,616 Website: www. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Squamish is a growing community in the Canadian province of British Columbia, located at the north end of Howe Sound. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Location of Whistler within the Squamish-Lillooet District in British Columbia, Canada Coordinates: , Country Canada Province British Columbia Regional District Squamish-Lillooet Settled 1914 by Mrytle and Alex Philip Incorporated 1975 Government  - Mayor Ken Melamed  - Manager Bill Barratt  - Governing body Whistler Town Council  - MP Blair Wilson  - MLA Joan McIntyre Area... The Squamish River is a short but very large stream draining a complex of basins in the Coast Mountains just north of Vancouver, entering the sea at the head of Howe Sound where the town of Squamish is located. ... The Cheakamus River (pron. ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ...


Behavior

The Bald Eagle is a powerful flier, and soars on thermal convection currents. It reaches speeds of 56–70 km/h (35–44 miles per hour) when gliding and flapping, and about 48 km/h (30 miles per hour) while carrying fish.[19] It is partially migratory, depending on location. If its territory has access to open water, it remains there year-round, but if the body of water freezes during the winter, making it impossible to obtain food, it migrates to the south or to the coast. The Bald Eagle selects migration routes which take advantage of thermals, updrafts, and food resources. During migration, it may ascend in a thermal and then glide down, or may take ascend in updrafts created by the wind against a cliff or other terrain. Migration generally takes place during the daytime, when thermals are produced by the sun.[3] Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... Example of a thermal column between the ground and a cumulus This article is about the atmospheric phenomenon. ... An Updraft or Downdraft is refers to the vertical movement of air as a weather related phenomenom. ...


Bald Eagles normally squeak and have a shrill cry, punctuated by grunts. They do not make the scream that is found in films; this is usually the call of a Red-tailed Hawk, dubbed into films for dramatic effect. Binomial name (Gmelin, 1788) Synonyms Buteo borealis Buteo broealis (lapsus) The Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) is a medium-sized bird of prey, one of three species colloquially known in the United States as the chickenhawk. ...

Bald Eagle eating whale carrion
Bald Eagle eating whale carrion

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haliaeetus leucocephalus - USFWS photo [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 900 pixel, file size: 62 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Haliaeetus leucocephalus - USFWS photo [1] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Diet

The Bald Eagle's diet is opportunistic and varied, but most feed mainly on fish. In the Pacific Northwest, spawning trout and salmon provide most of the Bald Eagles' diet.[20] Locally, eagles may rely largely on carrion, especially in winter, and they will scavenge carcasses up to the size of whales, though it seems that carcasses of ungulates and large fish are preferred. They also may sometimes feed on subsistence scavenged or stolen from campsites and picnics, as well as garbage dumps. Mammalian prey includes rabbits, hares, raccoons, muskrats, beavers, sea otters, and deer fawns. Preferred avian prey includes grebes, alcids, ducks, gulls, coots, egrets and geese. Most live prey are quite a bit smaller than the eagle, but predatory attacks on large birds such as the Great Blue Heron and even swans have been recorded. Reptiles, amphibians and crustaceans (especially crabs) are preyed on when available. For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Northwest from space The Pacific Northwest, abbreviated PNW, or PacNW is a region in the northwest of North America. ... For other uses, see Trout (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Orders & Clades Order Perissodactyla Eparctocyona Order Arctostylonia (extinct) Order Mesonychia (extinct) Cetartiodactyla Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Bulbulodentata (extinct) Family Hyopsodontidae Meridiungulata (extinct) Order Litopterna Notoungulata (extinct) Order Toxodontia Order Typotheria Ungulates (meaning roughly being hoofed or hoofed animal) are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hare (disambiguation). ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1766) Muskrat range (native range in red, introduced range in green) The muskrat or musquash (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra, is a medium-sized semi-aquatic rodent native to North America, and introduced in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America. ... For other uses, see Beaver (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Enhydra lutris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) is a large otter native to the North Pacific, from northern Japan and Kamchatka west across the Aleutian Islands south to California. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Genera About 15 in 4 subfamilies. ... Genera Podiceps Tachybaptus Podilymbus Aechmophorus Poliocephalus Rollandia Grebes are members of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... Species Fulica cristata Fulica atra Fulica alai Fulica americana Fulica caribaea Fulica leucoptera Fulica ardesiaca Fulica armillata Fulica rufifrons Fulica gigantea Fulica cornuta Fulica newtoni Fulica chathamensis The coots are medium-sized water birds which are members of the rail family. ... an egret and a fish Genera Egretta Ardea An egret is any of several herons, most of which are white or buff, and several of which develop fine plumes during the breeding season. ... Other uses: Goose (disambiguation) Genera Anser Branta Chen Cereopsis † see also: Swan, Duck Anatidae Goose (plural geese) is the general English name for a considerable number of birds, belonging to the family Anatidae. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Great Blue Heron , Ardea herodias, is a wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common over most of North and Central America as well as the West Indies and the Galápagos Islands, except for the far north and deserts and high mountains where there... For other uses, see Swan (disambiguation). ... Reptilia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... For the Dutch band, see Crustacean (band). ... For other uses, see Crab (disambiguation). ...

Bald Eagle with a freshly caught fish
Bald Eagle with a freshly caught fish

To hunt fish, easily their most important live prey, the eagle swoops down over the water and snatches the fish out of the water with its talons. They eat by holding the fish in one claw and tearing the flesh with the other. Eagles have structures on their toes called spiricules that allow them to grasp fish. Osprey also have this adaptation.[19] Bald Eagles have powerful talons. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 415 pixelsFull resolution (1242 × 645 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Joby Joseph, Taken with Nikon D50, 80-400VR. At Airlie center Virginia, USA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 415 pixelsFull resolution (1242 × 645 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Joby Joseph, Taken with Nikon D50, 80-400VR. At Airlie center Virginia, USA. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old... A claw is a curved pointed growth found at the end of a toe or finger, or in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ...


Sometimes, if the fish is too heavy to lift, the eagle will be dragged into the water. It may swim to safety, but some eagles drown or succumb to hypothermia. When competing for food, eagles will usually dominate other fish-eaters and scavengers, aggressively displacing mammals such as coyotes and foxes, and birds such as corvids, gulls, vultures and other raptors. Bald Eagles may be displaced by or themselves displace Golden Eagles, with neither species known to be dominant. Occasionally, Bald Eagles will steal fish away from smaller raptors, such as Ospreys, a practice known as kleptoparasitism.[21] Hypothermia is a condition in which an organisms temperature drops below that Required fOr normal metabolism and Bodily functionS. In warm-blooded animals, core [[body Temperature]] is maintained nEar a constant leVel through biologic [[homEostasis]]. But wheN the body iS exposed to cold Its internal mechanismS may be unable... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... For other uses, see Coyote (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... Genera Platylophus Gymnorhinus Cyanocitta Aphelocoma Cyanocorax Garrulus Cissa Perisoreus Urocissa Cyanopica Dendrocitta Crypsirina Pica Zavattariornis Podoces Nucifraga Pyrrhocorax Ptilostomus Corvus The crow family (Corvidae) has members that are above average in size for the bird order Passeriformes; in fact, it includes several that are among the largest. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... Orders Accipitriformes     Cathartidae     Pandionidae     Accipitridae     Sagittariidae Falconiformes     Falconidae A bird of prey or raptor is a bird that hunts its food, especially one that preys on mammals or other birds. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ...


Reproduction

Two chicks (eaglets)
Two chicks (eaglets)
A Bald Eagle nest
A Bald Eagle nest

Bald Eagles are sexually mature at four or five years of age. When they are old enough to breed, they often return to the area where they were born. It is thought that Bald Eagles mate for life. However, if one member of a pair dies or disappears, the other will choose a new mate. A pair which has repeatedly failed in breeding attempts may split and look for new mates.[22] Bald Eagle courtship involves elaborate calls and flight displays. The flight includes swoops, chases, and cartwheels, in which they fly high, lock talons, and free fall, separating just before hitting the ground.[23] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x701, 268 KB) Description: Bald eagle chicks (Gavia arctica) on Nest Creator: Dave Menke URL: Fish and Wildlife Service File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bald Eagle... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1050x701, 268 KB) Description: Bald eagle chicks (Gavia arctica) on Nest Creator: Dave Menke URL: Fish and Wildlife Service File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Bald Eagle... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 1223 KB) Summary Female bald eagle on an egg, Missouri. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x800, 1223 KB) Summary Female bald eagle on an egg, Missouri. ...


The nest is the largest of any bird in North America; it is used repeatedly over many years and with new material added each year may eventually be as large as 4 meters (13 ft) deep, 2.5 meters (8 ft) across and weigh one tonne (1.1 tons);[2] one nest in Florida was found to be 6.1 meters deep (20 ft), 2.9 meters (9.5 ft) across, and to weigh 2.722 tonnes (3 tons).[24] The nest is built out of branches, usually in large trees near water. When breeding where there are no trees, the Bald Eagle will nest on the ground. Eagles produce between one and three eggs per year, but it is rare for all three chicks to successfully fly. Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs. The other parent will hunt for food or look for nesting material. The eggs average about 7.3 centimeters (2.9 in) long and have a breadth of 5.5 centimeters (2.2 in).[19] This article is about the metric tonne. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ...


The incubation period averages at about 35 days and the parents will brood their offspring until they are about four weeks of age. The fledging stage can occur at any time from 70 to 92 days, the wide variation dictated by the effects of sex and hatching order on growth and development. Egg and nestling predation may be committed by Black-billed Magpies, gulls, ravens and crows, black bears and raccoons. With no known predators themselves, adults will fiercely defend their offspring from these species. Binomial name Pica hudsonia (Sabine, 1823) The Black-billed Magpie is a large bird in the crow family that occurs in the western half of North America from Alaska to Oklahoma. ... “Seagull” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Raven (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... For the river, see Raccoon River. ...


Relationship with humans

Population decline and recovery

Once a common sight in much of the continent, the Bald Eagle was severely affected in the mid-20th century by a variety of factors, among them thinning of egg shells, attributed to the use of the pesticide DDT.[25] Bald Eagles, like many birds of prey, were especially affected by DDT due to biomagnification. DDT itself was not lethal to the adult bird, but it interfered with the bird's calcium metabolism, making the bird either sterile or unable to lay healthy eggs. Female eagles laid eggs that were too brittle to withstand the weight of a brooding adult, making it nearly impossible to produce young.[16] It's estimated that in the early 1700s, the bald eagle population was 300,000–500,000,[26] but by the 1950s there were only 412 nesting pairs in the 48 contiguous states of the US. Other factors in Bald Eagle population reductions were a widespread loss of suitable habitat, and illegal shooting, which was described as "the leading cause of direct mortality in both adult and immature bald eagles," according to a 1978 report in the Endangered Species Technical Bulletin. In 1984, the National Wildlife Federation listed hunting, power line electrocution, and collisions in flight as the leading causes of eagle deaths. Bald Eagle populations have also been negatively affected by oil, lead, and mercury pollution, and by human and predator intrusion.[27] For other uses, see DDT (disambiguation). ... Biomagnification is a similar but distinct concept from bioaccumulation. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... The continental United States refers (except sometimes in U.S. federal law and regulations) to the largest part of the U.S. that is delimited by a continuous border. ... The National Wildlife Federation is the largest American conservation organization, with over 5 million members and supporters in 47 state-affiliated organizations; its annual budget is over $125 million as of 2006. ...

First-year juvenile
First-year juvenile

The species was first protected in the U.S. and Canada by the 1918 Migratory Bird Treaty, later extended to all of North America. The 1940 Bald Eagle Protection Act in the U.S., which protected the Bald Eagle and the Golden Eagle, prohibited commercial trapping and killing of the birds. The Bald Eagle was declared an endangered species in the U.S. in 1967, and amendments to the 1940 act between 1962 and 1972 further restricted commercial uses and increased penalties for violators. Also in 1972, DDT was banned in the United States.[28] DDT was completely banned in Canada in 1989, though its use had been highly restricted since the late 1970s.[29] Under United States Code Title 16, Chapter 7, Subchapter II, the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 is the United States legislation implementing the convention between the U.S. and Great Britain (for Canada). ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ...


With regulations in place and DDT banned, the eagle population rebounded. The Bald Eagle can be found in growing concentrations throughout the United States and Canada, particularly near large bodies of water. In the early 1980s, the estimated total population was 100,000 birds, with 110,000–115,000 by 1992;[2] the U.S. state with the largest resident population is Alaska, with about 40,000–50,000 birds, with the next highest population being the Canadian province of British Columbia with 20,000–30,000 birds in 1992.[2] Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944...


It was officially removed from the U.S. federal government's list of endangered species on July 12, 1995 by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, when it was reclassified from "Endangered" to "Threatened." On July 6, 1999, a proposal was initiated "To Remove the Bald Eagle in the Lower 48 States From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife." It was delisted on June 28, 2007.[30] It has also been assigned a risk level of Least Concern category on the IUCN Red List.[31] is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...


In captivity

A Bald Eagle wearing jesses for falconry
Bald Eagle at The National Zoo.
Bald Eagle at The National Zoo.

Permits are required to keep Bald Eagles in captivity in the United States. Permits are primarily issued to public educational institutions, and the eagles which they show are permanently injured individuals which cannot be released to the wild. The facilities where eagles are kept must be equipped with adequate caging and facilities, as well as workers experienced in the handling and care of eagles. Bald Eagles cannot legally be kept for falconry in the United States. As a rule, the Bald Eagle is a poor choice for public shows, being timid, prone to becoming highly stressed, and unpredictable in nature. Native American Tribes can obtain a "Native American Religious Use" permit to keep non-releasable eagles as well. They use their naturally molted feathers for religious and cultural ceremonies. The Bald Eagle can be long-lived in captivity if well cared for, but does not breed well even under the best conditions.[32] In Canada, a license is required to keep Bald Eagles for falconry.[33] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3504 × 2336 pixel, file size: 3. ... Jesses are leather straps used to tether a hawk or falcon in falconry. ... Flying a Saker Falcon A Goshawk A Hobby Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ... Flying a Saker Falcon A Goshawk A Hobby Falconry or hawking is an art or sport which involves the use of trained raptors (birds of prey) to hunt or pursue game for humans. ...


National bird of the United States

The Bald Eagle is the national bird of the United States of America. It is one of the country's most recognizable symbols, and appears on most of its official seals, including the Seal of the President of the United States. A Secret Service agent placing the seal on the presidents podium. ...


The Continental Congress adopted the current design for the Great Seal of the United States including a Bald Eagle grasping thirteen arrows and a thirteen-leaf olive branch with its talons on June 20, 1782.[34] The Continental Congress resulted from the American Revolution and was the de facto first national government of the United States. ... The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. ... This article is about the weapon. ... Olive branch Olive branch is a colloquial term referring to a concession or a gesture of peace, as well as a peace symbol. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Seal of the President of the United States
Seal of the President of the United States

After the end of the Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin wrote a famous letter from Paris in 1784, to his daughter, criticizing the choice and suggesting the Wild Turkey as a better representative of American qualities. He described the Bald Eagle as "a Bird of bad moral character," who, "too lazy to fish for himself" survived by robbing the Osprey. He called the Bald Eagle "a rank Coward" easily driven from a perch by the much smaller kingbird. In the letter, Franklin wrote the Turkey is, "a much more respectable Bird," which he described as "a little vain & silly [but] a Bird of Courage."[34] Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... Image File history File links Seal_Of_The_President_Of_The_Unites_States_Of_America. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Wild Turkey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osprey (disambiguation). ... Tyrannus. ...


The Bald Eagle remained the emblem of the United States. It can be found on both national seals and on the back of several coins (including the quarter dollar coin until 1999), with its head oriented towards the olive branch. Between 1916 and 1945, the Presidential Flag showed an eagle facing to its left (the viewer's right), which gave rise to the urban legend that the seal is changed to have the eagle face towards the olive branch in peace, and towards the arrows in wartime.[35] The quarter is 1/4th of a United States dollar or 25 cents. ... This is a list of flags used in or otherwise associated with the United States. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ...


Role in Native American culture

Bald Eagle adult landing on nest
Bald Eagle adult landing on nest

The Bald Eagle is a sacred bird in some North American cultures, and its feathers, like those of the Golden Eagle, are central to many religious and spiritual customs among Native Americans. Eagles are considered spiritual messengers between gods and humans by some cultures.[36] Many pow wow dancers use the eagle claw as part of their regalia as well. Eagle feathers are often used in traditional ceremonies, particularly in the construction of regalia worn and as a part of fans, bustles and head dresses. The Lakota, for instance, give an eagle feather as a symbol of honor to person who achieves a task. In modern times, it may be given on an event such as a graduation from college.[37] The Pawnee considered eagles as symbols of fertility because their nests are built high off the ground and because they fiercely protect their young. The Kwakwaka'wakw scattered eagle down to welcome important guests.[38] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x762, 47 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (611x762, 47 KB) This image was copied from wikipedia:de. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... Pow wow redirects here. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Kwakwakawakw girl wearing abalone shell earings. ...


During the Sun Dance, which is practiced by many Plains Indian tribes, the eagle is represented in several ways. The eagle nest is represented by the fork of the lodge where the dance is held. A whistle made from the wing bone of an eagle is used during the course of the dance. Also during the dance, a medicine man may direct his fan, which is made of eagle feathers, to people who seek to be healed. The medicine man touches the fan to the center pole and then to the patient, in order to transmit power from the pole to the patient. The fan is then held up toward the sky, so that the eagle may carry the prayers for the sick to the Creator.[39] Sketch of a Siouan Sun Dance by George Catlin The Sun Dance is a ceremony practiced by a number of native americans. ... The Plains Indians were a group of tribes who lived in a region of North America called the Great Plains. ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ...


Current eagle feather law stipulates that only individuals of certifiable Native American ancestry enrolled in a federally recognized tribe are legally authorized to obtain Bald or Golden Eagle feathers for religious or spiritual use. The constitutionality of these laws has been questioned by Native American groups on the basis that it violates the First Amendment by affecting ability to practice their religion freely.[40] Additionally, only members of federally recognized tribes are legally allowed to possess eagle feathers, preventing non-federally recognized tribe members from practicing religion freely. The laws have also been criticized on grounds of racial preferences and infringements on tribal sovereignty.[41] There are a number of federal wildlife laws pertaining to eagles and their feathers (e. ... “First Amendment” redirects here. ... Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ...


See also

This is a list of national birds, most official, but some unofficial: Angola - Peregrine Falcon, Falco peregrinus [1] Anguilla - Zenaida Dove, Zenaida Aurita (Locally known as Turtle Dove) Antigua and Barbuda - Magnificent Frigatebird, Fregata magnificens [2] Argentina - Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus [3] Australia - Emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae (unofficial [4]) Austria - Barn...

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Haliaeetus leucocephalus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 2007-11-11.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., & Sargatal, J., eds. (1994). Handbook of the Birds of the World Vol. 2. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona ISBN 84-87334-15-6.
  3. ^ a b c Harris. Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus. University of Michigan Museum of Geology. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  4. ^ a b Bald Eagle, Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  5. ^ Sibley, D. (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. National Audubon Society ISBN 0-679-45122-6
  6. ^ Bird, D.M. (2004). The Bird Almanac: A Guide to Essential Facts and Figures of the World's Birds. Ontario: Firefly Books. ISBN 1552979259. 
  7. ^ Joshua Dietz. What's in a Name. Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved on August 19, 2007.
  8. ^ Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. 
  9. ^ (Latin) Linnaeus, Carolus (1766). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).. 
  10. ^ Haliaeetus leucocephalus (English). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  11. ^ a b Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus. The Pacific Wildlife Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-06-27.
  12. ^ a b Brown, N. L.. Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  13. ^ Wink, M; Heidrich, P. & Fentzloff, C (1996). "[PDF fulltext A mtDNA phylogeny of sea eagles (genus Haliaeetus) based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene]". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24: 783-791. doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(96)00049-X . 
  14. ^ Bald Eagle Habitat (English). Bald-Eagles.info. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  15. ^ a b c WILDLIFE SPECIES: Haliaeetus leucocephalus. USDA Forest Service. Retrieved on 2007-06-21.
  16. ^ a b Bull J, Farrand, J Jr (1987). Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Birds:Eastern Region. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 468-9. ISBN 0-394-41405-5. 
  17. ^ British Ornithologists' Union Records Committee. 25th Report (October 1998). British Ornithologists Union. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  18. ^ Hope Rutledge. Where to View Bald Eagles. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  19. ^ a b c Terres, J. K. (1980). The Audubon Society Encyclopedia of North American Birds. New York, NY: Knopf, 644-646. ISBN 0394466519. 
  20. ^ Daum, David W.. Bald Eagle. Alaska Department of Fish & Game. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  21. ^ Jorde, D.G.; Lingle, G (1998). "Kleptoparasitism by Bald Eagles wintering in South-Central Nebraska.". Journal of Field Ornithology 59 (2): 183-188. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. 
  22. ^ R.F. Stocek. Bald Eagle. Canadian Wildlife Service. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  23. ^ Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  24. ^ Erickson, L. (2007). Bald Eagle Journey North About Bald Eagle Nests
  25. ^ Brown, Leslie (1976). Birds of Prey: Their biology and ecology. Hamlyn, 226. ISBN 0-600-31306-9. 
  26. ^ Bald Eagle Facts and Information. American eagle foundation. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  27. ^ Milloy, Steven. "Bald Eagle", Fox News, 2006-07-06. Retrieved on 2008-01-03. 
  28. ^ EPA press release. "DDT Ban Takes Effect", United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1972-12-31. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  29. ^ Barrera, Jorge. "Agent Orange has left deadly legacy Fight continues to ban pesticides and herbicides across Canada", 2005-07-04. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  30. ^ Bald Eagle Soars Off Endangered Species List. U.S. Department of the Interior (2007-06-28). Retrieved on 2007-08-27.
  31. ^ BirdLife International (2004). Haliaeetus leucocephalus. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-03.
  32. ^ Maestrelli, John R.; Stanley N. Wiemeyer (March 1975). "Breeding Bald Eagles in Captivity". The Wilson Bulletin 87 (I). Retrieved on 2007-08-19. 
  33. ^ "Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1997" . Ministry of Attorney General. Retrieved on 2007-08-24. 
  34. ^ a b Original Design of the Great Seal of the United States (1782). National Archives. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  35. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara & Mikkelson, David P. A Turn of the Head. snopes.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  36. ^ Julie Collier. The Sacred Messengers. Mashantucket Pequot Museum. Retrieved on 2007-05-20.
  37. ^ Melmer, David. "Bald eagles may come off threatened list", Indian Country Today, 2007-06-11. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. 
  38. ^ Brown, Steven C.; Averill, Lloyd J.. "Sun Dogs and Eagle Down", University of Washington Press. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. 
  39. ^ Lawrence, Elizabeth Atwood. "The Symbolic Role of Animals in the Plains Indian Sun Dance", University of Washington Press. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. 
  40. ^ DeMeo, Antonia M. (1995). "Access to Eagles and Eagle Parts: Environmental Protection v. Native American Free Exercise of Religion". Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 22 (3): 771-813. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  41. ^ Boradiansky, Tina S.. "Conflicting Values: The Religious Killing of Federally Protected Wildlife", University of New Mexico School of Law, 1990. Retrieved on 2007-08-23. 

National Geographic:Bald Eagle BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The Handbook of the Birds of the World is a multi-volume series produced by Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Allen Sibley (born 1962, New York) is an American ornithologist. ... The Sibley Guide to Birds is a guide for the identification of birds found in the North American region as defined by the American Birding Association. ... Headquarter of National Audubon Society in New York. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Henry George Liddell (1811‑1898)was a British historian and academic, editor at Charterhouse and Christ Church, Oxford, of which in 1855 he became Dean. ... Robert Scott (January 26, 1811 - December 2, 1877) was a 19th-century British academic philologist and a Fellow (later Master) of Balliol College, Oxford University. ... A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Ornithologists Union (BOU) aims to encourage the study of birds (ornithology) in Britain, Europe and throughout the world, in order to understand their biology and to aid their conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Kenneth Terres (17 December 1905, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - December 2006), was an American naturalist and author. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BirdLife International is the international conservation organization working to protect the world’s birds and their habitats. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Further reading

Identification

  • Grant, Peter J. (1988) The Co. Kerry Bald Eagle Twitching 1(12): 379-80 - describes plumage differences between Bald Eagle and White-tailed Eagle in juvenile plumage

Birding World is a monthly birding journal published in the United Kingdom. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Haliaeetus leucocephalus
Wikispecies has information related to:

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ...

Video links

  • Fledging Season 2007: Various Wild Bald Eagle Nests
  • Wild Bald Eagle Eats Live Crab: Close Up
  • Live video of a Bald Eagle nest on Santa Cruz Island.
  • Video of Bald Eagles on the Internet Bird Collection



  Results from FactBites:
 
Bald Eagle Facts and Information (1081 words)
The Bald Eagle was officially declared the National Emblem of the United States by the Second Continental Congress in 1782.
Bald Eagles live near large bodies of open water such as lakes, marshes, seacoasts and rivers, where there are plenty of fish to eat and tall trees for nesting and roosting.
The mass shooting of eagles, use of pesticides on crops, destruction of habitat, and contamination of waterways and food sources by a wide range of poisons and pollutants all played a role in harming the Bald Eagle's livelihood and diminishing their numbers.
USFlag.org: A website dedicated to the Flag of the United States of America - American Bald Eagle (1341 words)
Bald eagles are believed to live 30 years or longer in the wild, and even longer in captivity.
In addition to the adverse effects of DDT, bald eagles also died from lead poisoning as a result of feeding on hunter-killed or crippled waterfowl containing lead shot and from lead shot that was inadvertently ingested by the waterfowl.
These captive-hatched bald eagles were an important source for restocking wild populations in certain areas of the country and helped to reestablish a broader distribution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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