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Encyclopedia > Balaklava
Balaklava or Balaclava
Балаклава
Балаклава
Balıqlava
Region of Crimea: Sevastopol
Location: 44°30′N 33°36′E
Altitude: ~10 m
Area:  ? km²
Population: 30,000 (2001)
Density:  ? /km²
Postal codes: 99xxx
Phone prefix: +380-692
Time zone: EET: UTC+2
Previous name: Cembalo (until 1475), Yamboli, Symbolon
official web-site

Balaklava (Ukrainian: Балаклава, Russian: Балаклава, Crimean Tatar: Balıqlava) is a town in the Crimea, Ukraine which has an official status of a district of the city of Sevastopol. It was a city in its own right until 1957 when it was formally incorporated into the municipal borders of Sevastopol by the Soviet government. Image File history File links Balaklava-flag. ... Image File history File links Balakl_s. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Image File history File links Reddot. ... Image File history File links Sebastopol-map. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a residential community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Chicago from the air. ... now. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared 30...

Contents

History

Balaklava has changed hands many times during its history. A settlement at its present location was originally founded under the name of Symbolon (Συμβολον) by the Ancient Greeks, for whom it was an important commercial city. During the Middle Ages, it was controlled by the Byzantine Empire and then by the Genoese who conquered it in 1365. The Byzantines called the town Yamboli and the Genoese named it Cembalo. The Genoese built a large trading empire in both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, buying slaves in Eastern Europe and shipping them to Egypt via the Crimea, a lucrative market hotly contested with by the Venetians. It is believed that it was on board a Genoese trading cog sailing back to Genoa from Balaklava (or Kaffa, according to some chronicles) that the Black Death first arrived in Europe in the mid-14th c. The ruins of a Genoese fortress positioned high on a clifftop above the entrance to the Balaklava Inlet are a popular tourist attraction and have recently become the stage for a Medieval festival. The fortress is a subject of Mickiewicz's penultimate poem in his 1825 cycle of Crimean Sonnets. The Ancient Greek world, circa 550 BC Ancient Greece is the period in Greek history which lasted for around one thousand years and ended with the rise of Christianity. ... Commerce is the trading of something of economic value such as goods, services, information or money between two or more entities. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... What Up. ... Country Italy Region Liguria Province Genoa (GE) Mayor Giuseppe Pericu (since 2005-05-30) Elevation 20 m Area 243 km² Population  - Total (as of 2006) 620,316  - Density 2,553/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Genovesi Dialing code 010 Postal code 16100 Frazioni Acquasanta, Vesima Patron St. ... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Map of the Black Sea. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Eastern Europe is the eastern region of Europe variably defined. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. ... Excavated cog from 1380 Cogs or rather cog-built vessels came into existence around 12th century AD. They were cheracterized by flush-laid flat bottom at midships but gradually shifted to overlapped strakes near the posts. ... Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411). ... European redirects here. ... Tourists at Oahu island, Hawaii Tourism is the act of travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes, and also refers to the provision of services in support of this act. ... Adam Mickiewicz (December 24, 1798 – November 26, 1855) was one of the most well-known Polish poets and writers, considered as the greatest Polish poet, besides Zygmunt Krasiński and Juliusz Słowacki. ...


In 1475 the growing Ottoman Empire took possession of Balaklava renaming it Balık Yuva ("a fish nest" in Turkish), which was slowly corrupted over time to its present form. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774, the Russian troops conquered the Crimea in 1771. Thirteen years later, Crimea was definitively annexed by the Russian Empire. After that, Crimean Tatar and Turkish population was replaced by Greeks from the Archipelago. In 1787 the city was visited by Catherine the Great. [1] In 1509 Balboa tried to join a Spanish expedition but could not because he owed so many debts January 10—Stephen III of Moldavia defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Vaslui. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem At the height of its power (1683) Capital Söğüt (1299-), Bursa (1326-), Edirne (1365-), Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Mergui Archipelago An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from...


The town became famous for the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War thanks to the suicidal Charge of the Light Brigade, a British cavalry charge due to a misunderstanding sent up a valley strongly held on three sides by the Russians, in which about 250 men were killed or wounded, and over 400 horses lost, effectively reducing the size of the mounted brigade by two thirds and destroying some of the finest light cavalry in the world to no military purpose. The British poet Lord Alfred Tennyson immortalized this battle in verse. Balaclava, a tight knitted garment covering the whole head and neck with holes for the eyes and mouth also takes its name from this battle where soldiers first wore them. Combatants United Kingdom, France Russian Empire Commanders Lord Raglan, General de Saint Arnaud Pavel Liprandi Strength Approx. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was... Charge of the Light Brigade, Painting by Richard Caton Woodville (1825-1855) The Charge of the Light Brigade was an ill-advised cavalry charge, led by Lord Cardigan, which occurred during the Battle of Balaclava on October 25, 1854 during the Crimean War. ... Kircholm, a 1925 painting by Wojciech Kossak. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Balaclava and gun A balaclava, balaclava helmet or ski mask is a form of headgear covering the whole head, exposing only the face (and often only the eyes). ...


During the Second World War, Balaklava was the southernmost point in the Soviet-German lines. In 1956 Balaklava, together with the whole Crimea, passed from Russia to Ukraine. It became part of the independent state of Ukraine in 1991. Today there are over 50 monuments in the town dedicated to the remembrance of military valour in past wars, including the Great Patriotic War, the Crimean War and the Russian Civil War. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was... Combatants Red Army (Bolsheviks) White Army (Monarchists, SRs, Anti-Communists) Green Army (Peasants and Nationalists) Black Army (Anarchists) Commanders Leon Trotsky Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Lavr Kornilov, Alexander Kolchak, Anton Denikin, Pyotr Wrangel Alexander Antonov, Nikifor Grigoriev Nestor Makhno Strength 5,427,273 (peak) +1,000,000 Casualties 939,755...


Nuclear submarine base

One of the monuments is an underground, formerly classified nuclear submarine base that was operational until 1991. The base was said to be virtually indestructible and designed to survive a direct atomic impact. During that period, Balaklava was one of the most secret residential areas in the Soviet Union. Almost the entire population of Balaklava at one time worked at the base; even family members could not visit the town of Balaklava without a good reason and proper identification. The base remained operational after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 until 1993 when the decommissioning process started. This process saw the removal of the warheads and low-yield torpedoes. In 1996, the last Russian submarine left the base, which is now open to the public for guided tours around the canal system, the base, and a small museum, which is now housed in the old ammunition warehouse deep inside the hillside.

Notes

  1. ^ Some rural communities surrounding Balaklava remained populated by Crimean Tatars until their deportation in 1944.

1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1944 calendar). ...

External links

Commons logo
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Balaklava
  • (English) Balaklava and the Sevastopol Inquiry, 1855
  • (English) Balaklava Photoalbum
  • (Russian) Genoese fortress in Balaklava
  • (Russian) Balaklava - Official Site


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Coat of Arms of Sevastopol Subdivisions of Sevastopol, Ukraine Flag of Ukraine

Raions: Balaklavskyi Raion | Haharinskyi Raion | Leninskyi Raion | Nakhimovskyi Raion Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... now. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...

Towns: Balaklava | Inkerman | Kacha Inkerman (Inkermann) is a small town in Crimea, an eastern suburb of Sevastopol. ...

Villages: Andriivka | Dalnie | Frontove | Fruktove | Honcharne | Kamyshly | Kolkhozne | Kyzylove | Novobobrivske | Orlivka | Orlyne | Osypenko | Ozerne | Pavlivka | Peredove | Pidhirne | Poliushko | Povorotne | Pyrohovka | Rezervne | Ridne | Rodnykivske | Rozcoshanka | Shyroke | Soniachnyi | Ternivka | Tylove | Verkhnyosadove | Vyshneve



Coat of Arms of Crimea Subdivisions of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine Flag of Ukraine
Raions:

Bakhchisaray raion | Bilohirsk raion | Chornomorske raion | Dzhankoy raion | Kirovske raion | Krasnohvardiyske raion | Krasnoperekopsk raion | Lenine raion | Nizhnyohirskyi raion | Pervomayske raion | Rozdolne raion | Saky raion | Simferopol raion | Sovetskyi raion Image File history File links Crimea_Emblem. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... Bakhchisaray raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Byelogorsk raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Chernomorsk raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Dzhankoy raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Kirovske raion (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ...

City Municipalities:

Alushta municipality | Armyansk municipality | Dzhankoy municipality | Eupatoria municipality | Kerch municipality | Krasnoperekopsk municipality | Saky municipality | Simferopol municipality | Sudak municipality | Theodosia municipality | Yalta municipality Alushta city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Alushta city council, also known as Greater Alushta is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Armyansk city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Dzhankoy (Ukrainian and Russian: Джанкой, Crimean Tatar: Canköy) is a city in the north of the Crimea, Ukraine. ... Eupatoria city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) officially the territory governed by the Eupatoria city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Kerch (Russian: Керчь; Ukrainian: Керч; Old East Slavic: Корчев, Turkish and Crimean Tatar: Kerç) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transportation and tourist center of Ukraine. ... Krasnoperekopsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Krasnoperekopsk) is a city in Crimea, Ukraine which is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124km from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. ... Saky (Ukrainian: ) is a city in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simferopol city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) officially the territory governed by the Simferopol city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Sudak city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Sudak city council is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Theodosia city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Theodosia city council, is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ... Yalta city municipality (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ), officially the territory governed by the Yalta city council, also known as Greater Yalta is one of the 25 regions of Crimea. ...

Cities and towns:

Alupka | Alushta | Armyansk | Balaklava | Bakhchisaray | Bilohirsk | Chornomorske | Gaspra | Gurzuf | Dzhankoy | Eupatoria | Foros | Inkerman | Kacha | Kerch | Koktebel | Koreiz | Kirovske | Krasnohvardiyske | Krasnoperekopsk | Lenine | Livadiya | Massandra | Nizhnyohirskyi | Nikita | Novyi Svet | Partenit | Pervomayske | Perekop | Rozdolne | Saky | Scholkine | Sevastopol | Simeiz | Simferopol | Sovetskyi | Staryi Krym | Sudak | Theodosia | Yalta Urban-type settlement (Russian: , posyolok gorodskogo tipa; Ukrainian: , selyshche miskoho typu; abbreviated as in Russian and as in Ukrainian) is an official designation for a certain type of urban settlements used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union. ... Alupka is a resort town in the Crimea, Ukraine, situated 17 km to the west of Yalta. ... Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Armyansk (Ukrainian: Армянськ, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a town in northern Crimea, Ukraine. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... Belogorsk (Crimean Tatar: Qarasuvbazar, Ukrainian: , Russian: ) (both Russian and Ukrainian names mean white mountains), formerly Karasubazar, is a town of Ukraine, at the Crimea, in 45° 3 north and 340 26 east, 25 miles east-northeast of Simferopol. ... Gaspra (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a spa town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Gurzuf (Russian:Гурзу́ф) is a settlement on the Crimea peninsula in Ukraine, on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... Dzhankoy (Ukrainian and Russian: Джанкой, Crimean Tatar: Canköy) is a city in the north of the Crimea, Ukraine. ... Also Eupatoria or Evpatoria; town in the Crimea. ... Foros (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Foros) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Inkerman (Inkermann) is a small town in Crimea, an eastern suburb of Sevastopol. ... Kerch (Russian: Керчь; Ukrainian: Керч; Old East Slavic: Корчев, Turkish and Crimean Tatar: Kerç) is a city (2001 pop 157,000) on the Kerch Peninsula of eastern Crimea, an important industrial, transportation and tourist center of Ukraine. ... Koktebel, also known as Planerskoye, is one of the most popular resort townlets in the Crimea, situated on the shore of the Black Sea about halfway between Feodosiya and Sudak. ... Koreiz (Ukrainian: Кореїз, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a townlet in the Yalta region of Crimea. ... Krasnoperekopsk (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Krasnoperekopsk) is a city in Crimea, Ukraine which is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124km from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. ... Lenine is a brazilian singer and songwriter born and raised in Recife, capital of Pernambuco in Northeast Brazil. ... Livadiya is a resort located on the Black Sea near Yalta, Ukraine. ... Massandra (Ukrainian: Масандра, Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a townlet in the Yalta region of Crimea. ... Nikita (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: Nikita) is a townlet in Crimea, Ukraine. ... A Juniper forest in Noviy Svet Novyi Svet (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ; Crimean Tatar: Novıy Svet; literally: New World) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine, known for an eponymous sort of champagne produced there. ... Partenit (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a seaside city in the southern part of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Saky (Ukrainian: ) is a city in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Scholkine (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a city in Autonomous Republic of Crimea of Ukraine. ... now. ... Simeiz (Симеиз) is a resort town in Crimea, Ukraine. ... Simferopol (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ; Crimean Tatar: ) is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraine. ... Staryi Krym (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a small historical town in the Eastern Crimea, approximately 25 km (15 mi. ... Sudak is city in the Crimea. ... Theodosia (Russian: Феодосия; Ukrainian: Феодосія; Greek: Θεοδωσία; Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Kefe) is a port and resort city in southern Ukraine, located on the Black Sea coast of Crimea at coordinates 45. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Balaklava and the Charge of the Light Brigade (801 words)
Today Balaklava is a pleasant, peaceful little harbour town, gradually getting used to seeing foreigners in the streets after years of being part of the closed district of Sevastopol during the soviet era.
Balaklava sits on a narrow S-shaped inlet protected by steep hills on either side, so that ships in the port are not visible at all from the sea.
When the allied troops were disembarking at Balaklava, she cut off her hair, dressed in mens' clothing, loaded a horse with clean rags and bottles of wine and vinegar for cleaning injuries and set off for the front line.
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