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Encyclopedia > Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856 - 1920), was an Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter who was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement. Tilak sparked the fire for complete independence in Indian consciousness, and is considered the father of Hindu nationalism as well. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Map of India. ... Freedom fighter is a relativistic local term for those engaged in rebellion against an established government that is held to be oppressive and illegitimate. ... The Indian independence movement consisted of efforts by India to obtain political independence from British, French and Portuguese rule; it involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and Indias independence on August 15, 1947. ... Hindu nationalism is the political and cultural expression, histriographical and political theories of Indian nationalism distinctive to Hindu society in India, which asserts being Hindu as not merely a religious identity, but a national identity. ...


Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it! - Swaraj means self rule


This famous quote of his is very popular and well-remembered in India even today. Reverently addressed as Lokmanya (meaning "Beloved of the people" or "Revered by the world"), Tilak was a scholar of Indian history, Sanskrit, Hinduism, mathematics and astronomy. Prehistory The prehistory of India goes back to the old Stone age (Palaeolithic). ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion or philosophy that originated from the Indian subcontinent and nearby surrounding areas. ... Euclid, a famous Greek mathematician known as the father of geometry, is shown here in detail from The School of Athens by Raphael. ... Radio telescopes are among many different tools used by astronomers Astronomy (Greek: αστρονομία = άστρον + νόμος, astronomia = astron + nomos, literally, law of the stars) is the science of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the Earths atmosphere (such as auroras and cosmic background radiation). ...

Contents


Early life

He was born on July 23, 1856, in a village near Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, into a middle class Kokanastha Brahmin family. Tilak was an avid student with a special aptitude for mathematics. He was among India's first generation of youth to receive a modern, college education. RATNAGIRI Ratnagiri is located in the southwestern part of Maharashtra State on the Arabian Sea coast. ... Maharashtra (Devanagari: महाराष्ट्र mahārāṣṭra, literally: Great Nation; IPA: / /)( ) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


After graduation, Tilak began teaching mathematics in a private school in Pune and later became a journalist. He became a strong critic of the Western education system, feeling it demeaning to Indian students and disrespectful to India's heritage. He organized the Deccan Education Society to improve the quality of education for India's youth. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Political career

Tilak founded the Marathi daily Kesari (The Lion) which fast became a popular reading for the common people of India. Tilak strongly criticized the government for its brutalism in suppression of free expression, especially in face of protests against the division of Bengal in 1905, and for denigrating India's culture, its people and heritage. He demanded the British immediately give the right to self-government to India's people. Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Tilak joined the Indian National Congress in the 1890s, but soon fell into opposition of its liberal-moderate attitude towards the fight for self-government. Tilak opposed the moderate views of Gopal Krishna Gokhale, and was supported by fellow Indian nationalists Bipin Chandra Pal in Bengal and Lala Lajpat Rai in Punjab. In 1907, the Congress Party split into the Garam Dal (literally, "Hot Faction"), led by Tilak, Pal and Lajpat Rai, and the Naram Dal (literally, "Soft Faction") led by Gokhale during its convention at Surat in Gujarat. Indian National Congress (also known as the Congress Party or Congress (I), abbreviated INC) is a major political party in India. ... Gopal Krishna Gokhale (गोपाल कृष्‍ण गोखले) was born on May 9, 1866, in Kolhat, Maharashtra, and he became one of the most learned men in India, a leader of social and political reformists and one of the earliest, founding leaders of the Indian Independence Movement. ... He was one of the trilogy of the three Extremist patriots of the Indian National Congress who had fought and gave his life during Indias freedom struggle in the first half of the twentieth century. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Lala Lajpat Rai was an Indian politician who is chiefly remembered as a leader in the Indian fight for freedom from the British Raj. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (meaning: Land of five Rivers (c. ... Surat (Gujarati:સુરત) is a port city in the Indian state of Gujarat and administrative headquarters of the Surat District. ... Gujarat (Gujarati: , , IPA ; also spelled Gujrat and sometimes Gujarath. ...


When arrested on charges of sedition in 1906, Tilak asked a young Muhammad Ali Jinnah to represent him. But the British judge convicted him and he was imprisoned from 1908 to 1914 in Mandalay, Burma. Office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai (1892–1893), Rattanbai Petit (1918–1929) Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ...


Upon his release, Tilak re-united with his fellow nationalists and re-joined the Indian National Congress in 1916. He also helped found the All India Home Rule League in 1916-18 with Annie Besant and Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The All India Home Rule Leagues was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule to the British Raj in India. ... Annie Besant Plaque on house in Colby Road, London SE19 where Annie Besant lived in 1874. ... Office: 1st Governor-General of Pakistan Term of office: August 14, 1947 – September 11, 1948 Succeeded by: Khawaja Nazimuddin Date of birth: December 25, 1876 Place of birth: Wazir Mansion, Karachi Wives: Emibai (1892–1893), Rattanbai Petit (1918–1929) Children: daughter Dina Wadia Date of Death: September 11, 1948 Place...


Philosophical and social contribution

Although he was basically a proponent of Advaita Vedanta, he differed from the classical Advaitin view that jnana (knowledge) alone brings release. Tilak added a measure of karma yoga (the yoga of activity) to this, not as subordinate to jnana yoga , but as equal and complementary to it. Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... Vedanta (Vedānta, वेदान्त, pronounced as ) means the anta or culmination or essence of the Vedas. ... Karma (Sanskrit: from the root , to do, [meaning deed] meaning action, effect, destiny) is a term that comprises the entire cycle of cause and effect. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jnana is the Sanskrit term for knowledge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Tilak proposed various social reforms, such as a minimum age for marriage, and was especially keen to see a prohibition placed on the sale of alcohol. His thoughts on education and Indian political life have remained highly influential — he was the first Congress leader to suggest that Hindi, written in the devanagari script, should be accepted as the sole national language of India, a policy that was later strongly endorsed by Mahatma Gandhi. However, English, which (Anant) Chaturdashi (in Aug/Sept span), which contributed for people to get together and celebrate the festival and provided a good platform for leaders to inspire masses. His call for boycott of foreign goods also served to inspire patriotism among Indian masses. Hindi (हिन्दी or हिंदी in DevanāgarÄ«; pronunciation: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in Northern and Central India is the primary official language and the National language (sic) of the Union government of India. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; Hindi: मोहन्दास करमचंद गांधी, Pronunciation: / / ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ...


Later years and legacy

Tilak was a critic of Mahatma Gandhi's strategy of non-violent, civil disobedience. Although once considered an extremist revolutionary, in his later years Tilak had considerably mellowed. He favored political dialogue and discussions as a more effective way to obtain political freedom for India, and did not support leaving the British Empire. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (Gujarati: મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી; Hindi: मोहन्दास करमचंद गांधी, Pronunciation: / / ) (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) was a major political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


However, Tilak is considered in many ways to have created the nationalist movement in India, by expanding the struggle for political freedoms and self-government to the common people of India. His writings on Indian culture, history and Hinduism spread a sense of heritage and pride amongst millions of Indians for India's ancient civilization and glory as a nation. Hinduism (Sanskrit - Sanātana (eternal) Dharma also known as Vaidika (Vedic) Dharma) is a religion or philosophy that originated from the Indian subcontinent and nearby surrounding areas. ...


Tilak was considered the political and spiritual leader of India by many, and Gandhi is considered his successor. When Tilak died in 1920, Gandhi paid his respects at his cremation in Bombay, along with 200,000 people. Gandhi called Tilak "The Maker of Modern India". This article or section should be merged with Mumbai Mumbai (previously known as Bombay) is the worlds most populous conurbation, and is the sixth most populous agglomeration in the world. ...


Tilak is also today considered the father of Hindu Nationalism. He was the idol of Indian revolutionary Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, who penned the political doctrine of Hindutva. Hindu nationalism is the political and cultural expression, histriographical and political theories of Indian nationalism distinctive to Hindu society in India, which asserts being Hindu as not merely a religious identity, but a national identity. ... Veer Savarkar on a stamp issued by Government of India. ... Hindutva (Hinduness, a word coined by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his 1923 pamphlet entitled Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? ) is used to describe movements advocating Hindu nationalism. ...


Books

Tilak authored the well-regarded The Orion, or, Researches into the antiquities of the Vedas (1893) in which he used astronomy to establish that the Vedic people were present in India at least as early as the 4th millennium BC. 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Later, in 1903, he wrote the much more speculative Arctic Home in the Vedas. In it he argued that the Vedas could only have been composed in the Arctics, and the Aryan bards brought them south after the onset of the last Ice age. The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद) are an extremely large series of writings originating in Ancient India. ... Aryan ()is an English language word derived from the Indian Vedas and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


Tilak also authored 'Geetarahasya' - the analysis of 'Karmayoga' in the Bhagavadgita, which is known to be gist of the Vedas and the Upanishads. Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma_Parva chapters 23–40. ... The Vedas (Sanskrit वेद) are an extremely large series of writings originating in Ancient India. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


Other collections of his writings include:

  • The Hindu philosophy of life, ethics and religion (published in 1887).
  • Vedic chronology and vedanga jyotisha.
  • Letters of Lokamanya Tilak, edited by M. D. Vidwans.
  • Selected documents of Lokamanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 1880-1920, edited by Ravindra Kumar.
  • Trial of Tilak.


          Indian Independence Movement               
History: Colonisation - East India Company - Plassey - Buxar - British India - French India - Portuguese India - More...
Philosophies: Indian nationalism - Swaraj - Gandhism - Satyagraha - Hindu nationalism - Indian Muslim nationalism - Swadeshi - Socialism
Events and movements: Rebellion of 1857 - Partition of Bengal - Revolutionaries - Champaran and Kheda - Amritsar Massacre - Non-Cooperation - Bardoli - 1928 Protests - Nehru Report - Purna Swaraj - Salt Satyagraha - Act of 1935 - Cripps' mission - Quit India - Bombay Mutiny
Organisations: Indian National Congress - Ghadar - Home Rule - Indian National Army - Azad Hind - Swaraj Party - Anushilan Samiti - More...
Indian leaders: Mangal Pandey - Rani of Jhansi - Bal Gangadhar Tilak - Gopal Krishna Gokhale - Mahatma Gandhi - Sardar Patel - Subhas Bose - Badshah Khan - Jawaharlal Nehru - Maulana Azad - Chandrasekhar Azad - Rajaji - Rajendra Prasad - Bhagat Singh - More...
British Raj: Robert Clive - James Outram - Dalhousie - Irwin - Linlithgow - Wavell - Stafford Cripps - Mountbatten - More...
Independence: Cabinet Mission - Indian Independence Act - Partition of India - Political integration - Constitution - Republic of India

  Results from FactBites:
 
Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1050 words)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak, born July 22, 1856, was universally recognized as the Father of Indian Unrest.
Tilak was a brilliant politician as well as a profound scholar who believed that independence is the foremost necessity for the well being of a nation and that to win it through extreme measures should not be dispensed with.
Tilak's health continued to deteriorate rapidly at end of July 1920 and he went delirious and was unconscious for 3 days.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak Summary (2215 words)
Tilak's rise to prominence as a nationalist leader must be seen in the context of movements for social and religious reform that had attracted many intellectuals in the Poona region and elsewhere.
Tilak added a measure of karma yoga (the yoga of activity) to this, not as subordinate to jnana yoga, but as equal and complementary to it.
Tilak authored the well-regarded The Orion, or, Researches into the antiquities of the Vedas (1893) in which he used astronomy to establish that the Vedic people were present in India at least as early as the 4th millennium BC.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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