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Encyclopedia > Baku
Baku
Bakı
Skyline of Baku
Official seal of Baku
Seal
Baku (Azerbaijan )
Baku
Location in Azerbaijan
Coordinates: 40°23′43″N 49°52′56″E / 40.39528, 49.88222
Country Azerbaijan
Government
 - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov
Area
 - Total 260 km² (100.4 sq mi)
Elevation -28 m (-92 ft)
Population (2005)[1]
 - Total 2,036,000
 - Density 7,830.76/km² (20,281.6/sq mi)
Time zone GMT+4 (UTC+4)
 - Summer (DST) GMT+5 (UTC+5)
Postal code AZ1000
Area code(s) 12
Website: BakuCity.az

Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital, the largest city, and the largest port of Azerbaijan. Located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, the city consists of two principal parts: the downtown and the old Inner City (21,5 ha). As of January 1, 2005 the population was 2,036,000 of which 153,400 were internally displaced persons and 93,400 refugees.[2] Baku is a member of Organization of World Heritage Cities and Sister Cities International.[3] The city is also bidding for the 2016 Summer Olympics. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... GMT redirects here. ... Moscow Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... GMT redirects here. ... UTC +5 is the timezone for : Pakistan Standard Time in Pakistan. ... Postcodes are generally clearly visible outside Australia Post offices. ... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Apsheron (Abseron Yasaqligi) is a peninsula and a Rayon in eastern Caucasus in the historical region of Arran. ... For other uses, see Inner City (disambiguation) Inner City (Azeri: İçəri ŞəhÉ™r) is the ancient historical core of Baku. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution, war or natural disaster, but has not crossed an international border. ... The Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC) was founded on September 8, 1993 in Fez, Morocco. ... Sister Cities International is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting and fostering town twinning, especially between cities in the United States and cities in other countries. ...


Baku is divided into eleven administrative districts, or raions (Azizbayov, Binagadi, Garadagh, Narimanov, Nasimi, Nizami, Sabail, Sabunchu, Khatai, Surakhany and Yasamal) and 48 townships. Among these are the townships on islands in the Baku Bay and the town of Oil Rocks built on stilts in the Caspian Sea, 60 km away from Baku. A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... The Oil Rocks (Neft Dashlari) (Azerbaijani: Neft Daşları) was the first oil platform in the world. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...

Contents

Etymology

The name Baku is widely believed to be derived from the old Persian names of the city Bād-kube "باد کوبہ", meaning "Wind-pounded city", in which "Bād" means wind and "Kube" is rooted in the verb "Kubidan", to pound, thus referring to a place where wind is strong and pounding. Indeed, the city is renown for its fierce winter snow storms and harsh winds.[4][dubious ] It is also believed that Baku refers to Baghkuh, meaning "Mount of God". Baga (now Bagh) and Kaufa (now Kuh) are the Old Persian words for God and Mountain respectively; the name Baghkuh may be compared with Baghdād (God-given) in which is the Old Persian word for Give. Arabic sources refer to the city as Baku, Bakukh, Bakuya, and Bakuye, all of which seem to come from the original Persian name. Farsi redirects here. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ... See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


Other theories suggest that the name dates back to Zoroastrianism and comes from the word Baga meaning "the god" in Avestan and Sanskrit.[5][6] Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Yasna 28. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


History

Main article: History of Baku

The first written evidence for Baku is related to the 6th century AD.[7] now. ...

Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Type Cultural
Criteria iv
Reference 958
Region Middle East
Inscription history
Inscription 2000  (24th Session)
Endangered 2003-
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

The city became important after an earthquake destroyed Shamakhy and in the 12th century, ruling Shirvanshah Ahsitan I made Baku the new capital. In 1501, Safavid Shah Ismail I laid a siege on Baku. At this time the city was however enclosed with the lines of strong walls, which were washed by sea on one side and protected by a wide trench on land. In 1540 Baku was again captured by the Safavid troops. In 1604 the Baku fortress was destroyed by Iranian shah Abbas I. 10,000 manat banknote of 1994 featuring Palace of the Shirvanshahs Palace of the Shirvanshahs (or Shirvanshahs Palace, Azeri: ÅžirvanÅŸahlar sarayı, Russian: Дворец ширваншахов) is the biggest monument of the Shirvan-Absheron branch of the Azerbaijan architecture, situated in the Inner City of Baku. ... This article is about the tower in old town Baku, Azerbaijan. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (600x800, 95 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... Samaxi is a rayon of Azerbaijan. ... // History The role of Shirvanshah (Shirvan) state in national development of Azerbaijan (especially of northern Azerbaijan) is hard to underestimate. ... Safavid Empire at its Greatest Extent After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Pakistan  This box:      The Safavids (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ) were an Iranian[1] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[2] and Kurdish[3] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet Detail from a celing fresco; Chehel Sotoun palace; Isfahan Shah Abbas King of the Persians Copper engraving by Dominicus Custos, from his Atrium heroicum Caesarum pub. ...

Coat of arms of the Baku governorate.

On June 26, 1723, after a lasting siege using cannons, Baku surrendered to the Russians. According to Peter the Great's decree the soldiers of two regiments (2,382 people) were left in the Baku garrison under the command of Prince Baryatyanski, the commandant of the city. In 1795, Baku was invaded by Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar to defend against the tsarist Russia beginning a policy of subduing the South Caucasus to itself. In the spring of 1796 by Yekaterina II’s order General Zubov’s troops started a large campaign in Transcaucasia. Baku surrendered after the first demand of Zubov who had sent 6,000 militants to capture the city. On June 13, 1796 the Russian flotilla entered the Baku bay and a garrison of the Russian troops was placed in the city. General Pavel Tsitsianov was appointed the Baku's commandant. Later, however, Czar Pavel I ordered him to cease the campaign and withdraw the Russian forces. In March, 1797 the tsarist troops left Baku but a new tsar, Alexander I began to show a special interest in capturing Baku. In 1803, Tsitsianov reached an agreement with the Baku khan to compromise, but the agreement was soon annulled. On February 8, 1806, upon the surrendering of Baku, Huseyngulu khan of Baku stabbed and killed Tsitsianov at the gates of the city. Image File history File links Baku_gub_coa_n655. ... Image File history File links Baku_gub_coa_n655. ... Coat of arms of the Baku governorate. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 16 - Louis XV of France attains his majority Births February 24 - John Burgoyne, British general (d. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Agha Mohammad Khan by a European Engraver Agha Muhammad Khan (1742 - June 17, 1797) was the chief of a Turkic tribe, the Qajars. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая (Yekaterina II Velikaya), 2 May 1729 - 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), born Sophie Augusta Frederike of Anhalt-Zerbst) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for more... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Prince Pavel Dmitriyevich Tsitsianov (September 8 O.S., 1754, Moscow—February 8 O.S., 1806) was an Imperial Russian military commander and infantry general from 1804. ... Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Baku Khanate was independent principality on the territory of modern day Azerbaijan between 1747 and 1806. ...


In 1813 , Russia signed the Treaty of Gulistan with Persia, which provided for the cession of Baku and most of the Caucasus from Iran and their annexation by Russia. Russia-Persia borders before and after the treaty The Treaty of Gulistan (Russian: Гюлистанский договор; Persian: عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia on October 24, 1813 in the village of Gulistan in Karabakh as a result of the first Russo-Persian War. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Oil boom

The first oil well was drilled in Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846. But the large-scale oil development started in 1872, when the Russian imperial authorities auctioned the parcels of oil-rich land around Baku to private investors. Within a short period of time Swiss, British, French, Belgian, German, Swedish and American investors appeared in Baku, among them were the firms of the Nobel brothers and Rothschilds, and industrial oil belt, better known as Black City, was established near Baku. By the beginning of the 20th century almost half of the oil reserves in the world had been extracted in Baku.[8] Azerbaijan currently produces about 475,000 barrels of oil per day (bo/d) and 1 bcma of gas â€” a production that will grow to historical peak of 1. ... This is a list of companies from France. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... Akzo Nobel is a multinational company, active in the fields of healthcare products, coatings and chemicals. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 1917, after the October revolution, in the turmoil of the ongoing World War I and breakup of Russian Empire, Baku came under the control of Baku Commune led by a veteran Bolshevik, Stepan Shaumyan. Seeking to capitalize on the existing inter-ethnic conflicts, by spring 1918, Bolsheviks inspired and condoned a civil warfare in and around Baku. During the infamous March Days, using the support of the Dashnak Armenian militia in the city, and under the pretext of suppressing Musavat party, Bolsheviks attacked and massacred thousands of Azeris and other Muslims in Baku [9]. For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Stepan Shaumyan (? 1878 - 20 September 1918) was an Armenian politician and revolutionary. ... The March Massacre or March Days refers to a period during the Russian Civil War from March to early April 1918 when ethnic Azerbaijanis were massacred by Armenian nationalist Dashnak party and Soviet Bolsheviks forces in the city of Baku and other areas of former Baku governorate (present-day Azerbaijan). ... Foundation: 1890 Founders: Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, Simon Zavarian Head: Hrant Markarian Ideology: Socialism,[1] Nationalism,[2] United Armenia International alignment: Socialist International[1] Colours: Red Seats: Armenia – 16 seats out of 131 Nagorno-Karabakh – 3 seats out of 33 Lebanon – 2 seats out of 128 Website: Partys Official... The Equality Party (Müsavat Partiyası) is a political party in Azerbaijan. ...


On May 28, 1918 the Azerbaijani fraction of the Transcaucasian Sejm proclaimed the independent Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR) in Ganja. Shortly after, Azerbaijani forces, with support of the Ottoman Army of Islam led by Nuru Pasha, started their advance onto Baku, eventually capturing the city from the loose coalition of Bolsheviks, Esers, Dashnaks, Mensheviks and the British forces under the command of General Dunsterville on September 15, 1918. Thousands of Armenians in the city were massacred in revenge for the earlier March Days [10]. Baku became the capital of ADR, and two years later - when on April 28, 1920, the 11th Red Army invaded Baku and reinstalled the Bolshevik power - the capital of Azerbaijan SSR. is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Ganja (Azerbaijani GÉ™ncÉ™) is Azerbaijans second largest city. ... In 1918, Enver Pasha, the War Minister for the Ottoman Empire ordered the creation of a new military force. ... Nuri Killigil (Nuri Pasha) (1881-1949) was a general in the Ottoman Army. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SRs, or Esers; Партия социалистов-революционеров (ПСР), эсеры in Russian) were a Russian political party active in the early 20th century. ... The Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF) (Armenian: Hay Heghapokhakan Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnaktsutiun, Dashnak, or Tashnak) is an Armenian political party founded in Georgia in 1890 by Christofor Mikaelian, Rostom Zarian, and Simon Zavarian. ... Leaders of the Menshevik Party at Norra Bantorget in Stockholm, Sweden, May 1917. ... ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The March Massacre or March Days refers to a period during the Russian Civil War from March to early April 1918 when ethnic Azerbaijanis were massacred by Armenian nationalist Dashnak party and Soviet Bolsheviks forces in the city of Baku and other areas of former Baku governorate (present-day Azerbaijan). ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... The 11th Soviet Red Army was a contingent of the then newly created Russian Red Army improvised by the Bolsheviks. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ...


Historical city core

The centre of Baku is the old town, which is also a fortress. In December 2000, the Inner City of Baku with the Palace of the Shirvanshahs and Maiden Tower became the first location in Azerbaijan classified as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. For other uses, see Inner City (disambiguation) Inner City (Azeri: İçəri Şəhər) is the ancient historical core of Baku. ... 10,000 manat banknote of 1994 featuring Palace of the Shirvanshahs Palace of the Shirvanshahs (or Shirvanshahs Palace, Azeri: Şirvanşahlar sarayı, Russian: Дворец ширваншахов) is the biggest monument of the Shirvan-Absheron branch of the Azerbaijan architecture, situated in the Inner City of Baku. ... This article is about the tower in old town Baku, Azerbaijan. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

Icheri Sheher - an old inner city of Baku
Icheri Sheher - an old inner city of Baku

Most of the walls and towers, strengthened after the Russian conquest in 1806, survived. This section is picturesque, with its maze of narrow alleys and ancient buildings: the cobbled streets past the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, two caravansaraies (ancient inns), the Maiden Tower (nice view of the harbor), the baths and the Djuma Mosque (it used to house the Carpet and Applied Arts Museum, but now is a mosque again; the carpets got moved to the former Lenin museum). The old town also has dozens of small mosques, often without any particular sign to distinguish them from the next building. This article is about the roadside inns. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ...


In 2003 , UNESCO placed the Inner City on the List of World Heritage in Danger, citing damage from a November 2000 earthquake, poor conservation as well as "dubious" restoration efforts[1]. The Martyrs' Lane, formerly the Kirov Park, is dedicated to the memory of those who lost their lives during the Nagorno-Karabakh War and also to the 137 people who were killed on Black January, 1990. A sizable and influential Armenian population of Baku going back to 15th century was virtually annihilated or deported after the independence from USSR[11]. The Armenian church of Baku was burned down in 1990. [12] These are thirty sites which the UNESCO World Heritage Committee has decided to include on a list of World Heritage Sites in danger; this list also shows the year in which the World Heritage committee added the site to this list. ... The granite statue of twins atop 26 Mammadaliyev Street shook lose and fell to the street below. ... Martyrs Lane (formerly The Kirov Park) is a cemetery and memorial in Baku, Azerbaijan dedicated to those killed by the Red Army during Black January (January 19/20, 1990) and later to those killed in war with Armenia. ... Combatants Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh1 Republic of Armenia 2 CIS mercenaries Republic of Azerbaijan Afghan Mujahideen 3 Chechen Volunteers 4 CIS mercenaries Commanders Samvel Babayan, Hemayag Haroyan, Monte Melkonian, Vazgen Sargsyan, Arkady Ter-Tatevosyan Ä°sgandar Hamidov, Suret Huseynov, Rahim Gaziev, Shamil Basayev Casualties 6,000 dead, 25,000 wounded 17... Soviet government troops arrest several Azeris in a clash with Popular Front protesters in Baku in January 1990. ...


Climate

Satellite view of Baku

During Soviet times, Baku was a vacation destination where citizens could enjoy beaches or relax in now-dilapidated spa complexes overlooking the Caspian Sea. The climate is hot and humid in the summer, and cool and wet in the winter. During the winter gale-force winds sweep through on occasion, driven by masses of polar air (strong northern winds Khazri and southern Gilavar are typical here); however, snow is rare at 28 m below sea level, and temperatures on the coast rarely drop to freezing. The average annual temperature of Baku and that of the Earth differ by less than 0.1 °C (14.2 °C).[13] The southwestern part of Great Baku is a more arid part of Azerbaijan (precipitation here is less than 150 mm a year). In the vicinities of the city there are a number of mud volcanoes (Keyraki, Bogkh-bogkha, Lokbatan and others) and salt lakes (Boyukshor, Khodasan etc.). Image File history File links Baku_Satellite. ... Image File history File links Baku_Satellite. ... A destination spa is a business establishment which people visit for personal health, life enhancement, fitness, personal care treatments such as massages, facials, in a resort setting. ... Khazri (Azeri: XÉ™zri) is a name of the cold north sea wind which blows across the Absheron Peninsula and particularly Baku throughout the year. ... Gilavar is a name of the warm southern wind which blows across eastern Azerbaijan and particularly in Baku and Shamakhi throughout the year. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg (°F) 37 37 42 51 62 71 77 77 69 60 51 42 55
Avg (°C) 3 3 6 11 17 22 25 25 21 16 11 6 13
Avg precipitation (in) 1.4 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.8 1.3 1.2 1.3 9.4
Avg precipitation (cm) 3.6 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.3 0.8 0.3 0.8 2.0 3.3 3.0 3.3 23.9
Source: Weatherbase

Demographics

Until 1988 Baku had very large Armenian, Russian, and Jewish population that contributed to cultural diversity and added in various ways (music, literature, architecture) to Baku's history treasure chest. Under Communism, the Soviets took over the majority of Jewish property in Baku and Kuba. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliev has returned several synagogues and a Jewish college nationalized by the Soviets, to the Jewish community. He has encouraged the restoration of these buildings and is well-liked by the Jews of Azerbaijan. Renovation has begun on seven of the original eleven synagogues, including the Gilah synagogue, built in 1896, and the large Kruei Synagogue.[14]. The new Azerbaijan constitution grants religious freedom and asserts that there is no state religion. Heydar Aliyev Heydar Alirza oglu Aliyev (Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev in Azerbaijani) (sometimes transliterated as Heydar Aliev or Geidar Aliev from the Russian Гейдар Алиев) (May 10, 1923? - December 12, 2003) served as president of Azerbaijan for the New Azerbaijan Party from June 1993 to October 2003, when his son... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Constitution of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: ) was adopted on 12 November 1995 by popular referendum and amended on 24 August 2002. ...


Prior to the Pogrom of Armenians in Baku by Azeri Nationalists in 1990, the city had a ethnic Armenian population of 200,000. The massacre led to an exodus of the Armenians to neighboring countries. It is estimated that only between 18,000 and 20,000 remained. This article is about the year. ...


Currently vast majority of the population of Baku are ethnic Azerbaijanis (more than 90%). The intensive growth of the population started in the middle of the 19th century when Baku was a small town with the population of about 7 thousand people all in all. The population increased again from about 13,000 in the 1860s to 112,000 in 1897 and 215,000 in 1913, making Baku the largest city in the Caucasus region.[15] Azerbaijanis are a people numbering more than 35 million worldwide. ...


Baku has been a cosmopolitan city at certain times during its history, meaning ethnic Azerbaijanis did not constitute the majority of population. [16]

Year Armenians Azerbaijanis Georgians Iranian Citizens Jews Russians Total
1897 19,060 40,148 971 9,426 2,341 37,399 111,904
1903 26,151 44,257 N/A 11,132 N/A 56,955 155,876
1913 41,680 45,962 4,073 25,096 9,690 76,288 214,672

Religion

More than 94% of the residents of Baku practice various forms of Islam (vast majority Shia). A small minority of the population (about 4%) are Christians (majority Russian Orthodox Church, Georgian Orthodox Church and Molokans). For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church is one of the worlds most ancient Christian Churches, founded in the 1st century by the Apostle Andrew. ... The Molokans (Russian: ) are a Biblically-centered religious movement, among the Russian peasants, who broke away from the Russian Orthodox Church in the 1550s. ...


Economy

Business buildings at Jafar Jabbarli Street
Business buildings at Jafar Jabbarli Street

The basis of Baku's economy is petroleum. The existence of petroleum has been known since the 8th century. In the 10th century, the Arabian traveler, Marudee, reported that both white and black oil were being extracted naturally from Baku[2]. By the 15th century oil for lamps was obtained from hand dug surface wells. Commercial exploitation began in 1872 , and by the beginning of the 20th century the Baku oil fields were the largest in the world. Towards the end of the 20th century much of the onshore petroleum had been exhausted, and drilling had extended into the sea offshore. By the end of the 19th century skilled workers and specialists flocked to Baku. By 1900 the city had more than 3,000 oil wells of which 2,000 of them were producing oil at industrial levels. Baku ranked as one of the largest centres for the production of oil industry equipment before WWII. The World War II Battle of Stalingrad was fought to determine who would have control of the Baku oil fields. Fifty years before the battle, Baku produced half of the world's oil supply: Azerbaijan and the United States are the only two countries ever to have been the world's majority oil producer. Currently the oil economy of Baku is undergoing a resurgence, with the development of the massive Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli field (Shallow water Gunashli by SOCAR, deeper areas by a consortium lead by BP) and the Shah Deniz gas field. The old Inturist Hotel was one of Baku's largest, now being renovated, but overshadowed by the newer Hyatt Park, Hyatt Regency, Park Inn and Excelsior. Petro redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... The State Oil Company of Azerbaijan (SOCAR) and its many subsidiaries are responsible for the production of oil and natural gas in Azerbaijan, for operation of the countrys two refineries, for running the countrys pipeline system, and for managing the countrys oil and natural gas imports and... This article is about the energy corporation. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ...


Baku Stock Exchange has been operating since February of 2001. BSE logo. ...


Infrastructure

Bulk power supply of Baku is provided by five 110 kV lines. As of February 8, 2008 three of them (total length 23,6 km) have been completely refitted and modernized with their carrying capacity being doubled.[17] Three 110 kV and twelve 35 kV substations were commissioned recently.[17] Water supply is secured by several lines, the purest water comes from Khachmaz and Shollar lines.[18] KV, kV, or kv may refer to: kilovolts, see volt Komi language ((ISO 639 alpha-2) Köchel Verzeichnis, a chronological catalogue of all the compositions of Mozart: see Ludwig von Köchel KV (Egypt), an acronym referring to tombs in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt the IATA code for...


Transport and communication

As the largest city in the country, Baku is served by the Heydar Aliyev International Airport Heydar Aliyev International Airport (IATA: GYD, ICAO: UBBB) (former Bina International Airport, Azerbaijani: ) is a main international airport in Azerbaijan located 25 kilometers (16 miles) east of the capital Baku. ...

Baku International Airport named after Heydar Aliyev

and Baku Metro. There were once also trams. There are two official taxi companies in the city: the yellow Star cabs and the white taxis with blue sign from "Azerq Taxis". The van buses stop at any point along that route when flagged down or told to stop. Shipping services operate regularly from Baku across the Caspian Sea to Turkmenbashi (formerly Krasnovodsk) in Turkmenistan and to Bandar Anzali and Bandar Nowshar in Iran. The city's main Internet providers are ADaNet and AzInternet Services. Baku Metro (Azerbaijani: Bakı Metropoliteni, in 1967—1991 also Lenin adına Bakı Metropoliteni, Russian: - V. I. Lenin Baku Metro) is a rapid transit system serving Baku the capital of Azerbaijan. ... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... Bandar-e Anzali (in Persian: بندر انزلی), known as Bandar-e Pahlavi (بندر پهلوی) before the Iranian Revolution, is a harbour town on the Caspian Sea, in the Iranian province of Gilan, close to Rasht. ... An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a business or organization that offers users access to the Internet and related services. ...

Education

As Azerbaijan's centre of education, Baku boasts many universities and vocational schools. After Azerbaijan gained independence, the fall of Communism led to development of a number of private institutions. Baku also houses the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan founded here in 1945 . For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A vocational school, providing vocational education and also as referred to as a trade school or career college, and school is operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ... National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan The National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan (Azeri: Azərbaycan Milli Elmlər Akademiyası), located in Baku, is the main state research organization in Azerbaijan. ...


Public universities

Azerbaijan Medical University named after Nariman Narimanov (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Tibb Universiteti) is the formal name of the public medical school located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan State Economic University (ASEU) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dövlət İqtisad Universiteti (ADIU)) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan State Oil Academy (ASOA) (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dövlət Neft Akademiyası (ADNA)) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan Technical University (AzTU; Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Texniki Universiteti) is a public university, specialized in engineering, located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan University of Languages (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan Dillər Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University (Azerbaijani: ) is a state university located in Baku, Azerbaijan, specializing in civil engineering and architecture. ... Baku Academy of Music The Hajibeyov Baku Academy of Music (Azeri: Hacıbəyov adına Bakı Musiqi Akademiyası) is a leading Azerbaijani music school. ... Baku Slavic University (BSU) (Azerbaijani: Bakı Slavyan Universitetini), sometimes referred to as Baku Slav University, is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Baku State University (Azerbaijani: Bakı Dövlət Universiteti) is a public university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ...

Private universities

Azerbaijan International University (Azerbaijani: Qafqaz Universiteti) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Khazar University (KU, from Azerbaijani it directly translates as Caspian University) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Odlar Yurdu University is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Qafqaz University (Azerbaijani: Qafqaz Universiteti; the name translates as Caucasus University) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Western University (Azerbaijani: Garb Universiteti) is a private university located in Baku, Azerbaijan. ...

Entertainment

Baku has a vibrant life regarding theatre, opera and ballet, drawing both from the rich local dramatic portfolio and from the international repertoire. The main movie theatre is "Azerbaijan Cinema". The Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre, designed by architect N. G. Bayev, is one of the most ornate music halls in the city. The State Philharmonic Hall Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre in Baku The Akhundov Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre (Azeri: Axundov adına Azərbaycan Dövlət Akademik Opera və Balet Teatrı) is a theatre in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... Music Hall is a form of British theatrical entertainment which reached its peak of popularity between 1850 and 1960. ... The Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall in Baku The Magomayev Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall (Azeri: Maqomayev adına Azərbaycan Dövlət Filarmoniyası), located in Baku, is the main concert hall in Azerbaijan built in 1912. ...

Philarmonic Hall of Baku
Philarmonic Hall of Baku

with excellent acoustic conditions often holds performances outside, in a pleasant park. The Carpet and Applied Arts Museum exhibits the carpets from all periods, styles and from both Azerbaijan proper and the Azeri provinces in Iran. Baku also houses country's biggest art museum - Azerbaijan State Museum of Art, a depository of both domestic and foreign works of art, Western and Eastern. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Eastern art history, devoted to the arts of the Far East includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions. ...


Heydar Aliyev Palace is one of the main venues featuring sizeable performances (e.g. that of Coolio], though it is currently closed for a major refurbishment. Some of the most popular discotheques and night clubs include, "X-site", "Capitol Night Club", "Hyatt Disco", Zagulba Disco Club and "Le Mirage". Most of them are open till the early hours of the morning. The "Capitol Night Club" is a lively night spot with gay elements, playing a blend of local, Russian and Western music, R&B, trance, europop and techno. Heydar Aliyev Palace(Azeri: HeydÉ™r Əliyev adına saray, former The Republic Palace also known as Baku Palace - Respublika sarayı, previously, during the Soviet era - Lenin Palace, Azeri Cyrillic: Лeнин aдынa capaj) is the main music venue of Azerbaijan, located in Baku and can seat 2,158 people. ... This article is about the hip hop artist. ... Discothèque redirects here. ... A nightclub (often dance club or club, particularly in the UK) is an entertainment venue which does its primary business after dark. ... ZaÄŸulba (Azeri, also: ZaÄŸulba BaÄŸları (ZaÄŸulba Gardens), Buzovnaneft) is a resort in Azerbaijan and one of the main beaches, located near Baku. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... Trance is a style of electronic music that developed in the 1990s. ... Europop refers to a style of pop music that developed in Europe throughout the 1970s which emphasized catchy beats, slick songs and frothy lyrics. ... For the comic book character previously known as Techno, see Fixer (comics). ...


Most of the pubs and bars are located near Fountain Square and are usually open until the early hours of the morning. There are several British and Irish style pubs, among them "Corner Bar", "Shakespeares", "Finnigans" the "Rig Bar", "O'Malley's" and the "Phoenix Bar". There is also a Jazz Club. The Baku International Jazz Festival is organized annually. Tyler Davidson Fountain, centerpiece of Fountain Square, Cincinnati. ... An amusingly named pub (the Old New Inn) at Bourton-on-the-Water, in the Cotswold Hills of South West England A pub in the Haymarket area of Edinburgh, Scotland A public house, usually known as a pub, is a drinking establishment found mainly in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada... The Baku International Jazz Festival is an annual jazz event organized by renowned saxophonist and Baku resident Rain Sultanov. ...


Notable beaches include Shikhovo and "One Thousand and One Nights". Şixov Beach (Azeri: Şıxov çimərliyi) is a resort area just southwest of Baku, Azerbaijan and adjacent to the Shikhov Cape. ...


Sister cities

Amman
Basra
Bordeaux
Dakar
Honolulu
Houston (Houston-Baku Sister City Association)
Istambul
Izmir
Jeddah
Kiev
Mainz (since 1984)
Naples
Saint-Petersburg
Sarajevo
Tebriz
Vung Tau

Partnership relations at different levels were established with Berlin, Paris, Aberdeen, Vienna, Stavanger, Tbilisi, Astana, Minsk, Moscow, Volgograd, Tashkent, Stambul and Chengdu.[19] For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Houston redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ä°zmir Izmir from space, June 1996 Izmir (Turkish spelling Ä°zmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna), the second-largest port (after Ä°stanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey, is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Joint Saudi Arabia 1925 Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - Urban 1,320 km² (509. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Vung Tau is a city in Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Aberdeen (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... County District Jæren Municipality NO-1103 Administrative centre Stavanger Mayor (1995-) Leif Johan Sevland (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 406 71 km² 68 km² 0. ... Location of Tbilisi in Georgia Coordinates: , Country Established c. ... Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Askar Mamin Population (estimated)  - City 600,000 Time zone BTT (UTC+6) This article is about the capital of Kazakhstan; for the article on the palace in Sarawak, see Astana (Sarawak); for the professional road-cycling team see Astana Team; for the Iranian city, see Astaneh-e... Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Coordinates: Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Government  - Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Area  - City 305. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Volgograd (Russian: ), formerly called Tsaritsyn (Russian: ) (1598–1925) and Stalingrad (Russian: ) (1925–1961) is a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. ... Tashkent (Uzbek: , Russian: ) is the capital of Uzbekistan and also of the Tashkent Province. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: Konstandinúpoli, historically known in English as Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and economic center. ... Not to be confused with Chengde. ...


Famous people from Baku

For more details on this topic, see Category:People from Baku.

Because of intermittent periods of great prosperity and as the largest city in the Caucasus and one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse in the Soviet Union, Baku prides itself on having produced a disproportionate amount of notable figures in the sciences, arts and other fields. Some of them have commemorative plates on houses they resided in.


Science

Abbasgulu Bakikhanov (Qudsi). ... Kerim Kerimov Kerim Kerimov (Azerbaijani: Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Russian: Керим Алиевич Керимов; 1917 – 2003) was a Soviet rocket scientist, one of the founders of the Soviet space industry, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program. ... Soviet Soyuz rockets like the one pictured above were the first reliable means to transport objects into Earth orbit. ... Lev Davidovich Landau Lev Davidovich Landau (Russian language: Ле́в Дави́дович Ланда́у) (January 22, 1908 – April 1, 1968) was a prominent Soviet physicist, who made fundamental contributions to many areas of theoretical physics. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... Lotfi A. Zadeh (2004) Lotfi Asker Zadeh (in Persian:لطفی علی‌عسکرزاده), (born February 4, 1921) is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California at Berkeley. ... Fuzzy logic is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical predicate logic. ... Max Black (24 February 1909, Baku, Russian Empire [present-day Azerbaijan] – 27 August 1988, Ithaca, New York, United States) was a distinguished Anglo-American philosopher, who was a leading influence in analytic philosophy in the first half of the twentieth century. ...

Music

Fikret Amirov Fikret Meshedi Jamil oglu Amirov (November 22, 1922, Ganja - February 20, 1984, Baku) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer. ... Alexey Ekimyan (Armenian: , Russian: ) also Alexey Gurgenovich Hekimyan (April 10, 1927, Baku - April 24, 1982, Moscow) was a famous Armenian-Russian composer, and author of popular songs. ... Gara Garayev, also spelled Qara Qarayev, born as Gara Abulfazl Garayev (December 5, 1918, baku–May 13, 1982, Moscow) was a prominent Azerbaijani composer. ... Uzeyir Abdulhuseyn oglu Hajibeyov (Azeri: Ãœzeyir HacıbÉ™yov) (September 18, 1885, Agjabadi – November 23, 1948, Baku) was an Azerbaijani composer, conductor, scientist, publicist, playwright, teacher, translator and social figure. ... For other persons named Muslim Magomayev, see Muslim Magomayev (disambiguation). ... Alim Qasimov was the UNESCO International music prize winner in 1999. ... Mugham also spelled as Mugam (Azeri: MuÄŸam) is one of the many musical traditions of Azerbaijan. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Mstislav Leopoldovich Rostropovich KBE (Russian: Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopoldovič Rostropovič, IPA: ), (March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), known to close friends as “Slava”, was a Russian cellist and conductor. ... Larisa Dolina (nee Larisa Alexandrovna Kudelman, in the first matrimony - Larisa Miochinskaya, b. ...

Literature and Arts

  • Sattar Bahlulzade, painter
  • Huseyn Javid, poet and playwright
  • Mikayil Mushfig, poet
  • Lev Nussimbaum, writer, author of the best-selling novel "Ali and Nino"
  • Tahir Salahov, painter and draughtsman

Huseyn Javid Huseyn Javid (Azeri: Hüseyn Cavid), born Huseyn Rasizadeh (24 October 1882, Nakhichevan – 5 December 1941, Magadan), was a prominent Azerbaijani poet and playwright of the early 20th century. ... Mikayil Mushfig Mikayil Mushfig (Azerbaijani: ), born Mikayil Ismayilzadeh (5 June 1908, Baku – 12 March 1939, Baku) was an Azerbaijani poet of the 1930s. ... Lev Nussimbaum (1905 - 1942) was a prolific, ethnically Jewish writer who reinvented himself as a Muslim under the pseudonyms Essad Bey and Kurban Said. ... Tair Salakhov Portrait of Dmitri Shostakovich Tair Salakhov (Azeri, in full: Tahir Teymur oğlu Salahov, Russian: Таир Теймур оглы Салахов; born November 29, 1928, Baku) is Azerbaijani painter and draughtsman. ...

Chess

Garry Kimovich Kasparov (IPA: ; Russian: ) (born April 13, 1963, in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR) (now Azerbaijan) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion, writer and political activist. ... Elmar Magerramov (born April 10, 1958 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is an international chess Grandmaster. ... Teimour Radjabov, also spelled Teymur Rajabov, (Azerbaijani: Teymur Rəcəbov; born March 12, 1987 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is a leading chess player from Azerbaijan. ... Emil Sutovsky (born 19 September 1977) is an Israeli chess Grandmaster. ... Tatiana Yakovlevna Zatulovskaya (Russian: Татьяна Яковлевна Затуловская) (born 8 December 1935, Baku) is a Soviet, Russian and Israeli chessplayer, Woman Grandmaster and the 1993 senior world champion. ...

Entertainment

  • Rasim Ismaylov, film director and writer
  • Rustam Ibrahimbeyov, screenwriter and Academy Award winner
  • Magsud Ibrahimbeyov, writer
  • Murad Ibrahimbeyov, film director
  • Abbas Sharifzadeh, actor and director
  • Vladimir Menshov, Academy Award winning film producer.

Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Magsud Mammad oglu Ibrahimbeyov, also spelled Ibragimbekov (Azerbaijani: ) (born 11 May 1935, Baku) is an Azerbaijani writer and member of the National Assembly of Azerbaijan. ... Vladimir Valentinovich Menshov is a Baku-born ethnic Russian actor, writer, film director and film producer. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ...

Business

  • Vagit Alekperov, founder of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL
  • Murtuza Mukhtarov, oil industrialist and millionaire
  • Musa Nagiyev, industrial magnate in late 19th - early 20th century
  • Zeynalabdin Taghiyev, industrial magnate and philanthropist

Vagit Alekperov Vagit Alekperov (Вагит Юсуфович Алекперов in Russian, Vahid Yusuf oÄŸlu ƏlÉ™kbÉ™rov in Azerbaijani) (born September 1, 1950 in Baku, Azerbaijan) is currently a President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL. Vagit Alekperov, rated by Forbes magazine as the 48th richest person worldwide with US $12. ... LUKOIL (RTS:LKOH LSE: LKOD NASDAQ: LUKOY) (Russian: ; pronounced Luke-Oil) is Russias largest oil company and its largest producer of oil. ... Muktharov with his wife Murtuza Mukhtarov (1865 – 1920) was an Azerbaijani Oil industrialist and millionaire. ... Musa Nagiyev Ismailiyye building in Baku Musa Nagiyev (1849-1919) was an Azerbaijani industrial oil magnate in late 19th - early 20th century. ...

Politics

Khalilullah I (1417-1465), ruler of Shirvan and son of Ibrahim I of Shirvan. ... Shervan or Shirvan was a former Persian province in Caucasus, a state ruled by the Shervanshahs and the birthplace of the Persian poet Khaqani. ... Mammad Amin Rasulzade Mammed Amin Rasulzade (Azerbaijani: ; January 31, 1884, Novkhana, near Baku—March 6, 1955, Ankara) was an Azerbaijani statesman, scholar, public figure and one of the founding political leaders of Azerbaijan Republic (1918-1920). ... Motto: None Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Georgy Khosroevich Shakhnazarov (4 October 1924 Baku, Soviet Union - 15 May 2001 Tula, Russia) was a Soviet politician and political scientist. ... Alimardan Alekper oglu Topchubashev (May 4, 1862, Tbilisi - November 8, 1934, Paris) was a prominent Azerbaijani politician, Foreign Minister and Speaker of the Parliament of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... Motto: None Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ...

Military

Academician Ziya Bunyadov Ziya Musa oglu Bunyadov (Azeri: Ziya Bünyadov) (24 December 1921, Astara – 21 February 1997, Baku) was an Azerbaijani historian, academician, and Vice-President of the National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... Mehdi Huseynzade The monument to Mehdi Huseynzade in Baku Lieutenant Mehdi Huseynzade (Azeri: Mehdi Hüseynzadə; Russian: Мехти Гусейнзаде) (December 22, 1919, Baku – November 2, 1944, Vitovlje, near Triest) was an Azeri guerilla and scout during the Soviet-German War and a Hero of the Soviet Union posthumously since April 11, 1957. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... Hero of the Soviet Union (Russian: Герой Советского Союза, Geroy Sovyetskovo Soyuza) was the highest honorary title and the superior degree of distinction of the Soviet Union. ... Musa Khiramanovich Manarov was born in Baku, Azerbaijan SSR on March 22, 1951. ... Samedbey Mehmandarov Samedbey Sadykhbey oglu Mehmandarov (Azeri: Səməd bəy Sadığ bəy oğlu Mehmandarov, 1855 - 1931) was Artillery General of the Russian Army and Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Motto: None Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Ali-Agha Shikhlinski Ali-Agha Ismail-Agha ogly Shikhlinski was lieutenant-general of the Russian tsarist army and Deputy Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Motto: None Anthem: Azərbaycan Respublikasının Dövlət Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ... Dr Sorge aka Ramsay Richard Sorge (Russian: Рихард Зорге) (October 4, 1895 - November 7, 1944) is considered to have been one of the best Soviet spies in Japan before and during World War II, which has gained him fame among spies, and espionage enthusiasts. ...

Gallery

See also

  • Baku Photo Gallery
  • Second Baku
  • Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline
  • Bāgh

Samara (Russian: ), from 1935 to 1991—Kuybyshev (), is a major city situated on the Volga River in the southeastern part of European Russia, Volga Federal District, the administrative center of Samara Oblast. ... The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (sometimes abbreviated as BTC pipeline) transports crude petroleum 1,776 km from the Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli oil field in the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Notes

References

  1. ^ Population estimates for Baku, Azerbaijan, 1950-2015. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  2. ^ (Russian)Баку. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  3. ^ The main directions of foreign relations of the executive authorities of Baku. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  4. ^ http://www.iranchamber.com/podium/culture/020920_politicizing_linguistics.php
  5. ^ On the Etymology of the Name “Baku” Retrieved on July 8, 2006
  6. ^ Baku (Baki) Retrieved on July 8, 2006
  7. ^ Azerbaijan - Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace.... Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  8. ^ Window2Baku.com
  9. ^ Michael Smith. "Anatomy of Rumor: Murder Scandal, the Musavat Party and Narrative of the Russian Revolution in Baku, 1917-1920", Journal of Contemporary History, Vol 36, No. 2, (Apr. 2001), p. 228
  10. ^ Furuz Kazemzadeh, Struggle For Transcaucasia (1917 - 1921), New York Philosophical Library, 1951, p. 143-144
  11. ^ [http://hrw.org/reports/1995/communal/#P996_423664 HRW:Playing "the communal card": Communal Violence and Human Rights
  12. ^ U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Citizenship and Immigration Services Country Reports Azerbaijan. The Status of Armenians, Russians, Jews and Other Minorities http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home/opendoc.htm?tbl=RSDCOI&page=research&id=3ae6a6073
  13. ^ Window to Baku
  14. ^ JewishVirtualLibrary.org
  15. ^ Country-data.com
  16. ^ Audrey Altstadt, Conflict, Cleavage, and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 112, table 4.1, Ethnic composition of Baku, 1897, 1903,1913
  17. ^ a b (Russian)Выполненные ОАО "Бакыэлекрикшебеке" обеспечивают стабильность электроснабжения Баку. Retrieved on 2008-03-07.
  18. ^ (Russian)Институциональные аспекты управления и охраны водных ресурсов в Азербайджане. Retrieved on 2008-03-07.
  19. ^ (Russian)Executive Power of the Baku City. Azerbaijan.az. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources

  • Abbasov, Mazakhir. Baku During the Great Patriotic War.
  • Madatov, G. Azerbaijan During the Great Patriotic War. Baku, 1975.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Baku
  • Baku travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Azerbaijan travel information
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site listing Walled City of Baku
  • Baku Pages
  • Baku hotels directory
  • Baku Hotels
  • American Embassy in Baku Azerbaijan
  • British Embassy in Azerbaijan
  • Baku travel guide and photos
  • Azerbaijan Satellite view (Google Maps)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia search result (2252 words)
Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı; Cyrillic Бакы), sometimes known as Baky or Baki, is the capital and the largest city of Azerbaijan.
In 1604 the Baku fortress was destroyed by Iranian shah Abbas I.
In 1795 Baku was invaded and destroyed by Aga Muhammad khan Kajar and the tsarist Russia began maintaining a policy of subduing Azerbaijan to itself.
MetaSubway Baku (762 words)
The Baku Subway in Azerbaijan is one of the oldest in the USSR.
Tagi Ahmedov, director, Baku Subway, says $140 mln are necessary to continue the construction of the 4.5km long northern segment of the subway (three stations and the depot).
The extent of the Baku Metro is 28,5 km.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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