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Encyclopedia > Baklava
Baklava is prepared on large trays and cut into a variety of shapes
Baklava is prepared on large trays and cut into a variety of shapes

Baklava or baklawa is a rich, sweet pastry featured in many cuisines of the former Ottoman countries. It is a pastry made of layers of phyllo dough filled with chopped walnuts or pistachios and sweetened with syrup or honey. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1542 × 1024 pixel, file size: 636 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baklava Beypazarı User... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixel Image in higher resolution (1542 × 1024 pixel, file size: 636 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baklava Beypazarı User... Basket of western-style pastries, for breakfast Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Pastries For the Pastry Distributed Hash Table, see Pastry (DHT). ... Cuisine (from French cuisine, cooking; culinary art; kitchen; ultimately from Latin coquere, to cook) is a specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Phyllo (also spelled filo) dough is used in thin layers to make pastries and originated in Mediterranean cuisine. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Gaziantep, a city in Turkey, is famous for its baklava and, in Turkey, is widely regarded as the native city of the dessert.[1] In 2008, the Turkish patent office registered a geographical indication certificate for Antep Baklava.[2] Gaziantep (Kurdish: , informally, Antep) is the capital city of Gaziantep Province in Turkey. ...


Baklava was chosen to represent Cyprus in the presentation Sweet Europe of the cultural initiative Café Europe in 2006. Café Europe or Café dEurope was a cultural initiative of the Austrian presidency of the European Union, held on Europe Day (9 May 2006) in 27 cafés of the capitals of the 25 EU member states and the two countries scheduled to join the EU in 2007. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The history of baklava is not well-documented; but although it has been claimed by many ethnic groups, the best evidence is that it is of Central Asian Turkic origin, with its current form being developed in the imperial kitchens of the Topkapı Palace.[3] See also Kazakh cuisine Kyrgyz cuisine Tajik cuisine Turkmen cuisine Uzbekh cuisine Categories: | ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ...


Vryonis (1971) identified the ancient Greek gastris, kopte, kopton, or koptoplakous, mentioned in the Deipnosophistae, as baklava, and calls it a "Byzantine favorite". However, Perry (1994) shows that though gastris contained a filling of nuts and honey, it did not include any dough; instead, it involved a honey and ground sesame mixture similar to modern pasteli or halva. The Deipnosophistes (deipnon “dinner” and sophistae, “the wise ones”) is variously translated as The Banquet of the Learned or Philosophers at Dinner or The Gastronomers is work of some 15 books (some complete and some surviving in summaries only) by the ancient Greek author Athenaeus of Naucratis in Egypt, written... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... The word halva (alternatively halwa, halvah, halava, helva, halawa etc. ...


Perry then assembles evidence to show that layered breads were created by Turkic peoples in Central Asia and argues that the "missing link" between the Central Asian folded or layered breads (which did not include nuts) and modern phyllo-based pastries like baklava is the Azerbaijani dish Bakı pakhlavası, which involves layers of dough and nuts. The traditional Uzbek puskal or yupka and Tatar yoka, sweet and salty savories (boreks) prepared with 10-12 layers of dough, are other early examples of layered dough style in Turkic regions.[4] This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Location in Azerbaijan Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Hajibala Abutalybov Area  - Total 260 km² (100. ... This article is about the people. ...


The thin phyllo dough as used today was probably developed in the kitchens of the Topkapı Palace. Indeed, the sultan presented trays of baklava to the Janissaries every 15th of Ramadan in a ceremonial procession called the Baklava Alayı.[5] The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ...


Other claims about its origins include: that it is of Assyrian[6] origin, dates back to ancient Mesopotamia, and was mentioned in a Mesopotamian cookbook on walnut dishes; that al-Baghdadi describes it in his 13th-century cookbook; that it was a popular Byzantine dessert.[7][8] But Claudia Roden[9] and Andrew Dalby[10] find no evidence for it in Arab, Greek, or Byzantine sources before the Ottoman period. Assyrian cuisine is similar to other Middle Eastern cuisines. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ... Muhammad bin Hasan al-Baghdadi (d. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


One of the oldest known recipes for a sort of proto-baklava is found in a Chinese cookbook written in 1330 under the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty under the name güllach (Buell, 1999). "Güllaç" is found in Turkish cuisine. Layers of phyllo dough are put one by one in warmed up milk with sugar. It is served with walnut and fresh pomegranate and generally eaten during Ramadan. Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

A typical baklava, sweetened with syrup.
A typical baklava, sweetened with syrup.

Etymology

The word baklava entered English from Turkish;[11][12] it is sometimes connected with the Arabic word for "bean" (بقلة /baqlah/), but Wehr's dictionary lists them as unrelated. Akın and Lambraki [13] state that the word baklava entered into Arabic from Turkish. Buell (1999) argues that the word "baklava" may come from the Mongolian root baγla- 'to tie, wrap up, pile up' composed with the Turkic verbal ending -v. Baklava is found in many cuisines, with minor phonetic variations on the name. The Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic by Hans Wehr is widely regarded as the foremost Arabic-English bilingual or translation dictionary and has particular usefulness for students of Modern Standard Arabic. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Guide Martin: Gaziantep
  2. ^ Newstime 7, February 21, 2008[1]
  3. ^ Perry 1994, 87
  4. ^ Akın and Lambraki, Turkish and Greek Cuisine/Türk ve Yunan Mutfağı p. 248-249, ISBN 9754584842
  5. ^ Wasti, 2005
  6. ^ Baklava , history , origin , recipes
  7. ^ John Ash, A Byzantine Journey, page 223
  8. ^ Marcus Rautman, Daily Life in the Byzantine Empire, page 96
  9. ^ New Book of Middle Eastern Food, 2000, ISBN 0-375-40506-2
  10. ^ Siren Feasts: A History of Food and Gastronomy in Greece, 1997, ISBN 0-415-15657-2
  11. ^ Merriam-Webster Online, s.v. Baklava
  12. ^ Dictionary.com Unabridged, s.v. Baklava
  13. ^ Turkish and Greek Cuisine/Türk ve Yunan Mutfağı p. 248-249, ISBN 9754584842

References

  • Reuven Amitai-Preiss and David O. Morgan, eds., The Mongol Empire and Its Legacy Brill, 1999. ISBN 90-04-11946-9.
  • Paul D. Buell, "Mongol Empire and Turkicization: The Evidence of Food and Foodways", p. 200ff, in Amitai-Preiss, op.cit.
  • Christian, David. Review of Amitai-Preiss, op.cit., in Journal of World History 12:2:476 (2001).
  • Perry, Charles. "The Taste for Layered Bread among the Nomadic Turks and the Central Asian Origins of Baklava", in A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East (ed. Sami Zubaida, Richard Tapper), 1994. ISBN 1-86064-603-4.
  • Roden Claudia, "A New Book of Middle Eastern Food" ISBN 01-404658-8
  • Vryonis, Speros, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor, 1971. Quoted in Perry (1994).
  • Wasti, Syed Tanvir, "The Ottoman Ceremony of the Royal Purse", Middle Eastern Studies 41:2:193–200 (March 2005)

The Journal of World History is the official journal of the World History Association. ...

External links

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Baklava

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