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Encyclopedia > Baja California

Coordinates: 30°33′N, 115°10′W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Baja California
Official flag of Baja California
Flag

Seal
Location within Mexico
Location within Mexico
Municipalities of Baja California
Municipalities of Baja California
Country Flag of Mexico Mexico
Capital Mexicali
Municipalities 5
Largest City Tijuana
Government
 - Governor José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (PAN)
 - Federal Deputies PAN: 8
 - Federal Senators Alejandro González (PAN)
Rafael Díaz (PAN)
Fernando Castro (PRI)
Area
Ranked 12th
 - Total 69,921 km² (26,996.6 sq mi)
Population (2005)
 - Total 2,844,469 (Ranked 14th)
HDI (2004) 0.8233 - high
Ranked 7th
ISO 3166-2 MX-BCN
Postal abbr. B.C.
Website: State government

Baja California (English: Lower California) is the northernmost state of Mexico. It is sometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte[1], to distinguish it from both the Baja California peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula. Before becoming a state in 1953, the area was known as the North Territory of Baja California. It has an area of 71,576 km² (about 27,600 sq mi, or 3.57% of the land mass of Mexico). The state is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean, on the east by Sonora, the U.S. State of Arizona, and the Sea of Cortez or Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur. Its northern limit is the U.S.-Mexico border, adjacent to the U.S. state of California. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Mexico_map,_MX-BCN.svg‎ my edits licensed under File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links BC-Coloured. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Mexicali is the capital of the State of Baja California, Mexico as well as the seat of the municipality of Mexicali. ... Municipal Palace of Veracruz Municipalities (municipios in Spanish) are the second-level administrative division in Mexico (where the first-level administrative division is the estado, or state). ... List of largest cities in Mexico: See also: List of cities List of Cities and States and information about them in English and Spanish (in Spanish and English) Database of all Towns, cities, municipalities, and postal codes in Mexico (in Spanish) Ranking of Mexican Cities Categories: | ... Tijuana (Spanish [tixwana], English usually [ËŒtiːəˈwÉ‘nÉ™]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ... The United Mexican States ( Mexico) is a federal republic comprising 31 states and one federal district (the Mexican Federal District, or Distrito Federal). ... José Guadalupe Osuna Millán (born December 10, 1955) is an Mexican economist and politician member of the National Action Party (PAN) who is the current Governor-elect of Baja California. ... The Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Mexicos bicameral legislature, the Congress of the Union. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... The Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) is the upper house of Mexicos bicameral Congress. ... Alejandro González Alcocer is a Mexican politician and lawyer, belonging to the National Action Party (PAN). ... Fernando Jorge Castro Trenti is a Mexican politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) who serves in the LX Legislature of the Mexican Congress as senator representing the State of Baja California. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their surface area. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Political division of Mexico The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their total population (per year 2000 census data from INEGI). ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2006). ... States of Mexico colored by HDI The following table presents a listing of Mexicos 31 federal states (and its Federal District, officially not a state), ranked in order of their Human Development Index, as reported by the United Nations in 2004. ... ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The United Mexican States or Mexico (Estados Unidos Mexicanos or México) is a federal republic made up of 31 states (estados) and one Federal District, (Distrito Federal), which contains the capital, Mexico City. ... Baja California Peninsula (highlighted) The Baja California Peninsula or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... Baja California Sur (English: South Lower California) is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... The Gulf of California (highlighted) The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... Baja California Sur (English: South Lower California) is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... The international border between Mexico and the United States runs a total of 3,141 km (1,951 miles) from San Diego, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


The state has a population of 2,844,469 (2005 census), much more than the sparsely populated Baja California Sur to the south. Over 75% of the population lives in the capital city, Mexicali, or in Tijuana. Both these cities are close to the U.S. border. Other important cities include Ensenada, San Felipe, and Playas de Rosarito and Tecate. Baja California is not entirely European (white) as in most of the northern Mexican states. The population includes large numbers of Mestizo and other large minority groups such as, East Asian, Middle Eastern, African and Indigenous descent. Additionally, there are large immigrant populations from the United States and Central America due to its proximity to San Diego, cheaper cost of living compared to San Diego, and the number of higher paying jobs in comparison to the rest of Mexico and Latin America. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mexicali is the capital of the State of Baja California, Mexico as well as the seat of the municipality of Mexicali. ... Tijuana (Spanish [tixwana], English usually [ˌtiːəˈwɑnə]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ... Overlooking Ensenada at night The port of Ensenada Desert at Cataviña region. ... San Felipe in the Mexican state of Baja California is located 190 km south of the international border at Mexicali (connecting with Calexico, California, USA). ... Playas de Rosarito is a city in the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the municipality of the same name. ... Tecate. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... Mexico, in the second article of its Constitution, is defined as a pluricultural nation in recognition of the diverse ethnic groups that constitute it, and in which the indigenous peoples[1] are the original foundation. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... San Diego redirects here. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


The state's inhabitants are known as "Cachanillas," after the wild cachanilla plant which has a fresh aroma and was used by the original inhabitants to make huts. Originally, the term "Cachanillas" was applied only to the inhabitants of the Mexicali Valley, although there are tales of the term being used for inhabitants of Santa Rosalía in Baja California Sur. Composer Antonio Valdéz Herrera's work "Puro Cachanilla" (Pure Cachanilla) has made use of the term more common.


Notes:

  1. ^ Baja California Norte, while it is a well-established term for the northern half of the Baja California peninsula, its usage would not be correct. Baja California Norte has never existed as a political designation for a state, territory, district or region.

Contents

History

The first humans came to the peninsula at least 11,000 years ago, probably following the Pacific coast down from Alaska. At the time of European contact, two main native groups were present on the peninsula. In the south were the Cochimí. In the north were several groups belonging to the Yuman linguistic family, including the Kiliwa, Paipai, Kumeyaay, Cocopa, and Quechan. These peoples were diverse in their adaptations to the region. The Cochimí of the peninsula's Central Desert were generalized hunter-gatherers who moved frequently; however, the Cochimí on Cedros Island off the west coast had developed a strongly maritime economy. The Kiliwa, Paipai, and Kumeyaay in the better-watered northwest were also hunter-gatherers, but that region supported denser populations and more sedentary lifeways. The Cocopa and Quechan of northeastern Baja California practiced agriculture in the floodplain of the lower Colorado River. For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Cochimí were the aboriginal inhabitants of the central part of the Baja California peninsula, from El Rosario in the north to San Javier in the south. ... The Kiliwa are an aboriginal people of northern Baja California, Mexico. ... The Paipai (Pai pai, Paipai, Akwaala, Yakakwal) are an aboriginal people of northern Baja California, Mexico. ... The Kumeyaay, also known as the Diegueño and sometimes confused with the Luiseño, are a Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico. ... Cocopa is a Native American tribe which emigated from Baja California and settled on the lower reaches of the Colorado River. ... Yumas. ... Cedros Island lies in the Pacific Ocean, 22 km (14 miles) off the west coast of Baja California, 426 km (265 miles) south of Ensenada. ...


Europeans reached the present state of Baja California in 1539, when Francisco de Ulloa reconnoitered its east coast on the Gulf of California and explored the peninsula's west coast at least as far north as Cedros Island. Hernando de Alarcón returned to the east coast and ascended the lower Colorado River in 1540, and Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo completed the reconnaissance of the west coast in 1542. Sebastián Vizcaíno again surveyed the west coast in 1602, but outside visitors during the following century were few. Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... Route of the 1539 voyage by Francisco de Ulloa from (Acapulco) along the west coast of Mexico Francisco de Ulloa (d. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón, a Spanish navigator of the 16th century, noted for having led an early expedition to the peninsula of Baja California, meant to be coordinated with Francisco Vasquéz de Coronados overland expedition, and for penetrating the lower Colorado River, perhaps as far as the... Year 1540 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... João Rodrigues Cabrilho Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo (Portuguese: João Rodrigues Cabrilho) (ca. ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Sebastián Vizcaíno (1548-1624) was a Spanish soldier, entrepreneur, explorer, and diplomat whose varied roles took him to New Spain, the Philippines, the Baja California peninsula, Alta California, and Japan. ... This page is about the year. ...


The Jesuits founded a permanent mission colony on the peninsula at Loreto in 1697. During the following decades, they gradually extended their sway throughout the present state of Baja California Sur. In 1751-1753, the Croatian Jesuit mission-explorer Ferdinand Konščak made overland explorations northward into the state of Baja California. Jesuit missions were subsequently established among the Cochimí at Santa Gertrudis (1752), San Borja (1762), and Santa María (1767). Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Events September 11 - Battle of Zenta, Prince Eugene of Savoy crushed Ottoman army of Mustafa II September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher... Ferdinand Konščak (Ferdinand Consag in Hungarian) (December 2, 1703 - September 10, 1759) was a missionary, explorer, and cartographer. ... The Misión Santa Gertrudis (ariginally to be named Dolores del Norte) is a Spanish mission in Baja California Sur, Mexico, (located at 28° 03′ 06″ N 113° 05′ 08″ W) that was founded in 1751 by the Dominican order and operated until 1822. ... San Borja was a Spanish mission established in 1762 by the Jesuit Wenceslaus Linck at the Cochimí settlement of Adac, west of Bahía de los Angeles. ... The ruins of the Spanish mission of Misión Santa María de los Ángeles lie 14 miles (22 km) east of Ranco Santa Inés, south of Cataviña in Baja California, Mexico. ...


After the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1768, the short-lived Franciscan administration (1768-1773) resulted in one new mission at San Fernando Velicatá. More importantly, the 1769 expedition to settle Alta California under Gaspar de Portolà and Junípero Serra resulted in the first overland exploration of the northwestern portion of the state. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a product of a series of political moves rather than a theological controversy. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Located in Baja California, Mexico about 200 miles south of Ensenada, Misión San Fernando Rey de España de Velicatá was the first mission founded by Franciscans in the Californias on February 14, 1769. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Gaspar de Portolà i Rovira (1716 – 1784), a soldier, governor of Baja and Alta California (1767–1770), explorer and founder of San Diego and Monterey. ... Blessed Junípero Serra (November 24, 1713 – August 28, 1784) was a Majorcan (Spain) Franciscan friar who founded the mission chain in Alta California. ...


The Dominicans took over management of the Baja California missions from the Franciscans in 1773. They established a chain of new missions among the northern Cochimí and western Yumans, first on the coast and subsequently inland, extending from El Rosario (1774) to Descanso (1817), just south of Tijuana. Mission El Rosario was the first Dominican mission in Baja California, established in 1774 by Vicente Mora and Francisco Galisteo near the modern town of El Rosario. ... The fort at Mission El Descanso The El Descanso Mission (Misión San Miguel la Nueva) was a Dominican mission founded in 1817 by Father Thomas Ahumada. ...


Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

  • 1804: The Spanish colony of California is divided into Alta ("upper") and Baja ("lower") California at the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south.
  • 1848: Alta California is annexed by the United States.
  • 1853: Soldier of fortune William Walker captures La Paz, declaring himself President of the Republic of Lower California. The Mexican government forces his retreat after several months.
  • 1905: The Magonista revolutionary movement begins.
  • 1911: Mexicali and Tijuana are captured by the Partido Liberal Mexicano (PLM), but soon surrender to Federal forces.
  • 1930: Baja California is further divided into Northern and Southern territories.
  • 1952: The North Territory of Baja California becomes the 29th state of Mexico, Baja California. The southern portion, below 28°N, remains a federally administered territory.
  • 1974: The South Territory of Baja California becomes the 31st state, Baja California Sur.
  • 1989: Ernesto Ruffo Appel of the PAN becomes the first non-PRI governor of Baja California and the first opposition governor of any state since the Revolution.

1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Baja California (highlighted) Alternative use: Baja California (state) Baja California or Lower California is a peninsula in the west of Mexico. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alta California (Upper California) was formed in 1804 when the province of California, then a part of the Spanish colony of New Spain, was divided in two along the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... William Walker William Walker (May 8, 1824 – September 12, 1860) was a U.S. physician, lawyer, journalist, adventurer, and soldier of fortune who attempted to conquer several Latin American countries in the mid-19th century. ... The Bay of La Paz, as seen from the International Space Station La Paz, the capital of Baja California Sur, Mexico, is a small city on the shores of the Gulf of California. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Baja California Sur (English: South Lower California) is one of the 31 States of Mexico, occupying the part of the Baja California Peninsula south of the 28th parallel. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Ernesto Ruffo Appel Ernesto Ruffo Appel (June 25, 1952, San Diego, California, USA) is an American-born Mexican politician famous for being the first state-governor not belonging to the PRI party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) in modern Mexico. ... The National Action Party (Spanish: Partido Acción Nacional), known by the acronym PAN, is a conservative and Christian Democratic party and one of the three main political parties in Mexico. ... The Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI) is a Mexican political party that wielded hegemonic power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. ... This article is about the Mexican Revolution of 1910. ...

Demographics

The racial make-up of the state is; 46% White/European, 40% Mestizo (Mixed Amerindian and European), 9% Asian (predominantly Chinese), and the remaining 5% is mainly composed by Amerindians, Black Africans and US Citizens.


Municipalities

Baja California is subdivided into five municipios (municipalities). See municipalities of Baja California. A municipio (Spanish for municipality) is a second-level political and administrative division in Mexico. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... The Mexican state of Baja California is divided into five municipalities (municipios): Categories: Lists of municipalities of Mexico | Mexican states ...

The municipio (municipality) of Ensenada is the largest in the state of Baja California and the largest in Mexico by area. ... Mexicali is a municipio (second-level municipality) in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Tecate is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Tijuana is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Seal of Playas de Rosarito Location of Playas de Rosarito Playas de Rosarito is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ...

Education

  • See Category:Universities and colleges in Baja California.

Economy

  • Industries
    • Tourism
    • Manufacturing
  • Exports
  • Imports
  • Fishing

See also

The Spanish missions in California (more simply referred to as the California Missions) comprise a series of religious outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Catholic faith among the local Native Americans. ... The west coast of North America consists of the modern American states of California, Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and arguably Alaska and parts of the Yukon. ... A one-time regional brewery in Southern California, the Aztec Brewing Company (Aztec Brewery) holds the unique distinction of being the only brewing company ever to move from Mexico to the United States. ... In astronomy, starburst is a generic term to describe a region of space with a much higher than normal star formation. ...

External links

Baja California
Mexicali, capital
Municipalities

Ensenada | Mexicali | Tecate | Tijuana | Playas de Rosarito Image File history File links Bajamunicipios. ... Mexicali is the capital of the State of Baja California, Mexico as well as the seat of the municipality of Mexicali. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The municipio (municipality) of Ensenada is the largest in the state of Baja California and the largest in Mexico by area. ... Mexicali is a municipio (municipality) in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Tecate is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Tijuana is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ... Seal of Playas de Rosarito Location of Playas de Rosarito Playas de Rosarito is a municipality in the Mexican state of Baja California. ...

Cities

Ensenada | Mexicali | Playas de Rosarito | Tecate | Tijuana Overlooking Ensenada at night The port of Ensenada Desert at Cataviña region. ... Mexicali is the capital of the State of Baja California, Mexico as well as the seat of the municipality of Mexicali. ... Playas de Rosarito is a city in the Mexican state of Baja California and seat of the municipality of the same name. ... Tecate. ... Tijuana (Spanish [tixwana], English usually [ˌtiːəˈwɑnə]), is the largest city in the Mexican state of Baja California and the seat of the municipality of Tijuana. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Baja California (397 words)
It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as Baja California Norte to distinguish it from the Baja California peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, which forms the southern half of the peninsula.
z or Gulf of California, and on the south by Baja California Sur.
1804: The Spanish colony of California is divided into Alta ("upper") and Baja ("lower") California at the line separating the Franciscan missions in the north from the Dominican missions in the south.
State Tourism Secretariat - Discover Baja California (316 words)
Baja California is located in the North west region of the Mexican Republic, in the northern part of the Baja California peninsula, it borders to the north with the U.S. sharing a border of 265 kilometers, 233 with the State of California and 32 with the State of Arizona.
The peninsula of Baja California is 781 miles long and the average width is 56 miles, which makes Baja California one of the largest peninsulas in the world.
The State of Baja California occupies a land surface of 71,777.589 square km.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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