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Encyclopedia > Baibars

al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: الملك‭ ‬الظاهر‭ ‬ركن‭ ‬الدين‭ ‬بيبرس‭ ‬البندقداري) (1223 – July 1, 1277) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. He was a Kipchak Turk[1][2] captured and sold in Kipchak. It was said that he was captured by the Mongols and sold as a slave, ending up in Syria. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


His first master, the emir (prince) of Hama, was suspicious of Baibars because of his unusual appearance (he was gigantically tall, with golden light blond hair, and an odd white spot in one of his dark blue eyes). Baibars was quickly sold to a Mamluk officer and sent to Egypt, where he became a bodyguard to the Ayyubid ruler As-Salih Ayyub. The Orontes River and norias in Hama Location of the governorate of Hama Hama (Arabic: حماه, meaning fortress) is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Al-Malik as-Salih Najm al-Din Ayyub (died November 1249) was the Ayyubid ruler of Egypt from 1240 to 1249. ...

Contents

Biography

He was a commander of the Mamluks in around 1250, when he defeated the Seventh Crusade of Louis IX of France. He was still a commander under Sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. After the battle he killed Qutuz because Qutuz had killed his best friend Aktai years ago. Baibars then took power for himself and became Sultan. A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... // April 30 - King Louis IX of France released by his Egyptian captors after paying a ransom of one million dinars and turning over the city of Damietta. ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... Louis IX or Saint Louis (April 25, 1215 – August 25, 1270) was King of France from 1226 until his death. ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa Strength About 20 000 About 20 000 in muslim history (40,000-50,000) The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ...


He continued what was to become a lifelong struggle against the Crusader kingdoms in Syria, starting with the Principality of Antioch, which had attempted to ally itself with the Mongols against Baibars at Ain Jalut. The Principality of Antioch (in red) within the frame of the Crusader states. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa Strength About 20 000 About 20 000 in muslim history (40,000-50,000) The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September 3, 1260...


In 1263 he attacked Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, but was unable to take it. Nevertheless, he defeated the Crusaders in many other battles (Arsuf, Athlith, Haifa, Safad, Jaffa, Ashkalon, Caesarea); whenever possible he took prisoners who were members of the Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller, who were much hated in the Muslim world at the that time as they defended Christian castles and at the same time considered to be a great military threat. Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... Arsuf (also known as Arsur or Apollonia) was a Crusader city and fortress located in what is now Israel, about 15 kilometres north of Tel Aviv. ... Atlit is a small sea side village in Israel near Haifa. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ... Ashkelon or Ashqelon (Hebrew אשקלון; Arabic عسقلان ʿAsqalān; Latin Ascalon) was an ancient Philistine seaport on the east coast of the Mediterranian sea just north of Gaza. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), popularly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple, were among the most famous of the Christian military orders. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) is an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick...


In 1266 Baibars defeated the Armenians in Cilicia, the only powerful ally of Antioch. In 1268 he besieged Antioch, capturing the city on May 18. He razed the city and killed or enslaved the population, although Prince Bohemund was able to escape. For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... In 1260 Baibars, the Sultan of Egypt and Syria, began to threaten the crusader state of Antioch, which (as a vassal of the Armenians) had supported the Mongols, the traditional enemies of the Turks. ... May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... Bohemund VI of Antioch (1237-1275), was ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) between 1251 and 1268. ...


The fall of Antioch led to the brief Ninth Crusade in 1271 led by Edward I of England, who also attempted to ally with the Mongols, although they were unable to capture any territory from Baibars. Although Edward and Baibars settled on a truce, Baibars tried to have Edward killed by the Hashshashin, and Edward returned home in 1272. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) was a religious sect of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


Baibars then fought the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia, who were by this time subjects of the Mongols. He died in Syria in 1277. The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ...


Legacy

Baibars was a popular ruler in the Muslim World who had defeated the crusaders in 3 crusades. In order to support his military campaigns, Baibars commissioned arsenals, warships and cargo vessels. His military campaign also extended into Libya and Nubia. He was also an efficient administrator who took interest in building various infrastructure projects, such as a mounted message relay system capable of delivery from Cairo to Damascus in 4 days. He also built bridges, irrigation and shipping canals, improved the harbours, and built mosques. Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...


His memoirs was recorded in Sirat al-Sultan Baibars (Life of Sultan Baibars), a popular Arabic romance recording his battles and achievements. He has a heroic status in both Egypt and Syria. Virtually all societies have developed folk tales encompassing tales of heroes. ...


Al-Madrassa al-Zahiriyya is the school built adjacent to his Mausoleum in Damascus. The Az-Zahiriyah library, has a wealth of manuscripts in various branches of knowledge to this day. Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... The Az-Zahiriyah library in Damascus, Syria dates back to 1277, taking its name from its founder Sultan Baibars (1223 - 1277). ...


Assessment

As the first great Sultan of the Bahri Mamluk dynasty, Baibars made the meritocratic ascent up the ranks of Mamluk society. He took final control by killing Sayf al Din Qutuz to avenge his friend, but before he became Sultan he was commander of the Mamluk forces in the most important battle of the Middle Periods, repelling a diminished Mongol force at the legendary battle of Ain Jalut in 1260. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular), مماليك (plural), owned; also transliterated mameluk, mameluke, or mamluke) was a slave soldier who converted to Islam and served the Muslim caliphs and the Ayyubid sultans during the Middle Ages. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Saif ad-Din Qutuz (died October 24, 1260) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1259 until his death. ... The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ...


His reign marked the start of an age of Mamluk dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean and solidified the durability of their military system. He took Saladin's military success as his ideal. He managed to pave the way for the end of the Crusader presence in Syria and to unite Egypt and Syria into one powerful state that was able to fend off threats from both Crusaders and Mongols. Artistic representation of Saladin. ...


Although in the Muslim World he has been considered a national hero for centuries, and in Egypt and Syria is still regarded as such, Sultan Baibars was reviled in the Christian world of the time for his destruction of holy sites and massacres or expulsion of Christian populations.


In fiction

  • Baybars figures prominently in the classic story The Sowers of the Thunder by Robert E. Howard. While liberties are taken with history for the sake of the tale, and many characters and events are purely imaginary, his character is fairly close to the folkloric depiction and the general flow of history is respected.
  • Baybars is one of the main characters of Robyn Young's book, Brethren. Young plans two additional books about this period.

The Sowers of the Thunder is a short story by Robert E. Howard (published in Oriental Stories, Winter 1932) takes place in Outremer (the Crusader states) in the time of Sultan Baibars and deals with the Sultans friendly/adversarial relationship with Cahal Ruadh ODonnell, an Irish Crusader of... Robert Ervin Howard (January 22, 1906 – June 11, 1936)[1] was a classic American pulp writer of fantasy, horror, historical adventure, boxing, western, and detective fiction. ... The Brethren are any of several Christian denominations, most of which are Anabaptist-Pietist. ... Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... Bold textItalic text == Headline text ==He was born a 4 headed man but 3 of his 4 heads died along with all but one of his 90 hearts. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...

External links

  • Baibars article from Encyclopedia of the Orient
  • Baibars in Concise Britannica online
  • Al-Madrassa al-Zahiriyya and Baybars Mausoleum
  • Brief Article in Columbia Encyclopedia
  • Extensive Arabic Article on Baybars
  • Brief Biography

References

  1. ^ Baibars in Concise Britannica online, (LINK)
  2. ^ Brief Article in Columbia Encyclopedia, (LINK)
  3. ^ Lamb, Harold. "The Crusades", page 343

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baibars (299 words)
Rukn ad-Din Baibars Bundukdari (died July 1, 1277) was a Mameluk sultan of Egypt in the 13th century.
Baibars was a commander of the Mameluks in Egypt around 1250, when he defeated the Seventh Crusade of Louis IX of France.
Baibars then fought with the Seljuk Turks in Anatolia, who were by this time subjects of the Mongols.
Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal (814 words)
His first master, the emir (prince) of Hama, was suspicious of Baibars because of his unusual appearance (he was gigantically tall, blue eyed and with an odd white spot in one of his eyes).
Baibars was quickly sold to a Mamluk officer and sent to Egypt, where he became a bodyguard to the Ayyubid ruler As-Salih Ayyub.
Baibars figures prominently in the story "The Sowers of the Thunder" by Robert E. Howard.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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