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Encyclopedia > Bahrain
مملكة البحرين
Mamlakat al-Bahrayn
Kingdom of Bahrain
Flag of Bahrain Coat of Arms of Bahrain
Flag Coat of Arms
Anthem بحريننا
Bahrainona
Our Bahrain
Capital
(and largest city)
Manama
26°13′N, 50°35′E
Official languages Arabic[1]
Demonym Bahraini
Government Constitutional Monarchy
 -  King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah
 -  Prime Minister Khalifah ibn Sulman Al Khalifah
Independence from United Kingdom[2][3] 
 -  Date 16 December 1971 
Area
 -  Total 665 km² (189th)
253 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0
Population
 -  2007 estimate 1,046,814 1 (155th)
 -  Density 1454/km² (7th)
2,556/sq mi
GDP (PPP)  estimate
 -  Total $19.75 billion (118th)
 -  Per capita $23,604 (32nd)
HDI (2007) 0.866 (high) (41st)
Currency Bahraini dinar (BHD)
Time zone (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .bh
Calling code +973
1 Includes 517,368 non-nationals (September 2007 estimate).

Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: مملكة البحرين ‎, Mamlakat al-Barayn), is a borderless island country in the Persian Gulf. Saudi Arabia lies to the west and is connected to Bahrain by the King Fahd Causeway (officially opened on November 25, 1986), and Qatar is to the south across the Gulf of Bahrain. The Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge being planned will link Bahrain to Qatar as the longest fixed link in the world[4]. Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) unitl the 16th century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bahrain. ... Flag Ratio: 3:5 The national flag of Bahrain consists of a white band on the left separated from a red area on the right by five triangles that serve as a serrated line. ... The Coat of Arms of Bahrain was designed in the 1930s by the British advisor to the King of Bahrain (then emir). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Bahrainona (Our Bahrain) is the national anthem of Bahrain. ... This country locator map was created by Vardion and is released into the public domain. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Bahrain, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The position of king of Bahrain was created in February 2002 when the then emir of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah gave himself the title of king. ... Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة) (born January 28, 1950 in Riffa, Bahrain) is the current King of Bahrain (since 2002), having previously been its Emir (from 1999). ... In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country. ... ‎Khalifa ibn Salman Al Khalifa (خليفة بن سلمان آل خليفة) (born 22 November 1936) is the Prime Minister of Bahrain. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code BHD User(s) Bahrain Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .bh is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Bahrain. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A borderless country may be defined as an island nation, an insular territory over which a nation-state is sovereign under international law, that does not share the land territory of its island with other nation-states sovereign under international law. ... Island countries in the world An island country is a country that is wholly confined to an island or island group, and has no territory on the mainland of a continent. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The view of the causeway from space The King Fahd Causeway (Arabic: جسر الملك فهد) is the combined bridging and viaduct connection between Khobar, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain settled on by a construction agreement signed on July 8, 1981. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Qatar–Bahrain Friendship Bridge, given a green light in Feb 28, 2005, will link Bahrain near Manama to northwest Qatar near Zubarah as the longest fixed link in the world. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Bahrain

Bahrain has been inhabited since ancient times. Its strategic location in the Persian Gulf has brought rule and influence from the Assyrians, Babylonians, Greeks, Persians, and finally the Arabs, under whom the island became Muslim. Bahrain was in ancient times known as Dilmun, later under its Greek name Tylos[5], then as Awal, and then by the Persian name Mishmahig, when it was a part of the Persian Empire. The name Bahrain comes from Arabic Bahárayn, literally meaning two seas, which is thought to be an inaccurate folk etymology for the much older, non-Semitic term, Bahran; according to some scholars Bahran originates from Varahrdn, the later form of the old Avestan Verethragna - a Zoroastrian divinity that is... Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) unitl the 16th century. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... This article is about the Persian people, an ethnic group found mainly in Iran. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... Persia redirects here. ... Mishmahig Island, the present country known as Bahrain is a peninsular located in the southern half of the middle section of the Persian Gulf, which consist of 33 big and small islands. ... Persia redirects here. ...


The islands of Bahrain, positioned in the middle south of the Persian Gulf, have attracted the attention of invaders throughout history. Bahrain is Arabic for "two seas", referring to the sweet water springs that can be found within the salty sea surrounding it[6] Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


A strategic position between East and West, fertile lands, fresh water, and pearl diving made Bahrain historically a center of urban settlement. Pearl diving was the main economy until cultured pearls were invented in early twentieth century and more when oil was discovered in 1930s. About 2300 BC, Bahrain became a centre of one of the ancient empires trading between Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and the Indus Valley (now in Pakistan and India). This was the civilization of Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) that was linked to the Sumerian Civilization in the third millennium BC. Bahrain became part of the Babylonian empire about 600 BC. Historical records referred to Bahrain with names such as the "Life of Eternity", "Paradise", and Eden. Bahrain was also called the "Pearl of the Persian Gulf". Bahrain has many trade partners". Until Bahrain adopted Islam in 629 AD, it was a centre for Nestorian Christianity[7]. Early Islamic sources describe it as being inhabited by members of the Abdul Qays, Tamim, and Bakr tribes, worshiping the idol "Awal". In 899, a millenarian Ismaili sect, the Qarmatians, seized hold of the country and sought to create a utopian society based on reason and the distribution of all property evenly among the initiates. The Qarmatians caused disruption throughout the Islamic world: they collected tribute from the caliph in Baghdad; and in 930 sacked Mecca and Medina, bringing the sacred Black Stone back to Bahrain where it was held to ransom. They were defeated in 976 by the Abbasids.[8] The final end of the Qarmatians came at the hand of the Arab Uyunid dynasty of al-Hasa, who took over the entire Bahrain region in 1076.[9] They controlled the Bahrain islands until 1235, when the islands were briefly occupied by the ruler of Fars. In 1253, the bedouin Usfurids brought down the Uyunid dynasty and gained control over eastern Arabia, including the islands of Bahrain. In 1330, the islands became tributary to the rulers of Hormuz,[10] though locally the islands were controlled by the Shi'ite Jarwanid dynasty of Qatif.[11] Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ... Dilmun (sometimes transliterated Telmun) is associated with ancient sites on the islands of Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The term Nestorianism is eponymous, even though the person who lent his name to it always denied the associated belief. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Banu Bakr or Banu Bakr, son of Wail (Arabic: ) were an Arabian tribe belonging to the large Rabiah branch of Adnanite tribes, which also included Anizzah, Taghlib, and Bani Hanifa. ... An idol is a man-made object that is venerated in some way. ... Millenarianism or millenarism is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society after which all things will be changed in a positive (or sometimes negative or ambiguous) direction. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ... The Qarmatians (from Arabic qaramita قرامطة, also spelled Carmathians, Qarmathians, Karmathians etc. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... // Introduction Fars is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; Arabic: ) is a historic, coastal oasis region located on the western shore of the Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ...


Until the late Middle Ages, "Bahrain" referred to the larger historical region of Bahrain that included Ahsa, Qatif (both now within the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia) and the Awal (now the Bahrain) Islands. The region stretched from Basrah to the Strait of Hormuz in Oman. This was Iqlīm al-Bahrayn "Bahrayn Province." The exact date at which the term "Bahrain" began to refer solely to the Awal archipeligo is unknown.[12] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain (Arabic: ‎ ) unitl the 16th century. ... Eastern Province (Arabic: ) is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the Persian Gulf coast, and has land borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Location of Basra Basra (also known as Başrah or Basara; historically sometimes called Busra, Busrah, and early on Bassorah; Arabic: البصرة, Al-Basrah) is the second largest city of Iraq with an estimated population of about 1,377,000 in 2003. ...

Bahrain World Trade Centre
Sunset at King Fahd Causeway
Bahrain Word Trade Centre
Bahrain Word Trade Centre
Bahrain Financial Harbor
Bahrain Financial Harbor

In the mid-15th century, the islands came under the rule of the Jabrids, a bedouin dynasty that was also based in al-Ahsa and ruled most of eastern Arabia. The Portuguese invaded Bahrain in 1521 in alliance with Hormuz, seizing it from the Jabrid ruler Migrin ibn Zamil, who was killed in battle. Portuguese rule lasted for nearly 80 years, during which they depended mostly on Sunni Persian governors.[13] The view of the causeway from space The King Fahd Causeway (Arabic: جسر الملك فهد) is the combined bridging and viaduct connection between Khobar, Saudi Arabia and Bahrain settled on by a construction agreement signed on July 8, 1981. ... Image File history File links Walter Tenney Carleton in 1891 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Walter Tenney Carleton in 1891 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... Al-Ahsa, Al-Hasa, or Hasa, (Arabic: ‎ , locally ) is a governorate of Saudi Arabias Eastern Province about 60 km inland from the Persian Gulf. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


The Portuguese were expelled from the islands in 1602 by Abbas I of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, who instituted Shi'ism as the official religion in Bahrain.[14] The Iranian rulers retained sovereignty over the islands, with some interruptions, for nearly two centuries. For most of that period, they resorted to governing Bahrain indirectly, either through Hormuz or through local Sunni Arab clans, such as the Huwala.[15][16][17] During this period, the islands suffered two serious invasions by the Ibadhis of Oman in 1717 and 1738.[18][19] In 1753, the Huwala clan of Al Madhkur invaded Bahrain on behalf of the Iranians, restoring direct Iranian rule.[20] This page is about the year. ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shia Islam (Arabic: or follower. ... Distorted from Persian Ohrmuzd, Ahura Mazda. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Huwala (also spelled howala, howila, huwalah) (Arabic: الهولة) meaning Those that have changed or moved. Originally the Huwala word is Arabic, but since Persian does not contain the emphatic ḥ Ø­ present in Arabic, it pronounced it Huwala. ... ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... 1753 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Huwala (also spelled howala, howila, huwalah) (Arabic: الهولة) meaning Those that have changed or moved. Originally the Huwala word is Arabic, but since Persian does not contain the emphatic ḥ Ø­ present in Arabic, it pronounced it Huwala. ...


In 1783, an alliance of Sunni Arab clans from the Arabian coast, led by the Al Khalifa, invaded and took control of Bahrain from the Persians and their Huwala allies, establishing an independent emirate.[21][22][23][disputed] The Al Khalifa, however, had to wither a series of Omani invasions between 1799 and 1828.[24][25] It was under the Al Khalifa's rule, in 1845, that a section of the Dawasir tribe from southern Nejd settled in Bahrain.[26] The Al Khalifa at times extended their authority to the northern shores of Qatar and the fort of Dammam on the Arabian coast. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... The Al-Khalifa dynasty is the ruling family of Bahrain. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Huwala (also spelled howala, howila, huwalah) (Arabic: الهولة) meaning Those that have changed or moved. Originally the Huwala word is Arabic, but since Persian does not contain the emphatic ḥ Ø­ present in Arabic, it pronounced it Huwala. ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Najd (Nejd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Dammam Corniche Dammam (Also Damman or Ad Dammām) is the capital of the Ash Sharqiyah province in Saudi Arabia. ...

For more details on this topic, see 1783 Al Khalifa invasion of Bahrain.

After the Saudis conquered al-Hasa and Qatif in 1796, the Al Khalifa briefly became their tributaries.[27] When the Saudis re-established their power in the region in the 19th century, they attempted again to bring the emirate of Bahrain under their control, resulting in many battles and skirmishes between the two dynasties.[28] This, however, was opposed by the British, who by that time had become highly influential in the Gulf, viewing it as essential to their control of India.[29] Britain's policy in the Gulf at this time stipulated "uncompromising opposition" to the Saudis in Bahrain. In 1859, a British naval squadron was sent to protect the islands, and the British resident in the Persian Gulf notified the Saudi ruler Faisal ibn Turki Al Saud that it viewed Bahrain as an "independent emirate." In 1861, the British imposed a protection treaty on the emir of Bahrain, ending Saudi efforts to bring the islands under their sphere of influence.[30] The treaty was the culmination of a series of treaties with the British, beginning in 1820.[31] The country remained a British protectorate until 1971. The population of the island at the time was estimated to be around 70,000 persons.[32] In the early 1920s the islands were rocked by disturbances between the Dawasir and the Shi'ite Baharna of Bahrain. As a result, most of the Dawasir were compelled to leave Bahrain and settle on the Arabian mainland as subjects of Ibn Saud.[33] Ash Sharqiyah, known as Eastern Province is the largest province of Saudi Arabia, located in the east of the country on the coasts of the Persian Gulf, and has borders with Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Yemen. ... Qatif or Al-Qatif (also spelled Qateef or Al-Qateef; Arabic: ) is a historic, coastal oasis region located on the western shore of the Persian Gulf in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, (Persian Sea) in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by Persian geographer Istakhri. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... The Baharna (Arabic: ‎ } are the indigenous inhabitants of the villages and some of the coastal shores of the archipelago of Bahrain and the cities of Qatif and Al-Hasa on the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia (see historical region of Bahrain). ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z as-Sa`Å«d ( 1880 - November 9, 1953) (Arabic:عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ...


Oil was discovered in 1932 and brought rapid modernization to Bahrain. Bahrain was the first place to find oil in the whole region. It also made relations with the United Kingdom closer, evidenced by the British moving more bases there. British influence would continue to grow as the country developed, culminating with the appointment of Charles Belgrave as an advisor[34]; Belgrave established modern education systems in Bahrain[35]. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... Charles Dalrymple Belgrave was a British citizen and adviser to the rulers of Bahrain from 1926 until 1957. ...


After World War II, increasing anti-British sentiment spread throughout the Arab World and in Bahrain led to riots. The riots focused on the Jewish community which counted among its members distinguished writers and singers, accountants, engineers and middle managers working for the Oil Company, textile merchants with business all over the peninsula [Jews were not allowed to settle permanently in Saudi Arabia], and free professionals. Following the events of 1947, most of the members of Bahrain's Jewish community abandoned their properties and evacuated to Bombay and later settled in Palestine (later Israel - Tel Aviv's Pardes Chana neighborhood) and the United Kingdom. As of 2007 there were 36 Jews remaining in the country. The issue of compensation was never settled. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1960, the United Kingdom put Bahrain's future to international arbitration and requested that the United Nations Secretary-General take on this responsibility. In 1970, Iran laid claim to Bahrain and the other Persian Gulf islands. However, in an agreement with the United Kingdom it agreed to "not pursue" its claims on Bahrain if its other claims were realized. The following plebiscite saw Bahrainis confirm their Arab identity and independence from Britain. Bahrain to this day remains a member of the Arab League and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... Map indicating CCASG members Official languages Arabic Type Trade bloc Membership Arab states of the Persian Gulf (6) Leaders  -  Secretary-General Abdul Rahman ibn Hamad al-Attiyah Establishment  -  As the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) May 25, 1981  Population  -   estimate 40,338,196[1]  GDP (nominal)  estimate  -  Total $1 Trillion   -  Per...


The British withdrew from Bahrain on December 16, 1971, making Bahrain an independent emirate[36]. The oil boom of the 1970s greatly benefited Bahrain, but its downturn was felt badly. However, the country had already begun to diversify its economy, and had benefited from the Lebanese civil war that began in the 1970s; Bahrain replaced Beirut as the Middle East's financial hub as Lebanon's large banking sector was driven out of the country by the war[37]. is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... This article is about the Lebanese city. ...

Bahrain Royal Flight Boeing 747SP
Bahrain Royal Flight Boeing 747SP

After the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran, Bahraini Shī'a fundamentalists in 1981 orchestrated a failed coup attempt under the auspices of a front organization, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain. The coup would have installed a Shī'a cleric exiled in Iran, Hujjatu l-Islām Hādī al-Mudarrisī, as supreme leader heading a theocratic government. [38] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2276 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 527 pixelsFull resolution (2276 × 1500 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Boeing 747SP is a highly modified version of Boeings Boeing 747-100 offering special performance. Known during development as the short body 747SB, the shortened fuselage permitted longer range flights to be made. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... After Ayatollah Khomeini came to power in Iran in 1979, Tehran made clear its intention to spread its Islamic Revolution throughout the Middle East. ... The Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain was an Iranian based Shia terror group that advocated Islamic revolution in Bahrain against the Sunni ruling Al Khalifa family in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Hojatoleslam (or hojatalislam) is an honorific title meaning proof of Islam, given to middle-ranking Shia clerics of the rank of mujtahid. ... Ayatollah Sayed Hadi Almodarresi or al-Modarresi (Arabic: هادي المدرسي; transliterated: HādÄ« al-MudarrisÄ«) Born to a scholarly family in Karbala, Iraq,that dominated the Hawza (Islamic seminaries) of Karbala for many years which includes supreme religious jurists (Marja’a) such as Grand Ayatollah Mahdi Al Shirazi (grandfather), Grand Ayatollah Mohammad... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ...


In 1994, a wave of rioting by disaffected Shīa Islamists was sparked by women's participation in a sporting event. The Kingdom was badly affected by sporadic violence during the mid-1990s in which over forty people were killed in violence between the government and cleric-led opposition[39]. Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...

Manama, the capital of Bahrain
Manama, the capital of Bahrain

In March 1999, King Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah succeeded his father as head of state and instituted elections for parliament, gave women the right to vote, and released all political prisoners. These moves were described by Amnesty International as representing an "historic period of human rights."[40] The country was declared a kingdom in 2002. It formerly was considered a State and officially called a "Kingdom." Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 2700 KB) Summary The Bahraini capital can boast many modern buildings in this oil rich city in the Persian Gulf. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 2700 KB) Summary The Bahraini capital can boast many modern buildings in this oil rich city in the Persian Gulf. ... Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة) (born January 28, 1950 in Riffa, Bahrain) is the current King of Bahrain (since 2002), having previously been its Emir (from 1999). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


Politics

Bahrain

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Bahrain
Politics of Bahrain takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, with an executive appointed by the king, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa and a bi-cameral legislature, with the Chamber of Deputies elected by universal suffrage, and the Shura Council appointed directly by the king. ...



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Main article: Politics of Bahrain
See also: Bahraini parliamentary election, 2006 and Human rights in Bahrain

Bahrain is a constitutional monarchy headed by the King, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa; the head of government is the Prime Minister, Shaikh Khalīfa bin Salman al Khalifa, who presides over a cabinet of twenty-three members [41]. Bahrain has a bicameral legislature with a lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, elected by universal suffrage and the upper house, the Shura Council, appointed by the king. Both houses have forty members. The inaugural elections were held in 2002, with parliamentarians serving four year terms; the first round of voting in the 2006 parliamentary election took place on 25 November 2006, and second round run-offs were decided on 2 December 2006[42]. The opening up of politics has seen big gains for both Shīa and Sunnī Islamists in elections, which has given them a parliamentary platform to pursue their policies. This has meant that what are termed "morality issues" have moved further up the political agenda with parties launching campaigns to impose bans on female mannequins displaying lingerie in shop windows[43], sorcery, and the hanging of underwear on washing lines[44], as well as change the building by laws to fit one-way glass to houses to prevent residents being able to see out[45]. Analysts of democratization in the Middle East cite the Islamists' references to respect for human rights in their justification for these programmes as evidence that these groups can serve as a progressive force in the region. The position of king of Bahrain was created in February 2002 when the then emir of Bahrain Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah gave himself the title of king. ... Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة) (born January 28, 1950 in Riffa, Bahrain) is the current King of Bahrain (since 2002), having previously been its Emir (from 1999). ... In Bahrain, the Prime Minister is the head of government of the country. ... ‎Khalifa ibn Salman Al Khalifa (خليفة بن سلمان آل خليفة) (born 22 November 1936) is the Prime Minister of Bahrain. ... The National Assembly is the name of both chambers of the Bahraini parliament when sitting in joint session, as laid out in the Constitution of 2002. ... The Consultative Council (majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain. ... The Council of Representatives (majlis an-nuwab), sometimes translated as the Chamber of Deputies, is the name given to the lower house of the Bahraini National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain. ... Political parties from the former Communist Left to the Islamist Right sit in parliament in Bahrain, but are known technically as Political Associations or Blocs. ... The National Assembly is bicameral with the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, having 40 members elected in single-seat constituencies for a four year term. ... Bahrain will hold parliamentary elections on 25 November 2006 for the 40-seat lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, as well as municipal elections, and is currently in the midst of an election campaign. ... The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain, is a borderless country in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... // The Penal Code of 1976, still active today, has been widely criticized by local and international human rights bodies for granting the regime widespread powers to suppress dissent. ... Women’s political rights have been a cornerstone of the political reforms initiated by King Hamad with for the first time women being given the right to vote and stand as candidates in national elections after the constitution was amended in 2002. ... Bahrain plays a modest, moderating role in regional politics and adheres to the views of the Arab League on Middle East peace and Palestinian rights. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Politics of Bahrain takes place in a framework of a constitutional monarchy, with an executive appointed by the king, Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa and a bi-cameral legislature, with the Chamber of Deputies elected by universal suffrage, and the Shura Council appointed directly by the king. ... Bahrain will hold parliamentary elections on 25 November 2006 for the 40-seat lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, as well as municipal elections, and is currently in the midst of an election campaign. ... // The Penal Code of 1976, still active today, has been widely criticized by local and international human rights bodies for granting the regime widespread powers to suppress dissent. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifah (born January 28, 1950 in Doha, Qatar) (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة) is the current King of Bahrain (from 2002), having previously been its Emir (since 1999). ... Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... ‎Khalifa ibn Salman Al Khalifa (خليفة بن سلمان آل خليفة) (born 22 November 1936) is the Prime Minister of Bahrain. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... Bahrain will hold parliamentary elections on 25 November 2006 for the 40-seat lower house of parliament, the Chamber of Deputies, as well as municipal elections, and is currently in the midst of an election campaign. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Islamist parties have been particularly critical of the government's readiness to sign international treaties such as the United Nation's International Convention on Civil and Political Rights[46]. At a parliamentary session in June 2006 to discuss ratification of the Convention, Sheikh Adel Mouwda, the former leader of salafist party, Asalah, explained the party's objections: "The convention has been tailored by our enemies, God kill them all, to serve their needs and protect their interests rather than ours. This why we have eyes from the American Embassy watching us during our sessions, to ensure things are swinging their way" [47]. UN redirects here. ... Sheikh Adel Al Mouwda was the second deputy chairman of Bahrains parliament of 2002, the Chamber of Deputies, and the former leader of salafist party, Asalah. ... A Salafi (Arabic سلفي lit. ... Asalah is the main Salafist party in Bahrain, and after 2002s general election is one of the most well represented in the Kingdoms parliament with seven MPs. ...


Both Sunnī and Shī'a Islamists suffered a setback in March 2006 when 20 municipal councillors, most of whom represented religious parties, went missing in Bangkok on an unscheduled stopover when returning from a conference in Malaysia[48]. After the missing councillors eventually arrived in Bahrain they defended their stay at the Radisson Hotel in Bangkok, telling journalists it was a "fact-finding mission", and explaining: "We benefited a lot from the trip to Thailand because we saw how they managed their transport, landscaping and roads." [49]


Bahraini liberals have responded to the growing power of religious parties by organizing themselves to campaign through civil society in order to defend basic personal freedoms from being legislated away. In November 2005, al Muntada, a grouping of liberal academics, launched "We Have A Right", a campaign to explain to the public why personal freedoms matter and why they need to be defended. Political parties from the former Communist Left to the Islamist Right sit in parliament in Bahrain, but are known technically as Political Associations or Blocs. ... Al Muntada (or The Forum) is a Bahrain society set up by academics, journalists and businessmen to promote liberalism in the Kingdom. ... We Have A Right is a political campaign launched to protect personal freedoms in Bahrain by the society of liberal intellectuals, Al Muntada, on 22 November 2005. ...


Women's political rights in Bahrain saw an important step forward when women were granted the right to vote and stand in national elections for the first time in the 2002 election. However, no women were elected to office in that year’s polls and instead Shī'a and Sunnī Islamists dominated the election, collectively winning a majority of seats. In response to the failure of women candidates, six were appointed to the Shura Council, which also includes representatives of the Kingdom’s indigenous Jewish and Christian communities. The country's first female cabinet minister was appointed in 2004 when Dr. Nada Haffadh became Minister of Health, while the quasi-governmental women's group, the Supreme Council for Women, trained female candidates to take part in the 2006 general election. When Bahrain was elected to head the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 it appointed lawyer and women's rights activist Haya bint Rashid Al Khalifa as the President of the United Nations General Assembly [50], only the third woman in history to head the world body[51]. Women’s political rights have been a cornerstone of the political reforms initiated by King Hamad with for the first time women being given the right to vote and stand as candidates in national elections after the constitution was amended in 2002. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Supreme Council for Women is Bahrain’s advisory body to the government on womens issues. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... Haya Rashed Al-Khalifa will be the President of the 61st United Nations General Assembly when it opens on September 12, 2006. ... The President of the United Nations General Assembly is a position voted for by representatives in the United Nations General Assembly on a yearly basis. ...


The king recently created the Supreme Judicial Council[52] to regulate the country's courts and institutionalize the separation of the administrative and judicial branches of government[53]; the leader of this court is Mohammed Humaidan.


On 11–12 November 2005, Bahrain hosted the Forum for the Future bringing together leaders from the Middle East and G8 countries to discuss political and economic reform in the region. [54] The Forum for the Future in Bahrain on 11-12 November 2005 brought together the leaders of states of the Middle East, industrialised countries of the Group of Eight (G8) and other partners to promote political, economic and social reform in the region. ...


The near total dominance of religious parties in elections has given a new prominence to clerics within the political system, with the most senior Shia religious leader, Sheikh Isa Qassim, playing what’s regarded as an extremely important role; according to one academic paper, “In fact, it seems that few decisions can be arrived at in Al Wefaq – and in the whole country, for that matter – without prior consultation with Isa Qassim, ranging from questions with regard to the planned codification of the personal status law to participation in elections.”[55] Al Wefaq National Islamic Society is Bahrains most largest political society. ...


In 2007, Al Wefaq-backed parliamentary investigations are credited with forcing the government to remove ministers who had frequently clashed with MPs: the Minister of Health, Dr Nada Haffadh (who was also Bahrain’s first ever female cabinet minister) and the Minister of Information, Dr Mohammed Abdul Gaffar[56]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Governorates

Governorates of Bahrain
Governorates of Bahrain

Bahrain is split into five governorates. Until July 3, 2002, it was divided into twelve municipalities; see Municipalities of Bahrain. The governorates are: The Kingdom of Bahrain, or Bahrain, is a borderless country in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia). ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Bahrain was split into twelve municipalities that were all administered from the capital city of Manama. ...

  1. Capital
  2. Central
  3. Muharraq
  4. Northern
  5. Southern

For further information, see Decree-Law establishing governoratesPDF (732 KiB) from the Bahrain official website. Categories: Middle East geography stubs ... Categories: Middle East geography stubs ... Categories: Middle East geography stubs ... Categories: Middle East geography stubs ... Categories: Middle East geography stubs ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Cities, towns and villages

Among Bahrain's cities and towns are:

Bahrain's many small towns and villages include: Manama (Arabic: Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is situated on the Persian Gulf, in the northeast of Bahrain Island. ... Categories: Geography stubs | Bahrain ... Madinat Hamad (Arabic: مدينة حمد) is a city in northern Bahrain. ... Riffa is an area in the Kingdom of Bahrain. ... Jidhafs (Arabic: جدحفص) is an area in the Kingdom of Bahrain. ... Categories: Middle East geography stubs ...

  • Galali
  • Janabiyah
  • Jannusan
  • Jaw
  • Jeblat Hibshi
  • Jid Alhaj
  • Jid Ali

Abu Saiba is a village in the north of Bahrain. ... Diraz (Arabic: الدراز) is a village on the north east coast of Bahrain. ... Awali is a small municipality located approximately in the centre of the Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island in the Persian Gulf. ... A View of Budaiya Beach Al Budaiya (Arabic: البديع) is a coastal town located in the Northern Governorate of the Kindgdom of Bahrain. ... Busaiteen is a Bahraini football club based in Busaiteen. ... Karrana (Arabic: كرانة) is a village in Bahrain, an island country in the Persian Gulf. ... Maameer is an industrial area in the island-kingdom of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf. ... Sanad is a small place in Bahrain. ... Al Zallaq (Arabic: الزلاق) is a place in the southern part of Bahrain. ...

Economy

Main article: Economy of Bahrain

In a region experiencing an oil boom, Bahrain has the fastest growing economy in the Arab world, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia found in January 2006[57]. Bahrain also has the freest economy in the Middle East according to the 2006 Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal, and is twenty-fifth freest overall in the world[58]. In 2008, Bahrain was named the world’s fastest growing financial centre by the City of London’s Global Financial Centres Index[59][60]. According to the 2006 Index of Economic Freedom published by the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal, Bahrain has the most free economy in the Middle East and is twenty-fifth overall in the world. ... The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (UNESCWA or ESCWA) was established in 1973 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Western Asia) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


In Bahrain, petroleum production and processing account for about 60% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 30% of GDP. Economic conditions have fluctuated with the changing fortunes of oil since 1985, for example, during and following the Gulf crisis of 1990-91. With its highly developed communication and transport facilities, Bahrain is home to multinational firms. A large share of exports consists of petroleum products made from imported crude oil. Construction proceeds on several major industrial projects. Unemployment, especially among the young, and the depletion of both oil and underground water resources are major long-term economic problems. Gulf can refer to: A gulf or bay is a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides. ...


In 2004, Bahrain signed the US-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement, which will reduce certain barriers to trade between the two nations[61]. The U.S.-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was signed September 14, 2004. ...


Bahrain in 2007 became the first Arab country to institute unemployment benefit as part of a series of labour reforms instigated under Minister of Labour, Dr. Majeed Al Alawi[62] Unemployment benefits are payments made by governments to unemployed people. ...


Geography

Map of Bahrain.
Map of Bahrain.
Main article: Geography of Bahrain

Bahrain is a generally flat and arid archipelago, consisting of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment, in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia. The highest point is the 122 m Jabal ad Dukhan. Map of Bahrain. ... Map of Bahrain. ... Map of Bahrain Bahrain (from the Arabic word for two seas) comprises an archipelago of thirty-three islands situated midway in the Persian Gulf close to the shore of the Arabian Peninsula. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Bahrain has a total area of 665 km² (266 mi²), which is slightly larger than the Isle of Man, though it is smaller than the nearby King Fahd International Airport near Dammam, Saudi Arabia (780 km² or 301 mi²). As an archipelago of thirty-three islands, Bahrain does not share a land boundary with another country but does have a 161-kilometre (100 mi) coastline and claims a further twelve nautical miles (22 km) of territorial sea and a twenty-four nautical mile (44 km) contiguous zone. Bahrain has mild winters and very hot, humid summers. Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... King Fahd International Airport (Arabic: مطار الملك فهد الدولي) (IATA: DMM, ICAO: OEDF) is located near Qatif, Saudi Arabia. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... The territorial waters are sea waters of a littoral state that are regarded as under jurisdiction of the state: commonly, those waters measured from the shoreline of a sovereign state where the laws of that state are applicable. ... Territorial waters, or a territorial sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending 12 twelve nautical miles from the shore of a littoral state that is regarded as the sovereign territory of the state, except that foreign ships (both military and civilian) are allowed innocent passage through it. ...


Bahrain's natural resources include large quantities of oil and natural gas as well as fish stocks. Arable land constitutes only 2.82%[63] of the total area. Desert constitutes 92% of Bahrain and periodic droughts and dust storms are the main natural hazards for Bahrainis.


Environmental issues facing Bahrain include desertification resulting from the degradation of limited arable land and coastal degradation (damage to coastlines, coral reefs, and sea vegetation) resulting from oil spills and other discharges from large tankers, oil refineries, and distribution stations. The agricultural and domestic sectors' over-utilization of the Dammam Aquifer, the principle aquifer in Bahrain, has led to its salinization by adjacent brackish and saline water bodies.


Demographics

Bahrain from space
Bahrain from space
Ethnic, Cultural and Religious Groups of Bahrain

The official religion of Bahrain is Islam, which the majority of the population practices. However, due to an influx of immigrants and guest workers from non-Muslim countries, such as India, Philippines and Sri Lanka [64], the overall percentage of Muslims in the country has declined in recent years. According to the 2001 census, 80% of Bahrain's population was Muslim, 10% were Christian, and 10% practiced other religions. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2606x2611, 881 KB) Astronauts photograph of Bahrain. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2606x2611, 881 KB) Astronauts photograph of Bahrain. ... Demographics of Bahrain, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Bahrain is located in the Arabian Gulf, in a strategical position in relation to the Eastern Coast of the Arabian Peninsula, Persia, Iraq and Oman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


There are no official figures for the proportion of Shia and Sunni among the Muslims of Bahrain. Unofficial sources, such as the Library of Congress Country Studies[65], BBC[66], and the New York Times[67], estimate it to be approximately 45% Sunni and 55% Shia. The last official census (in 1941) which included sectarian identification reported 53% as Shia. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...


Bahrain has transformed into a cosmopolitan society with mixed communities: two thirds of Bahrain's population consists of Arabs. A Large contingency of people of Iranian descent as well as immigrants and guest workers from, South Asia and Southeast Asia are present. A Financial Times published on 31 May 1983 found that "Bahrain is a polyglot state, both religiously and racially. Leaving aside the temporary immigrants of the past ten years, there are at least eight or nine communities on the island." Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Bilingual redirects here. ...


The present communities may be classified as:

  • Tribals - Sunni Arab bedouin tribes allied to the Al-Khalifa including the Utoob tribes, Dawasir, Al Nuaim, Al Mannai etc
  • Baharna - indigenous Shia ethnic group
  • Howala - descendants of Sunni Arabs who migrated to Persia and returned later on[68][69]
  • Ajam - ethnic Persian Shia;
  • Najdis (also called Hadhar), non-tribal urban Sunni Arabs from Najd in central Arabia. These are families whose ancestors were pearl divers, traders, etc. An example is the Al Gosaibi family.
  • Banyan - Indians who traded with Bahrain and settled before the age of oil (formerly known as the Hunood or Banyan, Arabic: البونيان);
  • Afro-Arabs - Descendants of black African slaves from East Africa
  • Bahraini Jews - a tiny Jewish community; and a miscellaneous grouping.

A Bedouin man in Sinai Peninsula The Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), pl. ... The Al Khalifa (Arabic: آل خليفة) dynasty is the ruling family of Bahrain. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... The Baharna (Arabic: ‎ } are the indigenous inhabitants of the villages and some of the coastal shores of the archipelago of Bahrain and the cities of Qatif and Al-Hasa on the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia (see historical region of Bahrain). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ajam (Arabic: ) are a community of Bahraini Persians in Bahrain. ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... Najd or Nejd (Arabic: Naǧd) is a region in central Saudi Arabia and the location of the nations capital, Riyadh. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Majed Abdullah Afro-Arab refers to a people identified as having mixed African and Arab origins, and whose native language is Arabic. ... Bahraini Jews constitute another one of the worlds oldest, and todays smallest, Jewish communities. ...

Culture

Main article: Culture of Bahrain

Bahrain is sometimes described as the "Middle East lite"[70] a country that mixes modern infrastructure with a Gulf identity, but unlike other countries in the region its prosperity is not solely a reflection of the size of its oil wealth, but also related to the creation of an indigenous middle class. This unique socioeconomic development in the Persian Gulf has meant that Bahrain is generally more liberal than its neighbours. While Islam is the main religion, Bahrainis have been known for their tolerance, and alongside mosques can be found churches, a Hindu temple, a Sikh Gurdwara and a Jewish synagogue. The country is home to several communities that have faced persecution elsewhere. // Bahraini womans traditional dress on display at Bahrain National Museum A tobacco merchant in the traditional Manama Souq Nearly five-sevenths of the population is Arab, and most are native-born Bahrainis, but some are Palestinians, Omanis, or Saudis. ... The Gopuram of temples, in south India, are adorned with icons depicting a particular story surrounding the temples deity. ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... The synagogue Scolanova Trani in Italy. ...

A 123 meter-high fountain off the coast of Manama. The mechanism is contained in a barge, anchored to the seabed.
A 123 meter-high fountain off the coast of Manama. The mechanism is contained in a barge, anchored to the seabed.[71]
Bahrain Grand Mosque.
Bahrain Grand Mosque.

It is too early to say whether political liberalisation under King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa has augmented or undermined Bahrain's traditional pluralism. The new political space for Shia and Sunni Islamists has meant that they are now in a much stronger position to pursue programmes that often seek to directly confront this pluralism, yet at the same time political reforms have encouraged an opposite trend for society to become more self critical with a greater willingness in general to examine previous social taboos. It is now common to find public seminars on once unheard of subjects such as marital problems and sex[72] and child abuse[73]. Another facet of the new openness is Bahrain's status as the most prolific book publisher in the Arab world, with 132 books published in 2005 for a population of 700,000. In comparison, the average for the entire Arab world is seven books published per one million people in 2005, according to the United Nations Development Programme. [74] Bahrain from space, June 1996 Manama (Arabic: المنامة Al-Manāmah) is the capital city of Bahrain and is the countrys largest city with a population of approximately 155,000, roughly a quarter of countrys entire population. ... Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifah (Arabic: حمد بن عيسى آل خليفة) (born January 28, 1950 in Ar-Rifa, Bahrain) is the current King of Bahrain (from 2002), having previously been its Emir (since 1999). ...


Ali Bahar is the most famous singer in Bahrain. He performs his music with his Band Al-Ekhwa (The Brothers). Ali Bahar is a famous musician from Bahrain. ...


On October 20, 2005, it was reported that Michael Jackson intended to leave the United States permanently in order to seek a new life in Bahrain. Jackson has reportedly told friends that he feels "increasingly Bahraini"[75]after buying a former PM's mansion in Sanad, and is now seeking another property by the seashore. Jackson reportedly moved to Las Vegas, Nevada, in 2006. Other celebrities associated with the Kingdom include singer Shakira and Grand Prix driver Jenson Button, who owns property there. is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Michael Jackson, see Michael Jackson (disambiguation). ... Sanad is a small place in Bahrain. ... This article is about the musician. ... Jenson Alexander Lyons Button, often called Jense, (born 19 January 1980) is an English Formula One racing driver. ...


In Manama lies the new district of Juffair, predominantly built on reclaimed land. This is the location of the U.S. Naval Support Activity. The concentration of restaurants, bars and nightlife make this area a magnet for U.S. service members and Saudi weekend visitors.


Language

Arabic is the official language of Bahrain, though English is widely used. Another language spoken by some of the local inhabitants of Bahrain is a dialect of Persian which has been heavily influenced by Arabic. Amongst the domestic workers, housemaids and construction workers, Hindi, Malayalam and Tagalog are widely spoken. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Tagalog (pronunciation: ) is one of the major languages of the Republic of the Philippines. ...


Formula One and other motorsports events

Bahrain has a Formula One race-track, hosting the Gulf Air Grand Prix on 4 April 2004, the first for an Arab country. The race was won by Michael Schumacher of Scuderia Ferrari. This was followed by the Bahrain Grand Prix in 2005. Bahrain has successfully hosted the opening Grand Prix of the 2006 season on 12 March. Both the above races were won by Fernando Alonso of Renault. The 2007 event took place on April 13th, 14th and 15th resulting in victory of Ferrari's Felipe Massa[76]. On Sunday, April 6th, 2008, Ferrari's Felipe Massa once again took the Bahrain Grand Prix victory, with BMW Sauber's Robert Kubica being the first Polish driver on pole position, and BMW's first pole as well. F1 redirects here. ... Gulf Air (Arabic: ) is the flag carrier of the Kingdom of Bahrain. ... The following is a complete list of Grands Prix which have been a part of the FIA World Championship since its inception in 1950. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scuderia Ferrari is the name for the Gestione Sportiva, the division of the Ferrari automobile company concerned with racing. ... The Bahrain Grand Prix (Arabic: جائزة البحرين الكبرى) is a Formula One Championship race which first took place at the Bahrain International Circuit on April 4, 2004. ...


In 2006, Bahrain also hosted its inaugural Australian V8 Supercar event dubbed the "Desert 400". The V8s will return every November to the Sakhir circuit. The inaugural round was won by Ford Performance Racing's Jason Bright. V8 Supercars is a touring car racing category. ... The Bahrain International Circuit was the venue for the inaugural Bahrain Grand Prix in 2004. ...


The Bahrain International Circuit also features a full length drag strip, and the Bahrain Drag Racing Club has organised invitational events featuring some of Europe's top drag racing teams [77] to try and raise the profile of the sport in the Middle East. There has been much speculation about Bahrain hosting a round of the FIA European Drag Racing Championship, but as yet this has not come to fruition due to problems with the track gaining the necessary licence [78]. The Bahrain International Circuit (Arabic: حلبة البحرين الدولية) is a venue used for drag racing, GP2, and an annual Formula One Grand Prix. ... Top Fuel dragster Drag racing is a sport in which cars race down a track with a set distance as fast as possible. ...


Holidays

Date English name Local name
January 1 New Year's Day رأس السنة الميلادية
May 1 Labour Day عيد العمال
December 16 National Day العيد الوطني
December 17 Accession Day عيد الجلوس
10th Zilhajjah Feast of the Sacrifice (4 days)[79] Eid ul-Adha Commemorates Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son Ismial; occurs at the 10th day of the month of hajj. i.e. the month of Dhu al-Hijjah
1st Shawal Little Feast (3 days) Eid ul-Fitr Commemorates end of Ramadan
1st Moharram Hijri New Year Muharram Islamic New Year
9th & 10th Moharram Ashura Day Muharram
Last days of Ramadan Al-Isra' wa ul-Miraj Lailat_al_Miraj Commemorates Muhammad's journey to the Heavens
27th Rajab Al-Isra' wa ul-Miraj Rajab Non Salafi Sunni celebrate Mi'raj i.e. the day Muhammad is alleged to have ascended to heaven
12th Rabiul Awal Prophet Muhammad's birthday Mawlid al-Nabi
9th-10th Moharram Ashoura (2 days) Commemorates the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala

On 1 September 2006 Bahrain changed its weekend from being Thursdays and Fridays to Fridays and Saturdays, in order to have a day of the weekend shared with the rest of the world. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the date January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah, but a voice from heaven allows Ibrahim to sacrifice a goat instead. ... Ibrahim (Arabic: ابراهيم), also known as Abraham, is very important in Islam, both in his own right as prophet and as the father of the prophet Ismail (Ishmael), his firstborn son, who is considered the Father of the Arabs. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Eid ul-Fitr or Id-Ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر ‘Īdu l-Fiá¹­r), often abbreviated to Eid, is a Muslim holiday that marks the end of Ramadan, the holy month of fasting. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... Muharram (Arabic: محرم ) is the first month of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about religious observances during the month of Ramadan. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Rajab (Arabic: ) is the seventh month of the Islamic calendar. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A 16th century Persian miniature painting celebrating Muhammads ascent into the Heavens, a journey known as the Miraj. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Day of Aashurah, sometimes spelled ‘Ashurah or Aashoorah, falls on the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Military

The kingdom has a small but well equipped military called the Bahrain Defense Force. They have a cooperative agreement with the United States Military and have provided the United States a base in Juffair since the early 1990s. This is the home of the United States Navy Central Command (COMUSNAVCENT) and about 1500 U.S. and coalition military [80]. Under Bahrains Ministry of Defense, the Defense Force (BDF) numbers about 9,000 personnel and consists of army, navy, air force, air defense, and Amiri guard units. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... A View of Al Fateh Grand Mosque Juffair is in Manama, Bahrain and is a more recent development after 1970 in Bahrain. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Bahrain
See also: Boy Scouts of Bahrain

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Quranic schools (Kuttab) were the only form of education in Bahrain. They were traditional schools aimed at teaching children and youth the reading of the Qur'an. After the First World War, Bahrain became open to western influences and a demand for modern educational institutions appeared. Membership badge of the Boy Scouts of Bahrain The Boy Scouts of Bahrain, the national Scouting organization of Bahrain, was founded in 1953, and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1970. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


1919 marked the beginning of modern public school system in Bahrain when Al-Hidaya Al-Khalifia School for boys was opened in Muharraq. In 1926, the Education Committee opened the second public school for boys in Manama and in 1928 the first public school for girls was opened in Muharraq.


In 2004 King Hamad bin Isa Al-Khalifa introduced a project that uses information communication technology (ICT) to support K–12 education in Bahrain. This project is named King Hamad Schools of Future. The objective of this project is to connect and link all schools within the kingdom with the internet.


In addition to British intermediate schools, the island is served by the Bahrain School (BS). The BS is a United States Department of Defense school that provides a K-12 curriculum including International Baccalaureate offerings. Bahrain School is an international school located in Juffair, Bahrain following the American curriculum. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into International Baccalaureate Organization. ...


Private schools also exist that offer either the IB Diploma Programme or UK A-Levels. In 2007, St Christopher's School Bahrain became the first school in Bahrain to offer a choice of IB or A-Levels for students. The British School of Bahrain was listed by The Times newspaper as being one of the top 10 schools outside the United Kingdom. The International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma Programme (DP) is an educational programme examined in one of three languages (English, French or Spanish) and is a leading university entrance course. ... An A-level, short for Advanced Level, is a General Certificate of Education usually taken during Further Education and after GCSEs. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


Numerous international educational institutions and schools have established links to Bahrain. A few prominent institutions are DePaul University, Bentley College, and NYIT. DePaul University[1] is a private institution of higher education and research in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Founded by the Vincentians in 1898, the university takes its name from the 17th century French priest who valued philanthropy, Saint Vincent de Paul. ... Bentley College is located at 175 Forest Street in Waltham, Massachusetts, 10 miles west of Boston. ... The New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) is a private, co-educational college in New York in the USA. The college has three campuses, two on Long Island, and one in New York City. ...

See also: List of universities in Bahrain

Schooling is paid for by the government, and, although not compulsory, primary and secondary attendance rates are high. Bahrain also encourages institutions of higher learning, drawing on expatriate talent and the increasing pool of Bahrain Nationals returning from abroad with advanced degrees. The University of Bahrain has been established for standard undergraduate and graduate study, and the College of Health Sciences – operating under the direction of the Ministry of Health – trains physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and paramedics. The national action charter, passed in 2001, paved the way for the formation of private universities. The first private university was Ahlia University, situated in Manama. The University of London External has appointed MCG as the regional representative office in Bahrain for distance learning programs. MCG is one of the oldest private institutes in the country. The University of Bahrain was founded in 1986. ...


Asian institutes have also been opened which educate to Asian students, such as the Pakistan Urdu School. The Indian School, Bahrain and the New Indian School, Bahrain is an Indian institution for children whose parents are expatriates in Bahrain from India. Indian School Bahrain - Isa Town Campus Founded in the year 1950, The Indian School, Bahrain was initiated by a small group of people with a committed workforce of three staff and a Headmistress and have completed fifty years of successful existence making significant contribution towards the cause of education. ...


Tourism

Al Bander Resort in Bahrain.
Al Bander Resort in Bahrain.
Main article: Tourism in Bahrain

Bahrain is a popular tourist destination with over eight million tourists a year. Most of the visitors are from the surrounding Arab states but there is an increasing number of tourists from outside the region thanks to a growing awareness of the kingdom’s heritage and its higher profile with regards to the Bahrain Formula One Race Track. Image File history File linksMetadata Al_Bander_Resort. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Al_Bander_Resort. ... Bahrain is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the Middle East with over two million tourists a year. ... The Bahrain Grand Prix (Arabic: جائزة البحرين الكبرى) is a Formula One Championship race which first took place at the Bahrain International Circuit on April 4, 2004. ...


The Lonely Planet describes Bahrain as "an excellent introduction to the Persian Gulf"[81] because of its authentic Arab heritage and reputation as relatively liberal and modern. The kingdom combines Arab culture, Gulf glitz and the archaeological legacy of five thousand years of civilization. The island is home to castles including Qalat Al Bahrain which has been listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site Lonely Planet logo Lonely Planet Publications (usually known as Lonely Planet or LP for short) claims to be the largest independently owned travel guidebook publisher in the world. ... Qalat al–Bahrain (also known as the Bahrain Fort or Portugese fort) is an archaeological site and historic fort located in Bahrain. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


The Bahrain National Museum has artifacts from the country's history dating back to the island's first human inhabitation 9000 years ago. Since 1988 a rich collection of Bahrains ancient archaeological artifacts have been on display at the purpose-built Bahrain National Museum. ...


Some of the major projects underway are Durrat Al Bahrain, Amwaj Islands, Bahrain Bay, Financial Harbour, Areen Resort and Spa, Bahrain City Center, Bahrain Bay, Salam Resort Bahrain, Reef Island, Bahrain Health Island, Diyaar Al Muharraq, Bahrain International Circuit, Riffa Views, Marina West, Al Jazir Beach, World Trade Center and Abraj Lulu, and the new Iceberg Tower (which is a ski resort) to be opened in 2009.



Bahrain Offical Tourist Website

Bahrain Economic Development'


See also

The Bahrain Grand Prix (Arabic: جائزة البحرين الكبرى) is a Formula One Championship race which first took place at the Bahrain International Circuit on April 4, 2004. ...

External links

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References

  1. ^ Embassy of the Kingdom of Bahrain to the United States
  2. ^ CIA World Factbook, "Bahrain" [1]
  3. ^ " Bahrain ." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 16 2008 [2]
  4. ^ Danes behind the world's longest fixed link COWI, 25 September 2001
  5. ^ History of Bahrain History of Nations website
  6. ^ Bahrain Gateway Published by the Economic Representative of Bahrain to the United States of America, 2007
  7. ^ Curtis E. Larsen. Life and Land Use on the Bahrain Islands: The Geoarchaeology of an Ancient Society University Of Chicago Press, 1984
  8. ^ Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007
  9. ^ Smith, G.R. "Uyūnids." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 16 March 2008 [3]
  10. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 15 March 2008 [4]
  11. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2. (May, 1987), pp. 177-203, at p. 179, through JSTOR. [5]
  12. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Baḥrayn."
  13. ^ Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn."
  14. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", p. 186, through JSTOR. [6]
  15. ^ Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn."
  16. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", p. 187
  17. ^ X. De Planhol, "Bahrain", Encyclopedia Iranica (online version) [7]
  18. ^ X. De Planhol
  19. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", p. 194
  20. ^ J. A. Kechichian, "Bahrain", Encyclopedia Iranica (online version) [8]
  21. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", p. 194
  22. ^ Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn."
  23. ^ J. A. Kechichian, "Bahrain", Encyclopedia Iranica (online version) [9]
  24. ^ Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War, IB Tauris, 2007
  25. ^ Burrell, R.M. "al- Manāma." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 11 April 2008 [10]
  26. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Dawāsir." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman ، Th. Bianquis ، C.E. Bosworth ، E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 19 December 2007 [11]
  27. ^ Alexei Vassiliev, The History of Saudi Arabia, London, UK: Al Saqi Books, 1998, p. 91.
  28. ^ Vassiliev, p. 186
  29. ^ Vassiliev, p. 107
  30. ^ Vassiliev, p. 186
  31. ^ J. A. Kechichian
  32. ^ Juan R. I. Cole, "Rival Empires of Trade and Imami Shiism in Eastern Arabia, 1300-1800", p. 199
  33. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Dawāsir."
  34. ^ Belgrave of Bahrain: The Life of Charles Dalrymple Belgrave, Emirates Natural History Group, 2007
  35. ^ The Uncontrollable Genie Time Magazine, 27 August 1956
  36. ^ Bahrain Timeline BBC
  37. ^ Bahrain Profile National Post 7 April 2007
  38. ^ Stay just over the horizon this time, Time Magazine, 25 October 1982
  39. ^ Rebellion in Bahrain, Middle East Review of International Affairs, March 1999
  40. ^ Bahrain: Promising Human Rights Reforms Must Continue, Amnesty International, 13 March 2001
  41. ^ http://www.tradearabia.com/tanews/newsdetails_snLAW_article116035_cnt.html
  42. ^ Islamists hail huge election victory, Gulf News, 27 November 2006
  43. ^ Mannequins ban councillor up in arms Gulf Daily News, April 11 2005
  44. ^ Drying underwear in public 'offensive', Gulf Daily News, 11 March 2005
  45. ^ Peeping clamp Gulf Daily News, 24 January 2006
  46. ^ The International Convention on Civil and Political Rights Human Rights Web
  47. ^ Rights push by Bahrain, Gulf Daily News, 14 June 2006
  48. ^ Councillors 'missing' in Bangkok, Gulf Daily News, 15 March 2006
  49. ^ Councillors face the music after Bangkok jaunt, Gulf Daily News (via Bahrain.tv) 16 March 2006
  50. ^ Bahraini woman becomes UN General Assembly president. Zee News. June 8, 2006
  51. ^ 'UN General Assembly to be headed by its third-ever woman president', United Nations, June 8, 2006
  52. ^ Bahrain Law on Judicial Authority Published by the Arab Judicial Forum 15-17 September 2003
  53. ^ Bahrain sets up institute to train judges and prosecutors Gulf News, 15 November 2005
  54. ^ Forum for the Future Factsheet US State Department, 2005
  55. ^ Voices in Parliament, Debates in Majalis, Banners on the Street: Avenues of Political Participation in Bahrain, Katja Niethammar, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute, 2006
  56. ^ Bahrain ministries' probe to continue Gulf News, 25 September 2007
  57. ^ Bahrain expected to bustle Arabian Business, 1 February 2007
  58. ^ Bahrain Index of Economic Freedom, Heritage Foundation
  59. ^ Hedge Funds Review 18 March 2008
  60. ^ http://www.gulf-daily-news.com/Story.asp?Article=211833&Sn=BNEW&IssueID=30364 Gulf Daily News] 18 March 2008
  61. ^ Bahrain Timeline BBC
  62. ^ Minister lashes out at parties opposed to unemployment benefit scheme Gulf News, 22 June 2007
  63. ^ CIA World Factbook - Bahrain, CIA, 2005
  64. ^ Bahrain's crown prince to visit India Overseas Indian, 8 March 2007
  65. ^ Bahrain Country Study Library of Congress
  66. ^ Young in the Arab world: Bahrain, BBC, 25 February 2005
  67. ^ In Tiny Arab state, web takes on ruling elite New York Times, 15 January 2006
  68. ^ Rentz, "al- Baḥrayn.": "A good number of the Sunnīs of Baḥrayn are Arabs or the descendants of Arabs onze resident on the Persian coast; such are known as Huwala."
  69. ^ Rentz, G. "al- Kawāsim." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman , Th. Bianquis , C.E. Bosworth , E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2008. Brill Online. 15 March 2008 [12]
  70. ^ Bahrain Profile National Post 7 April 2007
  71. ^ Fountain is new coastal landmark—Gult Daily News
  72. ^ Scholarly 'lacking sexual awareness' Gulf Daily News, 22 January 2006
  73. ^ Gulf Daily News
  74. ^ Bahrain tops publishing sector among Arab states Gulf News, 4 January 2006
  75. ^ Jackson settles down to his new life in the Gulf Gulf News, 23 January 2006
  76. ^ Bahrain International Circuit
  77. ^ Eurodragster.com
  78. ^ Eurodragster.com
  79. ^ Also known as the Big Feast
  80. ^ United States Navy Central Command web site
  81. ^ Bahrain, Destination Guide Lonely Planet

Coordinates: 26°01′39″N, 50°33′00″E Portugal was the leading country in the European exploration of the world in the 15th century. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bahrain (03/07) (4097 words)
Bahrain is one of the most densely populated countries in the world; about 89% of the population lives in the two principal cities of Manama and Al Muharraq.
Bahrain is a regional financial and business center; international financial institutions operate in Bahrain, both offshore and onshore, without impediments, and the financial sector is currently the largest contributor to GDP at 27.6%.
Bahrain is the headquarters of the U.S. Navy's Fifth Fleet.
Bahrain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3207 words)
Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: مملكة البحرين), is a borderless island nation in the Persian Gulf (Southwest Asia/Middle East, Asia).
Bahrain is an Arabic word meaning "Two Seas", and is thought to either refer to the fact that the islands contain two sources of water, sweet water springs and salty water in the surrounding seas, or to the south and north waters of the Persian Gulf, separating it from the Arabian coast and Iran, respectively.
Bahrain is a generally flat and arid archipelago, comprising of a low desert plain rising gently to a low central escarpment, in the Persian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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