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Encyclopedia > Bahasa Indonesia language
Indonesian
Bahasa Indonesia
Spoken in: Indonesia, East Timor 
Region: Indonesia, Malaysia, East Timor
Total speakers: 200 million+ total 
Ranking: 8
Language family: Austronesian
 Malayo-Polynesian
  Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian
   Sunda-Sulawesi
    Malayic
     Malayan
      Local Malay
       Indonesian 
Official status
Official language of: Indonesia
Regulated by: Pusat Bahasa
Language codes
ISO 639-1: id
ISO 639-2: ind
ISO 639-3: ind

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. Indonesian is a standardized dialect of the Malay language that was officially defined with the declaration of Indonesia's independence in 1945. Malaysian and Indonesian languages remain quite similar. The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages are a branch of the Austronesian family that are thought to have dispersed from a possible homeland in Sulawesi. ... The Sunda-Sulawesi languages (or Inner Hesperonesian or Inner Western Malayo-Polynesian languages) are a branch of the Austronesian family which include the languages of Sulawesi and the Greater Sunda Islands, as well as a few outliers such as Charmorro and Palauan, as outlined in Wouk and Ross (2002). ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu or Bahasa Malaysia, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... The Pusat Bahasa (Indonesian for Language Center) is the institution responsible for designing and regulating the growth of the Indonesian language in Indonesia. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ...


Indonesia is the fourth most populous nations in the world. Of its large population the number of people who fluently speak Indonesian is fast approaching 100%, thus making Indonesian one of the most widely spoken languages in the world [1] Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are often fluent in another regional language/local dialect (examples include Minangkabau, Sundanese and Javanese) which are commonly used at home and within their local community. Most formal education, as well as nearly all national media and other forms of communication, are conducted in Indonesian. In East Timor, formerly part of Indonesia, the Indonesian language is recognized by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other is English, alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese). Minangkabau language is the spoken language of Minangkabau people from West Sumatra. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27,000,000 people from the western third of Java or about 15% of Indonesian population. ... The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Tetum (also written as Tetun) is an Austronesian language, and one of its forms, Tetum- Praca, is one of the national languages of East Timor. ...


The Indonesian name for the language is Bahasa Indonesia (literally language of Indonesia); this name is sometimes used in English as well. The language is sometimes referred to as "Bahasa" by English-speakers, though this simply means "language" and thus is not an official term for the Indonesian language. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

Linguistics

At a basic level, Indonesian is often considered one of the easiest languages to learn for adult foreigners. This is largely due to its relatively unsophisticated and regular grammar, as well as phonology. [2]. To a certain degree, Indonesian can be regarded as an open language. Over the years, foreign languages such as Sanskrit, Chinese, Arabic, Portuguese, Dutch and English have enriched and expanded the Indonesian, mostly through trade contacts and international media. Because of its open status, there are those who regard Indonesian (as well as Malaysian and other forms of Malay) as being 'soulless' and lacking in sufficient vocabularly and special terminologies. On the other hand, some linguists consider this view to be a fallacy or common misconception. [3] The openness of the Indonesian language is not an indication of soullessness nor a lack of native terms as most adopted words do have native equivalents. For example, the word asimilasi (from the English word "assimilation") can also be communicated in its native form penggabungan. Many aspects of Indonesian grammar are relatively simple to grasp, particularly in comparison to languages such as English. This is mostly due to the fact that Indonesian does not recognize verb tenses, plural forms, articles and gender distinction for the third person pronouns. However, neither do many other languages traditionally regarded as 'complex', including Chinese (see Chinese grammar). Generally, Indonesian (and Malay) are regarded as the easiest Asian languages to learn. This notion is often associated with the fact that Indonesian and Malay no longer employ the use of complex characters within their writing system (but rather utilize the Latin alphabet). Similar cases can also be seen in other Southeast Asian languages such as Vietnamese and Tagalog. In addition, the simplicity of Indonesian grammar at a beginners/basic level also has the disadvantage of misleading many learners of Indonesian into thinking that more advanced Indonesian grammar is just as simple. [4] The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... 中文語法/中文语法 Zhōngwén yǔfǎ (Chinese grammar) This article or section uses Ruby annotation. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Filipino (formerly called Pilipino) is the national language and one of the official languages of the Philippines—the other one being English—as designated in the 1987 Philippine Constitution. ...


History

Indonesian is a normative form of the Malay language, an Austronesian (or Malayo-Polynesian) language which had been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for centuries, and was elevated to the status of official language with the Indonesian declaration of independence in 1945, drawing inspiration from the Sumpah Pemuda (Youth's Oath) event in 1928. Because of its origins, Indonesian (in its most standard form) is mutually intelligible with the official Malaysian form of Malay. However it does differ from Malaysian in some aspects, with differences in pronunciation and vocabulary. These differences are mainly due to the Dutch and Javanese influences on Indonesian. The Malay language, also known locally as Bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Sumpah Pemuda, or Youth Pledge, was a promise given by Pemuda Indonesia, the Indonesian Youth Nationallists, stating: Satu Tanah Air-Indonesia Satu Bangsa-Orang Indonesia Satu Bahasa-Bahasa Indonesia This Youth Pledge, utterly importent at the time, became policy after Sukarno declared independance in 1945. ... The differences between Malay (Bahasa Melayu) and Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) are slightly greater than those between British English and American English. ...


Whilst Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue (first language) by only a small proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who reside within the vicinity of Jakarta), cumulatively, well over 200 million people speak the national language - some with varying degrees of proficiency. In a nation which boasts well over 300 native languages and a vast array of ethnic groups, the use of proper or 'good and correct' Indonesian (as opposed to Indonesian slang or regional dialects) is an essential means of communication across the archipelago. Use of the national language is abundant in the media, government bodies, schools, universities, workplaces, amongst some members of the Indonesian upper-class or nobility and also in many other more formal situations. Jakarta (also Djakarta or DKI Jakarta), formerly known as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta and Batavia is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Indonesian slang language (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokem) is a non-formal language of Indonesia mainly spoken in urban areas. ...


Most native speakers of Indonesian would agree that the standard, correct version of the Indonesian language is rarely used in daily communication. One can find standard correct Indonesian in books and newspapers, or listen to it when watching the news or television broadcasts, but few native Indonesian speakers use formally correct language in their daily conversations. While this is a phenomenon common to most languages in the world (for example, spoken English does not always correspond to written standards), the degree of "correctness" of spoken Indonesian (in terms of grammar and vocabulary) by comparison to its written form is noticeably low. This is mostly due to the fact that most Indonesians tend to combine certain aspects of their own local languages (eg. Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, and even Chinese dialects, particularly Hokkien) with Indonesian. The result is the creation of various types of 'regional' Indonesian, the very types that a foreigner is most likely to hear upon arriving in any Indonesian city or town. This phenomenon is exacerbated by the use of Indonesian slang, particularly in the cities. A classic example of a speaker of accented Indonesian is former president Soeharto, whose Javanese accent came through whenever he delivered a speech. The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ... Sundanese (Basa Sunda, literally language of Sunda) is the language of about 27,000,000 people from the western third of Java or about 15% of Indonesian population. ... Balinese is the language spoken by people in the island of Bali, Indonesia. ... Hokkien is a Min nan word corresponding to Standard Mandarin Fujian. It can refer to: Min Nan, a Chinese language/dialect, also called Minnan, Min Nan or Minnanyu (meaning Southern Fujian). ... Indonesian slang language (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokem) is a non-formal language of Indonesia mainly spoken in urban areas. ... General Suharto (born June 8, 1921) was an Indonesian dictator and military strongman. ...


The Dutch colonization left an imprint on the Indonesian language that can be seen in words such as polisi (police), kualitas (quality), wartel (carrot), kamar (room), rokok (cigarette), kantor (office), and resleting (zipper). Alongside Malay, Portuguese was the lingua franca for trade throughout the archipelago from the sixteenth century through to the early nineteenth century. Indonesian words derived from Portuguese include sabun (soap), meja (table), jendela (window), gereja (church), bendera (flag) and Minggu (from domingo = Sunday).[5] Some of the many words of Chinese origin include pisau (匕首 - knife), loteng, (upper floor), mie (noodles), lumpia (潤餅 -springroll), cawan, (茶碗 - teacup) and even the widely used slang terms gua and lu, (from the Hokkien goa 我 and lu/li 你 - meaning 'you' and 'I/ me'). From Sanskrit came words such as kaca (mirror), raja (king), bumi/ dunia (earth/ world) and agama (religion). Words of Arabic origin include Arabic kabar (news), selamat/ salam (a greeting) and kamus (dictionary). There are also words derived from Javanese, e.g. aku (meaning I/ me (informal) and its derivative form, mengaku (to confess). Look up Malay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Sanskrit language (Skt. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ...


Classification

The Indonesian language (or bahasa Indonesia) is part of the Western Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages. According to the Ethnologue, Indonesian is modelled after Riau Malay, a form of Old Malay originally spoken in Northeast Sumatera.[citation needed] Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia and a remarkable language in several ways. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages. ... The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages used by some 351 million speakers. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Map of Indonesia showing Riau province Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra island along the Strait of Malacca. ... Look up Malay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest part of Indonesia. ...


Geographic distribution

This is a Map of where Indonesian is predominantly spoken. Dark green represents where Indonesian is spoken as a major language. Light green represents where it is a minority language.
This is a Map of where Indonesian is predominantly spoken. Dark green represents where Indonesian is spoken as a major language. Light green represents where it is a minority language.

Indonesian is the lingua franca of Nusantara and is commonly referred to as bahasa Indonesia in Indonesian. The language is spoken throughout Indonesia (and East Timor), although it is used most extensively as a first language in urban areas and usually as a second langauge in more rural parts of Indonesia. It is also spoken by an additional 1.5+ million people worldwide, particularly in the Netherlands, the Philippines and Malaysia and some parts of Southern Thailand, Brunei, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Australia and the United States.[1]. Image File history File linksMetadata 800px-Indonesianworld. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 800px-Indonesianworld. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... The Malay Archipelago refers to the vast group of islands located between mainland Southeast Asia (Indochina) and Australia. ... Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia and a remarkable language in several ways. ... Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the Central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus. ...


Official status

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia. An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


Sounds

Phonology

The following are phonemes of modern Indonesian. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Vowels
Front Central Back
Close
Close-mid e ə o
Open-mid (ɛ) (ɔ)
Open a

Indonesian also has the diphthongs /ai/, /au/, and /oi/. In closed syllables, such as air (water), however, the two vowels are not pronounced as a diphthong. In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

Consonants
Labial Apical Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
ɲ ŋ  
Plosive p b t d     k g ʔ
Affricate     ʧ ʤ      
Fricative (f) s (z) (ʃ)   (x) h
Liquid   l r        
Approximant w     j    

Note: The vowels between parentheses are allophones while the consonants in parentheses are loan phonemes and as such only occur in loanwords. A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Learning pronunciation

Here are a few useful tips for the learner:

  • /k/, /p/, and /t/ are unaspirated, i.e. they are not followed by a noticeable puff of air as they often are in English words.
  • /t/ and /d/ are dental, rather than alveolar as in English.
  • When /k/ is at the end of a syllable it becomes a glottal stop, which sounds like it is cut off sharply e.g. baik, bapak. This is similar to a number of English dialects where final /t/ is glottalized ("got", "what"). Only a few Indonesian words have this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs), and it may be represented by an apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
  • Stress is placed on the penultimate (second-to-last) syllable of each base word. But if this syllable contains a schwa then the accent moves to the last syllable.

For more, and to listen to examples, see SEASite Guide to Pronunciation of Indonesian In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ... Generally speaking, the penult is the next to the last item in a series but it most specifically means the next to the last syllable in a word. ...


Grammar

Main article: Indonesian grammar

Adjective

Unlike in English, adjectives in the Indonesian language follow nouns:

Indonesian Literal English word order Normal English translation
Ini buku merah This is a book red This is a red book
Ia adalah orang terkenal He is a person famous He is a famous person
Ini buku saya This is book my This is my book

Affix

The Indonesian language uses a complex system of affixes (i.e. prefix, infix, suffix and confix (circumfix)). Affixes are applied with certain rules which depend on the initial letter of a base word (BW = word, eg. a habitual verb, adjective, etc in its simplest form), and/or the sound combination of the second syllable. For example: Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • The affix Ber + ajar (teach) = BeLajar (Note the deletion of 'R' and te addition of 'L')
  • The affixes Me + ajar + -kan = meNGajarkan (Note the addition of 'NG')

By comparison

  • The affix Ber + judi (gamble) = Berjudi (Note that Ber- remains unchanged)
  • The affixes Me + judi + -kan = meNjudikan (Note the addition of 'N')

Also, depending on the affix used, a word can have different grammatical meanings (e.g. me + makan (memakan) means to eat something (in the sense of digesting it), while di + makan (dimakan) means to be eaten (passive voice), ter + makan (termakan) means to accidentally being eaten. Often two different affixes are used to change the meaning of a word (e.g. duduk means to sit down, whereas men + duduk + kan (mendudukkan) means to sit someone/ something down. Men + duduk + i means to sit on something, di + duduk + kan (didudukkan) means to be sat down, diduduki means to be sat on, etc).



As with any language, Indonesian grammar can often present an array of inconsistancies and exceptions. Some base words when combined with two affixes (eg. me + BW + kan) can produce an adjective rather than a verb, or even both. For example, bosan when combined with the affixes me- and -kan produces the word membosankan, meaning boring or to bore (someone). However, not all base words can be combined with affixes, nor are they always consistant in their subsequent usage and meaning. A prime example is the word tinggal which, when combined with affixes, can change quite dramatically in both meaning and grammatical use:

  • Tinggal (base word (BW) form) = to reside, live (in a place)
  • Meninggal (MeN+BW) = to die/ pass away
  • Meninggalkan (MeN+BW+kan) = to leave (a place)
  • Ketinggalan (Ke+BW+an) = to miss (a bus, train, etc)
  • Tertinggal (Ter+BW) = to (accidently) leave something behind
  • Ditinggalkan (Di+BW+kan) = to be left behind; to be abandoned
  • Selamat tinggal (BW + word) = goodbye (said to the person leaving)


Noun affixes are affixes that form nouns upon addition to root words. The following are examples of noun affixes:

Type of noun affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix pe(N)- duduk (sit) penduduk (resident)
ke- hendak (want) kehendak (desire)
Infix -el- tunjuk (point) telunjuk (index finger, command)
-em- kelut (dishevelled) kemelut (chaos, crisis)
-er- gigi (teeth) gerigi (toothed blade, serration)
Suffix -an bangun (wake up, raise) bangunan (building)
Confix ke-...-an raja (king) kerajaan (kingdom)
pe-...-an kerja (work) pekerjaan (occupation)

(N) and (R) indicate that if a word begins with certain letters (most often vowels or consonants k, p, s, t), the letter will either be omitted or other letters will replace it, most commonly with the letters in the bracket or m, ng, ny and l.


Similarly, verb affixes are attached to root words to form verbs. In Indonesian, there are:

Type of verb affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix be(L)- ajar (teach) belajar (to study) - Intransitive
me(N)- tolong (help) menolong (to help) - Active transitive
me(NG)- gambar (picture) menggambar (to draw) - Active transitive
di- ambil (take) diambil (is being taken) - Passive transitive
memper- dalam (depth) memperdalam (to deepen)
dipe(R)- dalam (deep) diperdalam (is being further deepen)
te(R)- makan (eat) termakan (to have accidentally eaten)
Suffix -kan letak (place, keep) letakkan (keep) - Imperative transitive
-i jauh (far) jauhi (avoid) - Imperative transitive
Confix be(R)-...-an pasang (pair) berpasangan (to be paired)
be(R)-...-kan dasar (base) berdasarkan (based upon)
me(M)-...-kan pasti (certain) memastikan (to ensure)
me(N)-...-i teman (companion) menemani (to accompany)
mempe(R)-...-kan guna (use) mempergunakan (to misuse, to utilise)
mempe(L)-...-i ajar (teach) mempelajari (to study)
ke-...-an hilang (disappear) kehilangan (to lose)
di-...-i sakit (pain) disakiti (is being hurt)
di-...-kan benar (right) dibenarkan (is allowed to)
dipe(R)-...-kan kenal (know, recognise) diperkenalkan (is being introduced)

Adjective affixes are attached to root words to form adjectives: In grammar, an intransitive verb is an action verb that takes no object. ... active active lifestyle active volcano sexually active, meaning to regularly undertake sexual activity active grammatical voice active electronics are components, circuits or units of equipment that consume power other than the signal itself, most normally to provide amplification. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... active active lifestyle active volcano sexually active, meaning to regularly undertake sexual activity active grammatical voice active electronics are components, circuits or units of equipment that consume power other than the signal itself, most normally to provide amplification. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... Passive has several meanings: In grammar it describes a grammatical voice. ... In grammar, a verb is transitive if it takes an object. ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ...

Type of adjective affixes Affix Example of root word Example of derived word
Prefix te(R)- kenal (know) terkenal (famous)
se- rupa (appearance) serupa (similar (to))
Infix -em- cerlang (radiant bright) cemerlang (bright, excellent)
-er- sabut (husk) serabut (dishevelled)
Confix ke-...-an barat (west) kebaratan (westernized)

In addition to these affixes, Indonesia language also has a lot of borrowed affixes from other languages such as Sanskrit, Arabic and English. For example maha-, juru-, pasca-, eka-, bi-, anti-, pro-, etc.


Compound words

In Indonesian, new words can be formed by joining two or more root words. Compound words, when they exist freely in a sentence, are often written separately. Compound words are only attached to each other when they are bound by a confix or when they are already considered as stable words.


For example, the word rumah which means house and makan which means eat, are compounded to form a new word rumah makan (restaurant). Similarly, ambil alih (take over) is formed using the root words ambil (take) and alih (move), but will link together when a circumfix is attached to it, i.e. pengambilalihan (takeover). Certain stable words, such as kakitangan (personel), and kerjasama (corporation), are spelled as one word even when they exist freely in sentences.


Grammatical gender

Indonesian does not make use of grammatical gender, and there are only a few words that use natural gender; the same word is used for he and she or for his and her. Most of the words that refer to people (family terms, professions, etc.) have a form that does not distinguish between the sexes. For example, adik can both refer to a younger sibling of either gender; no distinction is made between "girlfriend" and "boyfriend" (except in the more colloquial terms cewek (girl, girlfriend) and cowok (guy, boyfriend). In order to specify the natural gender of a noun, an adjective has to be added: adik laki-laki corresponds to "brother" but really means "male younger sibling". There are some words that are gendered, for instance putri means "daughter", and putra means "son"; words like these are usually absorbed from other languages (in these cases, from Sanskrit through the Old Javanese language). In Jakarta and some other areas, abang may be used for "older brother"; kakak, "older sibling", is then used to mean "older sister". In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... The Javanese language is the spoken language of the people in the central and eastern part of the island of Java, in Indonesia. ...


Measure words

Another distinguishing feature of Indonesian language is its use of measure words. In this way, it is similar to many other languages of Asia, including Chinese, Vietnamese, Burmese, and Bengali. Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns. ... Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা, IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit. ...


Examples of these measure words are: ekor (used for animals), buah (generalized used for a non living noun), orang (used for people), lembar (used for paper), biji (used for round and tiny things), batang (used for stick-like objects), etc. Though these measure words might not be used in the informal conversation.

Indonesian Literal English translation Normal English translation
Tiga ekor sapi Three tails (of) cows Three cows
Sepuluh orang tentara Ten people soldiers Ten soldiers
Lima lembar kertas Five sheets/pieces of paper Five sheets/pieces of paper
Sebelas buah apel Eleven fruits (of) apples Eleven apples

Negation

There are three major forms of negation used in the Indonesian language, namely tidak, bukan and belum.

  • Tidak (sometimes shortened to tak) is used for the negation of a verb and adjective.

For example: "saya tidak tahu" = I do not know OR "Ibu saya tidak senang" = My mother is not happy

  • Bukan is used in the negation of a noun.

For example: "Itu bukan seekor anjing" = That is not a dog

  • Belum is primarily used to negate a sentence or phrase with the sense that something has not yet been completed or experienced. In this sense,belum can also be used as a negative response to a question.

For example: "Anda sudah pernah ke Indonesia (belum)? "Belum, saya masih belum pernah pergi ke Indonesia" = Have you ever been to Indonesia before, (or not)? No, I have not yet been to Indonesia OR "Orang itu belum terbiasa tinggal di Indonesia" = That person is not (yet) used to living in Indonesia.



NB: Another kind of negation is with the word jangan, which equates to to English equivalent of "Don't" or "Do not". Jangan is used for negating imperatives or advising against certain actions. For example "Jangan tinggalkan saya" = 'Don't leave me.'


Pluralization

Plurals are expressed by means of reduplication, but only when the plural is not implied in the context. Thus "person" is orang, and "people" is orang-orang, but "one thousand people" is seribu orang, as the numeral makes it unnecessary to mark the plural form. Besides expressing plurals, reduplication can also be used to create new words that differ in meaning before reduplication takes place, for instance hati means "heart" or "liver" (depending on context) whereas hati-hati means "to be careful" and it is often used as a verb. For foreigners who are learning Indonesian, reduplication is not as easy as it seems to be because one can say orang ("person"), orang-orang ("people"), or orang-orangan ("scarecrow"). Not all reduplicated words can also have the plural meaning of a noun, for example: biri-biri (sheep), kupu-kupu (butterfly) can have both the singular or the plural meaning, depending on the context or the numeral added. Reduplication, in linguistics, is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word, or only part of it, is repeated. ...


Pronouns

There are two forms of "we", kami or kita, depending on whether the speaker includes the person being talked to. Kami (exclusive) is used when the person or people being spoken to are not included, while kita (inclusive) includes the opposite party. Their usage is increasingly confused in colloquial Indonesian. There are two major forms of "I", which are saya and aku. Despite having the same meaning, saya is definitely the more formal form, whereas Aku is used often used with family, friends and between lovers. There are three common forms of "you", which are kamu, Anda and kalian. Anda is the more polite form of "you" and used in conversations toward someone you barely know or to whom you wish to respect. Kalian is the common plural form of "you" and is often said to be slightly informal. Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ...


NB: Because of the overall structure of Indonesian society (and influences from regional dialects) many different pronouns exist. Some of these 'additional pronouns' may show utmost politeness and respect (eg. Saudara/Saudari = you (male/female)), may be used only in the most informal of situations (eg. gua/ lu = me/ you - see Indonesian slang), or may have somewhat romantic or poetic qualities (eg. Daku/Dikau = me/you). Indonesian slang language (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokem) is a non-formal language of Indonesia mainly spoken in urban areas. ...



Common Indonesian Pronouns

Type Indonesian English
First Person Aku, Saya I
Kami (excl.), Kita (incl.) We
Second Person Kamu, Engkau (informal) You
Anda, Saudara/Saudari (polite) You
Kalian (plural, informal), Anda (plural, formal), Saudara(i)-saudara(i) (polite) You
Third Person Ia, Dia He, she, it
Beliau (polite) He, She
Mereka They

Possessive pronouns

Type of possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns Example of root word Example of derived word(s)
First person Saya, Aku (I) -ku meja (table) mejaku (my table)
Kami, kita (we) ... (milik) kami/kita kursi (chair) kursi (milik) kami, kursi (milik) kita (our chair)
Second person Kamu (you) -mu meja (table) mejamu (your table)
Anda, Saudara (you(polite)) ... (milik) Anda/Saudara kursi (chair) kursi (milik) Anda/Saudara (your chair)
Kalian (you(plural)) ... (milik) kalian kursi (chair) kursi (milik) kalian (your chair)
Third person Dia, Ia (he, she, it) -nya meja (table) mejanya (his, her, its table)
Beliau (he, she, it (polite)) ... (milik) Beliau meja (table) meja (milik) Beliau (his, her, its table)
Mereka (they) ... (milik) mereka kursi (chair) kursi (milik) mereka (their chair)

Demonstrative pronouns

There are two kinds of demonstrative pronouns in the Indonesian language. Ini (this, these) is used for a noun which is near to the speaker. Itu (that, those) is used for a noun which is far from the speaker. There is no difference in the use between the singular form and the plural form. A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ...


Verbs

Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense; tense is instead denoted by time adverbs (such as "yesterday") or by other tense indicators, such as sudah, "already". On the other hand, there is a complex system of verb affixes to render nuances of meaning and denote active-passive voices. Such affixes include prefixes, infixes, suffixes, and their combinations; all of which are often ignored in informal conversations. In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification or marking of a word (or more precisely lexeme) to reflect grammatical (that is, relational) information, such as gender, tense, number or person. ... In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc. ...


Word order

The basic word order is Subject Verb Object. However many Indonesians will speak in a passive voice with a OV(S) word order. This often allows for the ommission of the subject from a sentence, This can either benefit the speaker/ writer by adding politeness and respect to a sentence or can be conveniently used when the subject is unknown. Adjectives, demonstrative pronouns and possessive pronouns follow the noun they describe. In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ... A possessive pronoun is a word that attributes ownership to someone or something without using a noun. ...


Emphasis

Although the basic word order is Subject Verb Object, as mentioned above, it is possible to make frequent use of passive voice or to scramble word order, thus adding emphasis on a certain sentence particle. The particle being emphasized is usually placed at the beginning of the sentence. In spoken Indonesian, the aspect of the sentence being emphasized is usually followed by a short pause before continuing on with the remainder of the sentence. The word emphasis, in addition to its main dictionary meaning, may have the following techincal meanings. ...


Some examples include:

  • Saya pergi ke pasar kemarin "I went to the market yesterday" — neutral, or with emphasis on the subject.
  • Kemarin saya pergi ke pasar "Yesterday I went to the market" — emphasis on yesterday.
  • Ke pasar saya pergi, kemarin "To the market I went yesterday" — emphasis on where I went yesterday.
  • Pergi ke pasar, saya, kemarin "Went to the market I yesterday" — emphasis on the process of going to the market.

Vocabulary

Indonesian as a modern dialect of Malay has borrowed heavily from many languages, including : Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, Portuguese, Dutch, Chinese and many other languages, including other Austronesian languages. It is estimated that there are some 750 Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indonesian, 1,000 Arabic loans, some Persian and Hebrew ones, some 125 Portuguese (also Spanish and Italian) ones and a staggering number of some 10,000 loanwords from Dutch.[6] The latter also comprises many words from other European languages, which came via Dutch, the so-called "International Vocabulary". The vast majority of Indonesian words, however, come from the root lexical stock of its Austronesian heritage. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Austronesian languages are a language family widely dispersed throughout the islands of Southeast Asia and the Pacific, with a few members spoken on continental Asia. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Although Hinduism and Buddhism are no longer the major religions of Indonesia, Sanskrit which was the language vehicle for these religions, is still held in high esteem and is comparable with the status of Latin in English and other West European languages. Residents of Bali and Java tend to be particularly proud of the Hindu-Buddhist heritage. Sanskrit is also the main source for neologisms. These are usually formed from Sanskrit roots. The loanwords from Sanskrit cover many aspects of religion, art and everyday life. The Sanskrit influence came from contacts with India long ago before the time of Christ. The words are either directly borrowed from India or with the intermediary of the Old Javanese language. In the classical language of Java, Old Javanese, the number of Sanskrit loanwords is far greater. The Old Javanese — English dictionary by prof. P.J. Zoetmulder, S.J. (1982) contains no fewer than 25,500 entries. Almost half are Sanskrit loanwords. Unlike other loanwords, Sanskrit loanwords have entered the basic vocabulary of Indonesian, so by many these aren't felt as foreign anymore. Hinduism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bali is an Indonesian island located at , the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ... The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844-1926). ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


The loanwords from Arabic are mainly concerned with religion, in particular with Islam, as can be expected. Allah is the word for God even in Christian Bible translations. Many early Bible translators, when they came across some unusual Hebrew words or proper names, used the Arabic cognates. In the newer translations this practice is discontinued. They now turn to Greek names or use the original Hebrew Word. For example, the name Jesus was initially translated as 'Isa, but is now spelt as Yesus. Psalms used to be translated as Zabur, the Arabic name, but now it is called Mazmur which corresponds more with Hebrew. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


Loanwords from Portuguese are common words, which were mainly connected with articles the early European traders and explorers brought to Southeast Asia. The Portuguese were among the first westerners to sail east to the "Spice Islands". Spice Islands most commonly refers to the Maluku Islands (formerly the Moluccas), which lie on the equator, between Sulawesi (Celebes) and New Guinea in what is now Indonesia. ...


The Chinese loanwords are usually concerned with cuisine, trade or often just exclusively things Chinese. There is a considerable Chinese presence in the whole of Southeast Asia. According to the 2000 census, the relative number of people of Chinese descent in Indonesia is 0.9%, but this may be an underestimate. 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


The former colonial power, the Netherlands, left an impressive vocabulary. These Dutch loanwords, and also from other non Italo-Iberian, European languages loanwords which came via Dutch, cover all aspects of life. Some Dutch loanwords, having clusters of several consonants, pose difficulties to speakers of Indonesian. This problem is usually solved by insertion of the schwa. For example Dutch schroef ['sxruf]sekrup [sə'krup]. In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...


As modern Indonesian draws many of its words from foreign sources, there are many synonyms. For example, Indonesian has three words for "book", i.e. pustaka (from Sanskrit), kitab (from Arabic) and buku (from Dutch). These words have, unsurprisingly, slightly different meanings. A pustaka is often connected with ancient wisdom or sometimes with esoteric knowledge. A derived form, perpustakaan means a library. A kitab is usually a religious scripture or a book containing moral guidances. The Indonesian words for the Bible are Alkitab and Injil, both directly derived from Arabic. The book containing the penal code is also called the kitab. Buku is the most common word for books. Look up Synonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


In addition to those above, there are also direct borrowings from various languages in the world, such as "karaoke" from Japanese, and "modem" from English. A modem (from modulate and demodulate) is a device that modulates an analogue carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. ...

See also: List of borrowed words in Indonesian

This is a list of loanwords in the Indonesian language. ...

Spoken & informal Indonesian

In very informal spoken Indonesian, various words are replaced with those of a less formal nature (e.g. tidak (no) is often replaced with the Javanese nggak whilst seperti (like, similar to) is often replaced with kayak (pronounced kai-yah)). As for pronunciation, the diphthongs ai and au on the end of base words are typically pronounced as /e/ and /o/. In informal writing the spelling of words is modified to reflect the actual pronunciation in a way that can be produced with less effort. E.g.: capai becomes cape or capek, pakai become pake, kalau becomes kalo.


In verbs, the prefix me- is often dropped, although an initial nasal consonant is usually retained. E.g.: mengangkat becomes ngangkat (the basic word is angkat). The suffixes -kan and -i are often replaced by -in. E.g.: mencarikan becomes nyariin, menuruti becomes nurutin. The latter grammatical aspect is one often closely related to Indonesian found in Jakarta and surrounding areas.

  • For detailed information relating to spoken and informal Indonesian, please click this link to a full-length article about Indonesian slang language.

Indonesian slang language (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokem) is a non-formal language of Indonesia mainly spoken in urban areas. ...

Writing system

Indonesian is written using the Latin alphabet. It is more phonetically consistent than many languages—the correspondence between sounds and their written forms is generally regular. The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS...


Consonants are represented in a way similar to Italian, although c is always /ʧ/ (like English "tch"), g is always /g/ ("hard") and j represents /ʤ/ as it does in English. In addition, ny represents the palatal nasal /ɲ/, ng is used for the velar nasal /ŋ/ (which can occur word-initially), sy for /ʃ/ (English "sh") and kh for the voiceless velar fricative /x/. Both /e/ and /ə/ are represented with an e. The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages. ... The velar nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ...


One common source of confusion for foreign readers, particularly when reading place names, is the spelling changes in the language that have occurred since Indonesian independence. Commonly-used changes include:

Old
spelling
New
spelling
oe u
tj c
dj j
j y
nj ny
sj sy
ch kh

The first of these changes (oe to u) occurred around the time of independence in 1947; all of the others were a part of an officially-mandated spelling reform in 1972. Some of the old spellings, which were more closely derived from the Dutch language, do survive in proper names; for example, the name of a former president of the Indonesia is still written Soeharto, and the central Java city of Yogyakarta is sometimes written Jogjakarta. Spelling reform generally attempts to introduce a logical structure connecting the spelling and pronunciation of words. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 22 million people, mainly in the Netherlands and Belgium, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France and several former Dutch colonies. ... Haji Mohammad Soeharto (born June 8, 1921), more commonly referred to as simply Soeharto (Suharto in the English-speaking world), is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ... Yogyakarta (also Jogjakarta in pre-1972 spelling or Jogja) is a city and province on the island of Java, Indonesia. ...


Idioms and Proverbs

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Indonesian proverbs
Ada gula, Ada semut.

Lit. "Where there's sugar, there are ants". Equivalent to the English: "Where there are bees, there is honey" and "There's no smoke without fire". Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


References

  1. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 14."
  2. ^ Barry Farber. How to Learn Any Language. New York: Citadel Press, 1991. Page 167-168, in "Farber's Language Reviews."
  3. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 14."
  4. ^ James Neil Sneddon. The Indonesian Language: Its History and Role in Modern Society. UNSW Press, 2004. Page 16."
  5. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan, p.26. ISBN 0-333-57689-6. 
  6. ^ This is a research led by Prof. Dr. J.W. de Vries of the University of Leiden in the Netherlands

Barry Farber is a conservative radio talk show host and author. ...

See also

Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Here is a list of common phrases in different languages. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... Indonesias 242 million people make it the worlds fourth-most populous nation. ... Indonesian slang language (bahasa gaul or bahasa prokem) is a non-formal language of Indonesia mainly spoken in urban areas. ... The differences between Malay (Bahasa Melayu) and Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) are slightly greater than those between British English and American English. ... Loan words / kata serapan (Indonesian) from Indonesian in English. ...

External links

Indonesia Portal
Wikipedia
Indonesian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:

 
 

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