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Encyclopedia > Baghdad
Baghdad
بغداد
A mosque in Baghdad, circa 1973.
The location of Baghdad within Iraq.
Coordinates: 33°20′00″N 44°26′00″E / 33.333333, 44.433333
Country Iraq
Province Baghdad Governorate
Government
 - Mayor Sabir al-Isawi
Area
 - City 204.2 km²  (78.8 sq mi)
Elevation 34 m (112 ft)
Population (2006)[1] [2]
 - City 4.5 million
 - Density 30,000/km² (77,699.6/sq mi)
 - Metro 8.0 million
  Approximate figures
Time zone GMT +3 (UTC)
 - Summer (DST) +4 (UTC)

Baghdad (Arabic: بغداد Baġdād) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. With a metropolitan area estimated at a population of 7,000,000, it is the largest city in Iraq.[1][2] It is the second-largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo) and the second-largest city in southwest Asia (after Tehran). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (693x880, 520 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Baghdad ... Image File history File links Iraq_map. ... Baghdad Governorate (Arabic: ‎ ) in the nation of Iraq includes the city of Baghdad and the surrounding metropolitan area, including Al Mahmudiyah and the infamous Abu Ghraib. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... The metre (American English:meter) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing summer time Greenwich Mean Time (Media:Example. ... ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Baghdad Governorate (Arabic: ‎ ) in the nation of Iraq includes the city of Baghdad and the surrounding metropolitan area, including Al Mahmudiyah and the infamous Abu Ghraib. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Located on the Tigris River, the city dates back to at least the 8th century, and probably to pre-Islamic times. Once the center of Dar al-salam, the Muslim world, Baghdad has been a center of violent conflict since 2003 because of the ongoing Iraq War. The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... In Islamic theology and legal interpretations , the ultimate aim of Islam is to bring the whole world under the dominion of Islam. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Name

Although there is dispute over its Iranian origin, there have been several rival proposals as to its specific etymology. The most reliable and most widely accepted among these is that the name is a Middle Persian compound of Bhaga "god" + dād "given", translating to "god-given" or "God's gift", whence Modern Persian Baɣdād, Arabic Baġdād. Another leading proposal is that the name comes from Middle Persian Bāgh-dād "The Given Garden". Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... In Hinduism, Bhaga is an ancient god of wealth and marriage, and one of the Adityas. ... Persian (فارسی), also known as Farsi (local name), Parsi (older local name, but still used by some speakers), Tajik (a Central Asian dialect) or Dari (an Afghan dialect), is a language spoken in Iran, Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


History

Foundation

The city of Baghdad is often said to have been founded on the west bank of the Tigris on 30 July 762 by the Abbasid dynasty, led by caliph al-Mansur, replacing Harran as the seat of the caliphal government; however, a city of Baghdad is mentioned in pre-Islamic texts, including the Talmud,[3] and the Abbasid city was likely built on the site of this earlier settlement. is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Abbasid caliph al-Mansur founds new capital at Baghdad, Iraq Births Deaths Emperor Xuanzong of Tang China Chinese poet Li Po, the Poet Immortal. ... Abbasid Caliphate (Abbasid Khalifat) and contemporary states and empires in 820. ... For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Şanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Şanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ...

Zumurrud Khaton tomb in Baghdad,1932
Zumurrud Khaton tomb in Baghdad,1932

Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, which was located some 30 km (20 miles) to the southeast, which had been under Muslim control since 637, and which became quickly deserted after the foundation of Baghdad. The site of Babylon, which had been deserted since the 2nd century BC, lies some 90 km (55 miles) to the south. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ctesiphon, 1932 Ctesiphon (Parthian and Pahlavi: Tyspwn as well as Tisfun, Persian: ‎, also known as in Arabic Madain, Maden or Al-Madain: المدائن) is one of the great cities of ancient Mesopotamia and the capital of the Parthian Empire and its successor, the Sassanid Empire, for more than 800 years... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ...


The city was designed as a circle about 2 km in diameter, leading it to be known as the "Round City". The original design shows a ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring, inside the first.[4] In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. The ancient Sasanian city of Gur/Firouzabad is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and the government buildings and temples at the center of the city. Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ...


The roundness points to the fact that it was based on Persian precedents such as Firouzabad in Persia.[5] The two designers who were hired by al-Mansur to plan the city's design were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran.[6] Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Firouzabad. ... Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE... pooperson he was the first bisexual man to have a heshe baby This article is abliph Al Mansur of Baghdad. ... Nobakht Ahvazi (also spelled Naubakht in many a literature) and his sons were Astronomers from Ahvaz in Persia. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... An engraving by Albrecht Dürer, from the title page of the De scientia motus orbis (Latin version with engraving, 1504). ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ...


A center of learning (8th to 9th c.)

Further information: Islamic Golden Age

Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce. The House of Wisdom was an establishment dedicated to the translation of Greek, Middle Persian and Syriac works. The Barmakids were influential in bringing scholars from the nearby Academy of Gundishapur, facilitating the introduction of Greek and Indian science into the Arabic world. Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when it was tied by Córdoba.[7] Several estimates suggest that the city contained over a million inhabitants at its peak.[8] A portion of the population of Baghdad originated in Iran, especially from Khorasan. Many of Scheherazade's tales in One Thousand and One Nights are set in Baghdad during this period. Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The House of Wisdom (Arabic بيت الحكمة Bayt al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid-era Baghdad. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Barmakids (Persian: برمكيان BarmakÄ«yān; Arabic: البرامكة al-barāmika, also called Barmecides) were a noble Persian family which attained great power under the Abbasid caliphs. ... The Academy of Gundishapur (in Persian: ‎) was a renowned center of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... Estimated population numbers of historical cities over time. ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 880s - 890s _ 900s - 910s - 920s - 930s - 940s - 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s Years: 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 Events: Categories: 930s ... Location Coordinates : , , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ...


Stagnation and invasions (10th to 16th c.)

By the 10th century, the city's population was between 300,000 and 500,000. Baghdad's early meteoric growth slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135). Nevertheless, the city remained one of the cultural and commercial hubs of the Islamic world until February 10, 1258, when it was sacked by the Mongols under Hulagu Khan during the sack of Baghdad. The Mongols massacred most of the city's inhabitants, including the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city. The canals and dykes forming the city's irrigation system were also destroyed. The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate, a blow from which the Islamic civilization never fully recovered. For main article see: Caliphate Khalif is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Map showing Samarra near Baghdad Sāmarrā (سامراء) is a town in Iraq ( ). It stands on the east bank of the Tigris in the Salah ad Din Governorate, 125 km north of Baghdad and, in 2002, had an estimated population of 201,700. ... The Buwayhids or Buyyids or Ä€l-i Buyeh, were a Yazdani tribal confederation from Daylam, a region on the southern shore of the Caspian Sea. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... Hulagu Khan (also known as Hülegü, , Hulegu and Halaku) (1217 – 8 February 1265) was a Mongol ruler who conquered much of Southwest Asia. ... Combatants Mongols Abbasid Caliphate Commanders Hulagu Khan Guo Kan Caliph Al-Mustasim Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown, but believed minimal Military, 50,000(est. ... Al-Mustasim (d. ... The Canal du Midi, Toulouse, France Canals are man-made channels for water. ... A dyke (or dike) is a stone or earthen wall constructed as a defence or as a boundary. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


At this point Baghdad was ruled by the Il-Khanids, the Mongol emperors of Iran. In 1401, Baghdad was again sacked, by Timur ("Tamerlane"). It became a provincial capital controlled by the Jalayirid (1400–1411), Qara Quyunlu (1411–1469), Aq Quyunlu (1469–1508), and Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties. The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan TÄ«mÅ«r bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - TÄ“mōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... The Jalayirids were a Mongol dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol Khanate of Persia (or Ilkhanate) in the 1330s. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri_Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Ağqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. ... The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ...


Ottoman Baghdad (16th to 19th c.)

In 1534, Baghdad was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Under the Ottomans, Baghdad fell into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Persia. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East before being overtaken by Constantinople in the 16th century. The Nuttall Encyclopedia reports the 1907 population of Baghdad as 185,000. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Motto Esteqlāl, āzādÄ«, jomhÅ«rÄ«-ye eslāmÄ« 1(Persian) Independence, freedom, Islamic Republic (introduced 1979) Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān 2 Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Establishment  -  Proto-Elamite Period 3200-2700 BCE... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Map of Constantinople. ... The Nuttall Encyclopaedia is an early 20th century encyclopedia, edited by Rev. ...


20th century

Baghdad in 1932
Baghdad in 1932

Baghdad remained under Ottoman rule until the establishment of the kingdom of Iraq under British control in 1921. British control was established by a systematic suppression of Iraqi Arab and Kurdish national aspirations. Iraq was given formal independence in 1932, and increased autonomy in 1946. In 1958 the Iraqi Army deposed the grandson of the British-installed monarch, Faisal II. The city's population grew from an estimated 145,000 in 1900 to 580,000 in 1950 of which 140,000 were Jewish. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3845x2718, 1403 KB) Iraq, Baghdad & mosque. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3845x2718, 1403 KB) Iraq, Baghdad & mosque. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Kurdish may refer to: The Kurdish people The Kurdish language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II (May 2, 1935 - July 14, 1958) was the last king of Iraq from April 4, 1939 to 1958. ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...

Baghdad in the 1970s
Baghdad in the 1970s

During the 1970s Baghdad experienced a period of prosperity and growth because of a sharp increase in the price of petroleum, Iraq's main export. New infrastructure including modern sewage, water, and highway facilities were built during this period. However, the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s was a difficult time for the city, as money flowed into the army and thousands of residents were killed. Iran launched a number of missile attacks against Baghdad, although they caused relatively little damage and few casualties. In 1991 the Persian Gulf War caused damage to Baghdad's transportation, power, and sanitary infrastructure. Image File history File links Bagdad2_i_juni_1977. ... Image File history File links Bagdad2_i_juni_1977. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Guided missile be merged into this article or section. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Look up Power in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

2003 Invasion of Iraq

2003 street map of Baghdad
2003 street map of Baghdad

Baghdad was bombed very heavily in March and April 2003 in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and fell under US control by April 7-April 9. Additional damage was caused by the severe looting during the days following the end of the war. With the deposition of Saddam Hussein's regime, the city was occupied by U.S. troops. The Coalition Provisional Authority established a three-square-mile (8-km²) "Green Zone" within the heart of the city from which it governed Iraq during the period before the new Iraqi government was established. The Coalition Provisional Authority ceded power to the interim government at the end of June 2004 and dissolved itself. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3907x2399, 1593 KB) Summary Licensing Other Versions Image:Baghdad City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3907x2399, 1593 KB) Summary Licensing Other Versions Image:Baghdad City. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... The Green Zone is a 10 km² (4 mile²) area in central Baghdad that is the main base for coalition officials in Iraq. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government following the invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ...

A satellite false-color image of Baghdad, taken March 31, 2003. The image shows smoke rising from pools of burning oil spread along "Canal Road" and other locations. Ditches full of oil were created shortly before the war to obscure visibility (black) and vegetation (red)

On September 23, 2003, a Gallup poll indicated that about two-thirds of Baghdad residents said that the removal of the Iraqi leader was worth the hardships they encountered, and that they expected a better life in five years' time. As time passed, however, support for the occupation declined dramatically. In April 2004, USA Today reported that a follow-up Gallup poll in Baghdad indicated that "only 13 percent of the people now say the invasion of Iraq was morally justifiable. In the 2003 poll, more than twice that number saw it as the right thing to do."[9] Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team Photo aquired: At the morning of March 31, 2003, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. ... Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team Photo aquired: At the morning of March 31, 2003, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard NASA’s Terra satellite. ... A false color image showing the Chesapeake Bay and the city of Baltimore. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (91st in leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 2003 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... See: Gallup poll (opinion poll) Gallup, New Mexico ...


Most residents of Baghdad became impatient with the occupation because essential services such as electricity were still unreliable more than a year after the invasion. In the hot summer of 2004, electricity was only available intermittently in most areas of the city. An additional pressing concern was the lack of security. The curfew imposed immediately after the invasion had been lifted in the winter of 2003, but the city that had once had a vibrant night life was still considered too dangerous after dark for many citizens. Those dangers included kidnapping and the risk of being caught in fighting between security forces and insurgents. Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ... Nightlife is the collective term for any entertainment that is available and more popular from the late evening into the early hours of the morning. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ...


On 10th April 2007, the United States military began construction of a three mile long 3.5 metre tall wall around the Sunni district of Baghdad (Guardian). On 23rd April , the Iraqi Prime Minister, Nouri Maliki, called for construction to be halted on the wall (Guardian) (BBC). The Baghdad Wall is the name being given by some media outlets to a 5 km long (3 mile) separation barrier being built by the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army around the predominantly Sunni district of Adhamiya in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Nouri Kamel al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل المالكي, transliterated NÅ«rÄ« Kāmil al-MālikÄ«; born c. ...


The on-going ethnic cleansing had by the beginning of Summer 2007, divided the city of Baghdad into two distinct and warring cities: a larger Shia city (nearly all of the city east of the Tigris (with the exception of Adhamiyya and the Rashid districts), and a smaller Sunni city, west of the Tigris (with the exception of Kadhimiyya and southwestern districts). For a cartographical evidence of this process, see Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/maps.shtml


Geography and climate

The city is located on a vast plain bisected by the Tigris River. The Tigris splits Baghdad in half, with the Eastern half being called 'Risafa' and the Western half known as 'Karkh'. The land on which the city is built is almost entirely flat and low-lying, being of alluvial origin due to the periodic large floods which have occurred on the river. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, to wash against) is soil or sediments deposited by a river or other running water. ... Flooding in Amphoe Sena, Ayutthaya Province, Thailand. ...


Baghdad is, in terms of maximum temperatures, one of the hottest cities in the world. In the summer from June to August, the average maximum is as high as 44°C (111°F) accompanied by blazing sunshine: rainfall is almost completely unknown at this time of year. Temperatures exceeding 50°C (122°F) in the shade are by no means unheard of, and even at night temperatures in summer are seldom below 24°C (75°F) Though the humidity is very low (usually under 10%) due to Baghdad's distance from the marshy Persian Gulf, dust storms from the deserts to the west are a normal occurrence during the summer. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... A sandstorm approaching Al Asad, Iraq, just before nightfall on April 27 2005. ...


In the winter, from December to February, by contrast, Baghdad has maximum temperatures averaging 15 to 16°C (59 to 61°F). Minima can indeed be very cold: the average January minimum is around 4°C (39°F) but temperatures below 0°C (32°F) are not uncommon during this season.


Annual rainfall, almost entirely confined to the period from November to March, averages around 140 millimetres (5.5 in), but has been as high as 575 millimetres (23 in) and as low as 23 millimetres (~1 in). A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Reconstruction Efforts

Nodes of Development for the Private Sector Based Baghdad Renaissance Plan, with the Tahrir Square Development on the far right.
Nodes of Development for the Private Sector Based Baghdad Renaissance Plan, with the Tahrir Square Development on the far right.

Most Reconstruction of Iraq efforts have been devoted to the restoration and repair of badly damaged infrastructure. More visible efforts at reconstruction through private development, such as architect and urban designer Hisham N. Ashkouri's Baghdad Renaissance Plan and Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center garnered early interest, but remain undeveloped due to the instability of the region.[10] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x864, 192 KB) Layout of City Nodes of Development for Baghdad Renaissance Plan, Hisham n. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x864, 192 KB) Layout of City Nodes of Development for Baghdad Renaissance Plan, Hisham n. ... Reconstruction of Iraq is the term used for attempts to both improve upon and make repairs and improvements to the infrastructure of Iraq. ... A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... Hisham N. Ashkouri Portrait Hisham N. Ashkouri (born August 15, 1948, Baghdad, Iraq) is a Boston and New York-based architect. ... A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... Elevation Drawing of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ...


Renewable Energy 21st Century Technology

A key point of the Baghdad Renaissance Plan is not to impose additional loads on the electric and other utility infrastructures currently operating and serving the City of Baghdad. The Tahrir Square Development is designed to be largely self-contained in this respect, and as such will not tax the weakened infrastructure of the city unduly. It is important to use solar power (using the desert environment), wind, geothermal, and fuel cell technologies to back those other conventional power plants using fossil fuels. This will help reduce pollution and environmentally sensitive by-products. The environmental pollution will be minimized once such technologies are adopted. The design will also plan for capturing oil products from vehicles and vehicle waste products. Solar power describes a number of methods of harnessing energy from the light of the sun. ... Geothermal power is electricity generated by utilizing naturally occurring geological heat sources. ... A fuel cell is an electrochemical device similar to a battery, but differing from the latter in that it is designed for continuous replenishment of the reactants consumed; i. ...

A rendering of the Tahrir Square Development.

Image File history File links Tahrir_Sq-3D1. ... Image File history File links Tahrir_Sq-3D1. ...

Government

See also: Administrative districts in Baghdad

The City of Baghdad has 89 official neighborhoods within 9 districts. These official subdivisions of the city served as administrative centers for the delivery of municipal services but until 2003 had no political function. Beginning in April 2003, the U.S. controlled Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) began the process of creating new functions for these. The process initially focused on the election of neighborhood councils in the official neighborhoods, elected by neighborhood caucuses. CPA convened a series of meetings in each neighborhood to explain local government, to describe the caucus election process and to encourage participants to spread the word and bring friends, relatives and neighbors to subsequent meetings. Each neighborhood process ultimately ended with a final meeting where candidates for the new neighborhood councils identified themselves and asked their neighbors to vote for them. Once all 88 (later increased to 89) neighborhood councils were in place, each neighborhood council elected representatives from among their members to serve on one of the city's nine district councils. The number of neighborhood representatives on a district council is based upon the neighborhood’s population. The next step was to have each of the nine district councils elect representatives from their membership to serve on the 37 member Baghdad City Council. This three tier system of local government connected the people of Baghdad to the central government through their representatives from the neighborhood, through the district, and up to the city council. There are nine administrative districts in Baghdad that correspond to the nine district advisory councils. ...

Baghdad Bank

The same process was used to provide representative councils for the other communities in Baghdad Province outside of the City itself. There, local councils were elected from 20 neighborhoods (Nahia) and these councils elected representatives from their members to serve on six district councils (Qada). As within the City, the district councils then elected representatives from among their members to serve on the 35 member Baghdad Regional Council. Image File history File linksMetadata Baghdad-bank. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Baghdad-bank. ...


The final step in the establishment of the system of local government for Baghdad Province was the election of the Baghdad Provincial Council. As before, the representatives to the Provincial Council were elected by their peers from the lower councils in numbers proportional to the population of the districts they represent. The 41 member Provincial Council took office in February, 2004 and served until National elections held in January 2005, when a new Provincial Council was elected.


This system of 127 separate councils may seem overly cumbersome but Baghdad Province is home to approximately seven million people. At the lowest level, the neighborhood councils, each council represents an average of 74,000 people.


The nine District Advisory Councils (DAC) are as follows[1]:

Adhamiya is a wealthy and very exclusive area of baghdad,its inhabitants and mostly sunni but nevertheless it is considered a mixed area as many people have the inclination to move here to enjoy the scenic beauty that this area possesses,saddams main palace is also located here,as is... Western half of Baghdad, which is of course split by the river Tigris. ... Karadah is one of nine Administrative districts in Baghdad. ... Kadhimiya (Arabic: :Al Kadhimiya is a town located in what is now a northern neighbourhood of Baghdad, Iraq about 5 km from the city center. ... Mansour is a district in Iraq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Rasheed is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad. ... Rusafa is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad. ... 9 Nissan or Tisa Nissan, is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad. ...

Culture

A U.S. Army helicopter flying by Baghdad's tower
A U.S. Army helicopter flying by Baghdad's tower

Baghdad has always played an important role in Arab cultural life and has been the home of noted writers, musicians and visual artists. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2040x1530, 930 KB) Summary [1] An OH-58D Kiowa Warrior from 1st Battalion (ATTACK), 25th Aviation Regiment, 25th Infantry Division (L), Lightning Attack, patrols the skies over Baghdad, Iraq. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2040x1530, 930 KB) Summary [1] An OH-58D Kiowa Warrior from 1st Battalion (ATTACK), 25th Aviation Regiment, 25th Infantry Division (L), Lightning Attack, patrols the skies over Baghdad, Iraq. ...


The dialect of Arabic spoken in Baghdad today differs from that of other large urban centers in Iraq, having features more characteristic of nomadic Arabic dialects (Verseegh, The Arabic Language). It is possible that this was caused by the repopulating of the city with rural residents after the multiple sacks of the late Middle Ages.


Institutions

Some of the important cultural institutions in the city include:

The live theatre scene received a boost during the 1990s when UN sanctions limited the import of foreign films. As many as 30 movie theatres were reported to have been converted to live stages, producing a wide range of comedies and dramatic productions.[12] The Iraqi National Symphony Orchestra (INSO) is a government funded symphony orchestra in Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lung, to rob), sacking, plundering, or pillaging is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe or riot, such as during war,[1] natural disaster,[2] or rioting. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Institutions offering cultural education in Baghdad include the Academy of Music, Institute of Fine Arts and the Music and Ballet School. Baghdad is also home to a number of museums which housed artifacts and relics of ancient civilizations; many of these were stolen, and the museums looted, during the widespread chaos immediately after U.S. forces entered the city. Academy of Music is College or university school of music. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... The Louvre Museum in Paris, one of the largest and most famous museums in the world. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


During the 2003 occupation of Iraq, AFN Iraq ("Freedom Radio") broadcast news and entertainment within Baghdad, among other locations. There is also a private radio station called "Dijlah" (named after the Arabic word for the Tigris River) that was created in 2004 as Iraq's first independent talk radio station. Radio Dijlah offices, in the Jamia neighborhood of Baghdad, have been attacked on several occasions. [9] This article deals with the post-invasion period in Iraq and its occupation. ... AFN Iraq is the American Forces Network of radio stations within Iraq. ... Jamia (جامعة) (or Jamia) is the Arabic word for gathering (n. ...


Sights and monuments

A U.S. Navy helicopter flying by the Al-Shaheed Monument
A U.S. Navy helicopter flying by the Al-Shaheed Monument

Points of interest include the National Museum of Iraq whose priceless collection of artifacts was looted during the 2003 invasion the iconic Hands of Victory arches which have been a contentious issue as to their continued presence multiple Iraqi parties are in discussions as to whether they should remain as historical monuments or be dismantled and the Baghdad zoo Thousands of ancient manuscripts in the National Library were destroyed when the building burnt down during the 2003 invasion of Iraq The Al Kadhimain Shrines in the northwest of Baghdad (in Kadhimiya) is one of the most important Shi'ite religious buildings in Iraq. It was finished in 1515 and the 7th (Musa ibn Jafar al-Kathim) and the 9th Imams (Mohammad al-Jawad) were buried here. One of the oldest buildings is the 12th century or 13th century Abbasid Palace. The palace is part of the central historical area of the city and close to other historically important buildings such as the Saray Building and Al-Mustansiriyah School (From the Abbasid Period). There are other landmarks in Baghdad, each of them marks a certain era and has become associated with memorable events or even just changes that marked the city scape. Here are some of them: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... An American helicopter flying past the Al-Shaheed Monument The Al-Shaheed Monument (Arabic:نُصب الشهيد), also known as the Martyrs Memorial, is a monument in the Iraqi capital Baghdad dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran-Iraq war. ... An American Tank guards the Museum following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Kazimain or Al-Kazimiyah is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. ... Musa al-Kazim (Arabic: الإمام موسى الكاظم‎) (Seventh of Safar, 128 AH – Twenty-fifth of Rajab, 183 AH) (Approximately: October 28, 746 AD - September 1, 799 AD) was the seventh of the Twelver Shia Imams. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • Baghdad Tower (used to be known as Saddam Tower): before its partial destruction due to the USA bombing of the Ma'amoon Telecommunication Center next to it, the tower used to be the highest point in the city and from where all Baghdad can be seen. The construction of the tower marks a period of the post-Gulf-war of 1991 reconstruction efforts.
  • The Two Level Bridge in Jadriyah (Jisr Abul Tabqain (the Iraqi common name of it)): Though the planing for this bridge was put long time ago and even before Saddam's regime take over (reference), the bridge was never built back then. As part of the reconstruction efforts to make Baghdad even better than before 1991 war and the USA air force destructive attacks, the long planned bridge was executed. It connects Al-Doura area (which is very large) with a direct path to the rest of the Baghdad and complements the 14th of July Bridge. The structure of the bridge is rather bulky and not much engineering had been put to it, but it functions for its purpose.
  • Al-Zawra'a Park in Al-Mansour Area and almost in a central location of Baghdad.
  • Al-Shaheed Monument: The monument to the Iraqi soldiers killed in the Iran-Iraq war, located on the east bank of the Tigris near Sadr City.
  • In Baghdad is a wide road built in Saddam's time as a parade route, and across it is the Hands of Victory, which is a pair of enormous crossed swords cast from weapons of soldiers who died in the Iran-Iraq War under Saddam's command.

The International Saddam Tower, on the right. ... An American helicopter flying past the Al-Shaheed Monument The Al-Shaheed Monument (Arabic:نُصب الشهيد), also known as the Martyrs Memorial, is a monument in the Iraqi capital Baghdad dedicated to the Iraqi soldiers who died in the Iran-Iraq war. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image of Hands of Victory arches The Swords of Qādisiyyah, also called the Hands of Victory, is a pair of triumphal arches in central Baghdad, Iraq. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants  Iran Iraq Commanders Ruhollah Khomeini, Abolhassan Banisadr, Ali Shamkhani, Mostafa Chamran Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan al-Majid Strength 305,000 soldiers 500,000 Passdaran and Basij militia 900 tanks 1,000 armored vehicles 3,000 artillery pieces 470 aircraft 750 helicopters[1] 190,000 soldiers 5,000 tanks 4... Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majid al-Tikrītī (Often spelt Husayn or Hussain; Arabic صدام حسين عبدالمجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937...

Sport

Baghdad is home to the most successful football teams in Iraq, the biggest being Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Airforce club), Al Zawra, Al Shurta (Police) and Al Talaba (Students). The largest stadium in Baghdad is Al Shaab Stadium which was opened in 1966. Another, much larger stadium, is still in the opening stages of construction. A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Al Quwa Al Jawiya (Arabic: القوة الجوية) is a football club based in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Al Zawra is an Iraqi football club based in Baghdad. ... Al Shurta is an Iraqi football club based in Baghdad. ... Al Talaba (Arabic الطلبة) is an Iraqi football club based in Baghdad. ... Al Shaab Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Baghdad, Iraq. ...


The city has also had a strong tradition of horse racing ever since World War I, known to Baghdadis simply as 'Races'. There are reports of pressures by Islamists to stop this tradition due to the associated gambling.[citation needed] Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Baghdad's major neighborhoods

See also: List of neighborhoods and districts in Baghdad
  • Adhamiyah: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al-Kadhimya: Shiite majority.
  • Karrada: Shiite majority, Christian presence.
  • Al-Jadriya Area : Mixed area.
  • Al-Mansour: Mixed area.
  • Zayouna: Mixed neighborhood.
  • Dora: Mixed area, mostly Sunni. Former Christian presence (most have fled)
  • Sadr City: Almost exclusively Shiite.
  • Hurriya City: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
  • Baghdad Al-Jadida(New Baghdad): Shiite majority, Christian presence.
  • Al-Sa'adoon area : Mixed area.
  • Bab Al-Moatham : Sunni majority, shiite presence.
  • Bab Al-Sharqi : Mixed area.
  • Al-Baya' : Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
  • Al-Saydiya : Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al-A'amiriya : Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al-Shu'ala: Almost exclusively Shiite.
  • Al-Ghazaliya: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al-Za'franiya: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
  • Hayy Ur: Almost exclusively Shiite.
  • Sha'ab City: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.
  • Hayy Al-Jami'a: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al-Adel: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Al:Khadhraa: Sunni majority, Shiite presence.
  • Hayy Al-Jihad: Mixed area.
  • Hayy Al-A'amel: Shiite majority, Sunni presence.

This article lists neighborhoods and districts within 50km of Baghdad, Iraq. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Baghdad_IA_1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Baghdad_IA_1. ... Inside view of the terminal, showing an abandoned FIDS in front of empty check-in desks and passport control. ... Adhamiya is a wealthy and very exclusive area of baghdad,its inhabitants and mostly sunni but nevertheless it is considered a mixed area as many people have the inclination to move here to enjoy the scenic beauty that this area possesses,saddams main palace is also located here,as is... Kazimain, Al-Kazimiyah, or al-Kadhimiya (Arabic: الكاظمية) is a town located in Iraq that is now a neighborhood of Baghdad, located in the northern area of the city about 5 km from the center of the city. ... Karrada (Arabic: كرّادة) is a major affluent district of the city Baghdad, Iraq. ... Al-Jadriya is a neighborhood in Baghdad, Iraq along the Tigris river. ... Mansour (also Al-Mansour) is a district in central Baghdad, Iraq. ... Dora (also Al Dura) is a neighborhood in Rasheed administrative district, southern Baghdad, Iraq. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Hurriya (Freedom) is a neighborhood in Baghdad. ... 9 Nissan or Tisa Nissan, is one of nine administrative districts in Baghdad. ... Baiyaa (Bayaa’) is a a middle-class district in western Baghdad, Iraq along the Baghdad Airport Road. ... Many Iraqi civilians lost their lives when Amiriyah shelter was hit by USAF smart bombs on 13 February 1991 during the Gulf War. ... Ghazaliya is a neighborhood in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Jamia (جامعة) (or Jamia) is the Arabic word for gathering (n. ...

Baghdad's major streets

Source: stripes.com

  • Haifa Street
  • Al-Rashid Street -- the city's main street, stretching from North Gate to South Gate.
  • Hilla Road -- Runs from the South into Baghdad via Yarmouk (Baghdad)
  • Caliphs Street -- site of historical mosques and churches.
  • Sadoun Street -- stretching from Liberation Square to Masbah
  • Mohammed Al-Qassim highway near Adhamiyah
  • Abu Nuwas Street -- runs along the Tigris from the from Jumhouriya Bridge to the 14th July Suspended Bridge
  • Damascus Street -- goes from Damascus Square to the International Airport Road
  • Mutanabbi Street -- A street with numerous book-shops, named after the 10th century Iraqi poet Al-Mutanabbi
  • Rabia Street
  • Arbataash Tamuz (14th July) Street (Mosul Road)
  • Muthana al-Shaibani Street
  • Bor Said (Port Said) Street
  • Thawra Street
  • Falastin (Palestine) Street
  • ’Ordon (Jordan) Street
  • Matar Baghdad Al-Dawli (Airport Road) ((Formerly known as Matar Saddam Al-Dawli))

Haifa Street (or Hayfa Street) is a two-mile-long street in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Yarmouk is a neighborhood in Southern Baghdad, Iraq near the Mansour district just north of the intersection of ‎Baghdad Airport Road and Hilla Road. ... Liberation Square is located in central Baghdad. ... Adhamiya is a wealthy and very exclusive area of baghdad,its inhabitants and mostly sunni but nevertheless it is considered a mixed area as many people have the inclination to move here to enjoy the scenic beauty that this area possesses,saddams main palace is also located here,as is... (Redirected from 14th July) July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Baghdad International Airport and the Green Zone The Baghdad Airport Road is a 12 kilometer (7. ... Ahmad ibn al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi (915–965) was an Arab (Iraqi-born) poet. ... Falastin Street or Palestine Street is a street located in Eastern Baghdad. ...

Town twinning (sister cities)

See also

See also: Reconstruction of Iraq
See also: Baghdad Renaissance Plan
See also: Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center
See also: City of Light Development
See also: Afghan National Museum
See also: UAE Public Library and Cultural Center
Iraq War Portal
Iraq Portal

References

  1. ^ a b Estimates of total population differ substantially. The Encyclopædia Britannica gives a 2001 population of 4,958,000, the 2006 Lancet Report states a population of 6,554,126 in 2004, and GlobalSecurity.org estimates a flat 5 million.
    • "Baghdad." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 November, 2006.
    • "Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey"PDF (242 KiB). By Gilbert Burnham, Riyadh Lafta, Shannon Doocy, and Les Roberts. The Lancet, October 11, 2006
    • Baghdad from GlobalSecurity.org
  2. ^ a b "Cities and urban areas in Iraq with population over 100,000", Mongabay.com
  3. ^ Ket. 7b, Zeb. 9a
  4. ^ http://islamicceramics.ashmol.ox.ac.uk/Abbasid/baghdad.htm
  5. ^ See:
  6. ^ Hill, Donald R. (1994). Islamic Science and Engineering, 10. ISBN 0-7486-0457-X. 
  7. ^ http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201a.htm
  8. ^ Matt T. Rosenberg, Largest Cities Through History.
  9. ^ http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-04-28-poll-cover_x.htm
  10. ^ http://www.arcadd.com/baghdad-cbd.htm
  11. ^ http://csmonitor.com/2003/0716/p01s04b-woiq.htm
  12. ^ http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0102-04.htm

Further reading

  • By Desert Ways to Baghdad, by Louisa Jebb (Mrs. Roland Wilkins), 1908 (1909 ed) (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (11.3 MiB) format)
  • A Dweller in Mesopotamia, being the adventures of an official artist in the garden of Eden, by Donald Maxwell, 1921 (a searchable facsimile at the University of Georgia Libraries; DjVu & layered PDFPDF (7.53 MiB) format)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Baghdad
  • Map of Baghdad
  • Interactive map
  • Iraq - Urban Society
  • Envisioning Reconstruction In Iraq
  • Description of the original layout of Baghdad
  • Ethnic and sectarian map of Baghdad - Healingiraq
  • Baghdad Renaissance Plan
  • UAE Investors Keen On Taking Part In Baghdad Renaissance Project
  • Man With A Plan: Hisham Ashkouri
  • Renaissance Plan In The News
  • ARCADD, Inc.
  • Kabul, City of Light Development
  • Kabul - City of Light, 9 Billion dollar modern urban development project
  • Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center
  • Song - Birds Over Baghdad
  • Baghdad Treasure
  • Baghdad Burning Riverbend
  • Electronic Iraq
  • Maps and aerial photos for 33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.325, 44.422Coordinates: 33°19′30″N 44°25′19″E / 33.325, 44.422
    • Mapping from Multimap or GlobalGuide or Google Maps
    • Aerial image from TerraServer
    • Satellite image from WikiMapia
    • Mapping from OpenStreetMap

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baghdad Burning (16752 words)
The 20-year-old married woman said she was assaulted after police commandos took her into custody Sunday in the western Baghdad neighborhood of Amil, accusing her of helping insurgents.
Baghdad is being torn apart with Shia leaving Sunni areas and Sunnis leaving Shia areas- some under threat and some in fear of attacks.
We watched, stunned, as Baghdad was looted and burned by hordes of men, being watched and saluted by American soldiers in tanks.
Baghdad (1705 words)
Baghdad is the main transportation hub of Iraq, and is linked with the two most important neighbour countries, Jordan and Syria, with excellent highways.
Baghdad is the most important centre of learning in Iraq with the University of Baghdad (established in 1957), al-Mustansiriyya University (established in 1963) and the University of Technology (established in 1974).
Baghdad was in 836 abandoned to Turkish chiefs, and when it later returned to being the capital of the Muslim world, the city was rebuilt on the eastern bank of the Tigris.
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