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Encyclopedia > Baden culture
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).
Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC).

Baden culture, ca 3600 BC-ca 2800 BC, an eneolithic culture found in central Europe. It is known from Moravia, Hungary, Slovakia and Eastern Austria. Imports of Baden-Pottery have also been found in Germany and Switzerland (Arbon-Bleiche III). Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... Image File history File links Corded_Ware_culture. ... The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture or EIEC, edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, was published in 1997 by Fitzroy Dearborn. ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Domestication of the chicken Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... (Redirected from 2800 BC) (29th century BC - 28th century BC - 27th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2775 - 2650 BC - Second Dynasty wars in Egypt 2750 BC - End of the Early Dynastic I Period, and the beginning of the Early Dynastic II... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ...

Contents

History of research

The Baden culture was named after Baden near Vienna by the Austrian prehistorian Oswald Menghin. It is also known as Ossarn-group and Pecel-culture. The first monographic treatment was produced by J. Banner in 1956. Other important scholars are E. Neustupny, Ida Bognar-Kutzian and Vera Nemejcova-Pavukova. Baden has been interpreted as part of a much larger archaeological complex encompassing cultures at the mouth of the Danube (Ezero-Cernavoda III) and the Troad. In 1963, Nándor Kalicz had proposed a connection between the Baden-culture and Troy, based on the anthropomorphic urns from Ózd-Centre (Hungary). This interpretation cannot be maintained in the face of Radiocarbon-dates. The author himself (2004) has called this interpretation a "cul-de-sac", based on a misguided historical methodology. gay ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... Ezero culture, 3300—2700 BC, a bronze age archaeological culture occupying most of present-day Bulgaria. ... Map of the Troas The Troas (Troad) is an ancient region in the northwestern part of Anatolia, bounded by the Hellespont to the northwest, the Aegean Sea to the west, and separated from the rest of Anatolia by the massif that forms Mount Ida. ... Walls of the excavated city of Troy Troy (Greek: , Troia, also , Ilion; Latin: Ilium, Troia[1]) is a legendary city and center of the Trojan War, as described in the Epic Cycle, and especially in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. ...


Chronology

Baden developed out of the late Lengyel culture in the western Carpathian Basin. Němejcová-Pavuková proposes a polygenetic origin, including southeastern elements transmitted by the Bulgarian Ezero-culture of the early Bronze Age (Ezero, layers XIII-VII) and Cernavoda III/Cotofeni. Ecsedy parallelises Baden with EH II in Thessaly, Parzinger with Sitagroi IV. Baden was approximately contemporaneous with the late Funnelbeaker culture, the Globular Amphora culture and the early Corded Ware culture. The following phases are known: Balaton-Lasinya, Baden-Boleráz, Post-Boleraz (divided into early, Fonyod/Tekovsky Hradok and late, Červený Hradok/Szeghalom-Dioér by Vera Němejcová-Pavuková) and classical Baden. The Lengyel culture was a 5th millennium BC culture located in the area of modern-day Hungary and the Czech Republic. ... Sitagroi (Σιταγροί) is a municipality in the Drama Prefecture, Greece. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ... The Globular Amphora Culture, German Kugelamphoren, ca. ... Approximate extent of the Corded Ware horizon with adjacent 3rd millennium cultures (after EIEC). ...

Phase Subgroups Date sites
Balaton-Lasinya - 3700 BC cal -
Boleraz - 3500 BC Pilismarot
Ia Sturovo - Letkès
Ib Nitriansky Hradók - Lánycsok, Vysoki breh
Ic Zlkovce - Balatonboglár
Post-Boleraz -
early Fonyod/Tekovsky Hradok - -
late Červený Hradok/Szeghalom-Dioér - -
Classical Baden 3400 BC -
II, III older - Nevidzany, Viss
IV younger - Uny, Chlaba, Ózd

Settlement

The settlements are often located on hilltops and are normally undefended.


Burial

Both inhumations and cremations are known. In Slovakia and Hungary, the burned remains were often placed in anthropomorphic urns (Slána, Ózd-Center). In Nitriansky Hradok, a mass-grave was uncovered. There are also burials of cattle. Up to now, the only cemetery known from the early Boleráz-phase is Pilismárot (Hungary). It also contained a few examples of stroke-ornamented pottery.


Economy

The economy was mixed. Full-scale agriculture was present, along with the keeping of domestic stock -- pigs, goats, etc. The Baden-culture has some of the earliest attestation of wheeled vehicles in central Europe (so-called waggon-models in pottery). Finds of actual waggons have not been made


Interpretation

Within the Kurgan hypothesis espoused by Marija Gimbutas, the Baden culture is seen as being Indo-Europeanized. For proponents of the older theory that seeks the Indo-European homeland in central Europe in the area occupied by the preceding Funnelbeaker culture, it is similarly considered Indo-Europeanized. Kurgan is a Türkic word for tumulus, burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, or a kurgan cenotaph. ... Marija Gimbutas by Kerbstone 52, at the back of Newgrange, Co. ... The Funnelbeaker culture is the archeological designation for a late Neolithic culture in what is now northern Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia and Poland. ...


The ethnic and linguistic identity of the people associated with this culture is impossible to ascertain. It is nonetheless tempting to put the Italic and Celtic stocks together here at some point, at least in that great European mixing bowl, the plains of Hungary.


Sources

  • J. Banner, Die Peceler Kultur. Arch. Hungarica 35, 1956.
  • Vera Němejcová-Pavuková 1984. K problematike trvania a konca boleazkej skupiny na Slovensku. Slovenska Arch. 34, 1986, 133-176.
  • J. P. Mallory, "Baden Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baden (1685 words)
The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries from the highlands; the north-eastern portion of the territory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar.
The inhabitants of Baden are of various origins, those to the north of Murg being descended from the Alemanni and those to the south from the Franks, while the Swabian Plateau derives its name from a synonymous name of the Alemannic tribe.
The Lords of Baden benefited from the break-up of Swabia, and, raised to the dignity of Margrave in 1112, were able to take their place as one of the four most important dynasts in southern Germany (along with Habsburg, Wittelsbach, and Württemberg).
User:FourthAve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1188 words)
The Yamna culture (ca 3500-2300), while not the most proximal post-Anatolic Urheimat (original homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language, is nonetheless regarded as the Proto-Indo-European-speaking culture for the period.
Behind this culture are the equally Indo-European Sredny Stog (4500-3500), Samara (5th-4th millennium) and Khvalynsk (4900-3500) cultures, which are seen as directly ancestral to the Yamna culture.
The Yamna culture is succeeded, in the west, by the Catacomb culture and in the east, by the Poltavka culture and the Srubna culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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