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Encyclopedia > Bacterial pneumonia
Bacterial pneumonia
Classification & external resources
ICD-10 J13.-J16.
ICD-9 481-483
eMedicine emerg/465  med/1852

Bacterial pneumonia is an infection of the lungs by bacteria. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ...


See pneumonia for a general overview of pneumonia and its other causes. Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...

Contents

Causes

Streptococcus pneumoniae (J13.) is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive bacteria which often lives in the throat of people who do not have pneumonia. Another important Gram-positive cause of pneumonia is Staphylococcus aureus (J15.2). Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus, the most common cause of staph infections, is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper...


Gram-negative bacteria are seen less frequently; Haemophilus influenzae (J14.), Klebsiella pneumoniae (J15.0), Escherichia coli (J15.5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (J15.1) and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common. These bacteria often live in the gut and enter the lungs when contents of the gut (such as vomit) are inhaled. Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Binomial name Klebsiella pneumoniae (Schroeter 1886) Trevisan 1887 Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, encapsulated, lactose-fermenting, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... E. coli redirects here. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans P. cedrina P. corrugata P. fluorescens... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus. ... The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, alimentary canal, or gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ...


The "atypical" bacteria are Coxiella burnetti, Chlamydophila pneumoniae (J16.0), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (J15.7), and Legionella pneumophila. They are "atypical" because they commonly affect teenagers and young adults, are less severe, and require different antibiotics than typical bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Chlamydophila pneumoniae (previously known as Chlamydia pneumoniae) is a species of chlamydiae bacteria which infects humans and is a major cause of pneumonia. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Binomial name Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium, in the class Mollicutes. ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... Binomial name Legionella pneumophila Brenner DJ, Steigerwalt AG, McDade JE 1979 Legionella pneumophila is a thin, pleomorphic, flagellated Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. ...


Pathophysiology

Bacteria typically enter the lung with inhalation, though they can reach the lung through the bloodstream if other parts of the body are infected. Often, bacteria live in parts of the upper respiratory tract and are continually being inhaled into the alveoli. Once inside the alveoli, bacteria travel into the spaces between the cells and also between adjacent alveoli through connecting pores. This invasion triggers the immune system to respond by sending white blood cells responsible for attacking microorganisms (neutrophils) to the lungs. The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms but also release cytokines which result in a general activation of the immune system. This results in the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia. The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid leaked from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and result in impaired oxygen transportation. The Upper respiratory tract refers to the the following parts of the respiratory system: nose and nasal passages paranasal sinuses throat or pharynx Upper respiratory tract infections are among the most common infections in the world. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... Phagocytosis is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ...


Bacteria often travel from the lung into the blood stream and can result in serious illness such as septic shock, in which there is low blood pressure leading to damage in multiple parts of the body including the brain, kidney, and heart. They can also travel to the area between the lungs and the chest wall, called the pleural cavity. Septic shock is a serious medical condition causing such effects as multiple organ failure and death in response to infection and sepsis. ... In animals the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. ... It has been suggested that Renal anomalies and Renal plasma threshold be merged into this article or section. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the pleurae. ...


Treatment

Antibiotics are the treatment of choice for bacterial pneumonia. The antibiotic choice depends on the nature of the pneumonia, the microorganisms most commonly causing pneumonia in the geographical region, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual. In the United Kingdom, amoxicillin is used as first-line therapy in the vast majority of patients who acquire pneumonia in the community, sometimes with added clarithromycin. In North America, where the "atypical" forms of community-acquired pneumonia are becoming more common, clarithromycin, azithromycin, or fluoroquinolones as single therapy, have displaced the amoxicillin as first-line therapy. Local patterns of antibiotic-resistance should always be considered when initiating pharmacotherapy. In hospitalized individuals or those with immune deficiencies, local guidelines determine the selection of antibiotics. These antibiotics are typically given through an intravenous line. Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


Treatment of gram-positive organisms

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae - amoxicillin (or erythromycin in patients allergic to penicillin); cefuroxime and erythromycin in severe cases.
  • Staphylococcus aureus - flucloxacillin (to counteract the organism's β-lactamase)

Treatment of gram-negative organisms

  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Moraxella catarrhalis

Treatment of atypical organisms

Most atypical causes of pneumonia require treatment for 14-21 days.

  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae - doxycycline
  • Chlamydophila psittaci - erythromycin
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae - erythromycin
  • Coxiella burnetti - erythromycin
  • Legionella pneumophila - erythromycin, with rifampicin sometimes added.

People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen. An extremely sick individual may require artificial ventilation and intensive care as life-saving measures while his or her immune system fights off the infectious cause with the help of antibiotics and other drugs. Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans. ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A medical ventilator is a device designed to provide mechanical ventilation to a patient. ... “Intensive Care” redirects here. ...

whatever Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... Upper respiratory infections, commonly referred to the acronym URI, is the illness caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, or bronchi. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ... Rhinitis is the medical term describing irritation and inflammation of the nose. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Pharyngitis (far-in-jÄ« tis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, and is colloquially referred to as a sore throat. ... Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. ... Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx. ... Tracheitis (also known as Bacterial tracheitis or Acute bacterial tracheitis) is a bacterial infection of the trachea and is capable of producing airway obstruction. ... This term also refers to the rump of a quadruped; see croup. ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the cartilage that covers the trachea(windpipe). ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Viral pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung caused by a virus. ... Bronchopneumonia (Lobular pneumonia) - is one of two types of bacterial pneumonia as classified by gross anatomic distribution of consolidation (solidification). ... While often used as a synonym for pneumonia, the rubric of lower respiratory tract infection can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess, acute bronchitis, and emphysema. ... Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs. ... Vasomotor rhinitis is a form of rhinitis that is not related to allergic reactions, but which is characterized by many of the same symptoms, such as a chronic running nose with intermittent sneezing, rhinorrhea and blood-vessel congestion of the nasal mucus membranes. ... For the play, see Hay Fever. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Adenoid hypertrophy (or enlarged adenoids) is the unusual growth (hypertrophy) of the adenoid tonsil. ... A vocal fold nodule (or Nodules of vocal cords) is a nodule or mass of tissue that grows on the vocal folds(vocal cords). ... In medicine, laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the laryngeal cords. ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a group of diseases characterised by limitation of airflow in the airway that is not fully reversible. ... Pneumoconiosis, also known as coal workers pneumoconiosis, miners asthma, or black lung disease, is a lung condition caused by the inhalation of dust, characterized by formation of nodular fibrotic changes in lungs. ... Silicosis (also known as Grinders disease) is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in forms of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. ... Bauxite pneumoconiosis, also known as Shavers disease, corundum smelters lung, bauxite lung or bauxite smelters disease, is a progressive form of pneumoconiosis caused by exposure to bauxite fumes which contain aluminium and silica particulates. ... Berylliosis is a chronic lung disease caused by prolonged exposure to beryllium, a chemical irritant to the lungs. ... Siderosis is the deposition of iron in tissue. ... Byssinosis, commonly called Brown Lung, pooh is caused by exposure to cotton dust in inadequately ventilated working environments. ... Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammation of the lung caused by the bodys immune reaction to small air-borne particles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bird fanciers lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by bird droppings. ... Interstitial is a generic term for referring to the space between other structures or objects. ... Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), also known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or adult respiratory distress syndrome (in contrast with IRDS) is a serious reaction to various forms of injuries to the lung. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... Hamman-Rich syndrome (also known as acute interstitial pneumonia) is a rare, severe lung disease which usually affects otherwise healthy individuals. ... Interstitial lung disease (ILD), also known as diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), refers to a group of lung diseases (including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis), affecting the alveolar epithelium, pulmonary capillary endothelium, basement membrane, perivascular and perilymphatic tissues. ... Pus is a whitish-yellow or yellow substance that can be found in regions of bacterial infection, including superficial infections, such as pimples. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to unprogrammed death of cells/living tissue (compare with apoptosis - programmed cell death). ... Lung abscess is necrosis of the pulmonary tissue and formation of cavities containing necrotic debris or fluid caused by microbial infection. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ... An empyema is a collection of pus within a natural body cavity. ... Left-sided pneumothorax (on the right side of the image) on CT scan of the chest with chest tube in place. ... Respiratory failure is a medical term for inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system. ... Atelectasis is defined as collapse of a part of the lung or the whole lung, where the alveoli are deflated, as distinct from pulmonary consolidation. ... Mediastinitis is inflammation of the tissues in the mediastinum. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bacterial pneumonia (2725 words)
Pneumonia may occur in people of all ages, although young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients are especially at risk.
Symptoms of pneumonia commonly include shortness of breath; coughing that produces greenish or yellow sputum; a high fever (that may be accompanied with sweating, chills, and rigors [shaking]); sharp or stabbing chest pain, worsened by deep breaths or coughs (pleuritic chest pain); and rapid, shallow breathing that is often painful.
In nosocomial pneumonia (pneumonia that was acquired while the patient was in hospital for other treatment) and in immunocompromised patients, a clear diagnosis of pneumonia can be difficult; thus, a chest CT scan and/or other tests are often required to rule out causes such as pulmonary embolism).
Pneumonia (1253 words)
Pneumonia is a general term that refers to an infection of the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Symptoms of pneumonia vary, depending on the age of the child and the cause of the pneumonia.
When pneumonia is due to whooping cough (pertussis), the child may have long coughing spells, turn blue from lack of air, or make a classic "whoop" sound when trying to take a breath.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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