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Encyclopedia > Bacterial artificial chromosome

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E. coli. Its usual insert size is 150 kbp, with a range from 100 to 300 kbp. A similar cloning vector, called a PAC has also been produced from the bacterial P1-plasmid. A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is going to be transplanted into a target tissue or cell. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). ... Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of an original organism or thing. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... In molecular biology, two nucleotides on opposite complementary DNA or RNA strands that are connected via hydrogen bonds are called a base pair (often abbreviated bp). ...

BACs are often used to sequence the genetic code of organisms in genome projects, for example the Human Genome Project. A short piece of the organism's DNA is amplified as an insert in BACs, and then sequenced. Finally, the sequenced parts are rearranged in silico, resulting in the genomic sequence of the organism. In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that aim to map the genome of a living being or of a species (be it an animal, a plant, a fungus, a bacterium, an archaean, a protist or a virus), that is, the complete set of genes caried by this living being or virus. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ... in silico is an expression used to mean performed on computer or via computer simulation. ...

They can also be utilised in genetic disease models, often with mice, as in the study of complex genes it can carry both the gene and various promoter sequences which can often show the genes true expression level. they can be transferred over to models by electroporation/transformation, transfection and microinjection. BACs can also be utilised to detect genes and map them onto the human chromosome using BAC arrays. Scientific modelling is the process of generating abstract or conceptual models. ... In genetics, a promoter is a DNA sequence that enables a gene to be transcribed. ... Example of an approximately 40,000 probe spotted oligo microarray with enlarged inset to show detail. ...

See also

A human artificial chromosome (short HAC) is a microchromosome that can act as a new chromosome in a population of human cells. ... A yeast artificial chromosome (short YAC) is a vector used to clone large DNA fragments (larger than 100 kb and up to 3000 kb). ...

External links

  • The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly

  Results from FactBites:
genome.gov | BAC Resource Network (188 words)
Over the past several years, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) has emerged as the vector system of choice for the construction of the large-insert, chromosomal DNA libraries that are needed in genomic studies.
Because BAC clones are relatively large and appear to faithfully represent an organism's genome, the BAC system will also be the vehicle of choice for the isolation of targeted regions of genomic DNA from additional organisms being used in specific biological studies, a variety of mouse strains, and even from individual humans.
The BAC Resource Network will be overseen by a BAC Resource Steering Panel of 4 to 6 scientists, who will regularly evaluate the program's overall progress and make recommendations to the NHGRI and participating institutes about any adjustments that need to be made to the program.
Bacterial artificial chromosome Summary (1807 words)
Artificial chromosomes are laboratory constructs that contain DNA sequences and that perform the critical functions of natural chromosomes.
A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a fertility plasmid, used for transforming and cloning in bacteria, usually E.
BACs are often used to sequence the genetic code of organisms in genome projects, for example the Human Genome Project.
  More results at FactBites »



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