FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Bacteria" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Bacteria
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
Bacteria
Fossil range: Archean or earlier - Recent

Escherichia coli cells magnified 25,000 times
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phyla

Actinobacteria
Aquificae
Chlamydiae
Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Deinococcus-Thermus
Dictyoglomi
Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria
Firmicutes
Fusobacteria
Gemmatimonadetes
Lentisphaerae
Nitrospirae
Planctomycetes
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes
Thermodesulfobacteria
Thermomicrobia
Thermotogae
Verrucomicrobia The Archean is a geologic eon; it is a somewhat antiquated term for the time span between 2500 million years before the present and 3800 million years before the present. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Familia Aquificaceae Hydrogenothermaceae The Aquificae phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Classes Class Bacteroidetes Class Flavobacteria Class Sphingobacteria The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large classes of bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, in sediments, sea water and in the guts of animals. ... Genera Chlorobium Ancalochloris Chloroherpeton Clathrochloris Pelodictyon Prostheochloris The green sulfur bacteria are a family (Chlorobiaceae) of phototrophic bacteria. ... Orders / Families / Genera Order Chloroflexales     Family Chloroflexaceae      Chloroflexus      Chloronema      Heliothrix      Roseiflexus    Family Oscillochloridaceae      Oscillochloris Order Herpetosiphonales      Herpetosiphon The Chloroflexi are a group of bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis. ... Binomial name Chrysiogenes arsenatis Chrysiogenes arsenatis is a species of bacterium given its own phylum or division, called the Chrysiogenetes. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Genera Deferribacter Denitrovibrio Flexistipes Geovibrio The Deferribacteraceae are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Deferribacteres). ... Orders & Genera Deinococcales     Deinococcus Thermales     Thermus     Meiothermus     Marinithermus     Oceanithermus     Vulcanithermus The Deinococcus-Thermus are a small group of bacteria comprised of cocci highly resistant to environmental hazards. ... Binomial name Dictyoglomus thermophilum Dictyoglomus thermophilum is a species of bacterium, given its own phylum, called the Dictyoglomi. ... Fibrobacteres is a phylum of bacteria. ... Genera Acidobacterium Geothrix Holophaga Acidobacteria form a newly devised division of Bacteria. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Fusobacteria contribute to several diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierres syndrome, and tropical skin ulcers. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Genera Verrucomicrobium Prosthecobacter Akkermansia Verrucomicrobia is a recently described phylum of bacteria. ... The Nitrospira are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Nitrospirae). ... Genera Gemmata Isosphera Pirellula Planctomyces Planctomycetes are an order of obligately aerobic aquatic bacteria and are found in field samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water samples. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Genera Desulfotalea Desulfovirga Thermodesulfobacterium The Thermodesulfobacteria are a small group of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. ... Classes Thermomicrobia phylum is a phenotype of the green non-sulfur bacteria. ... Species Thermotoga elfii Thermotoga hypogea Thermotoga lettingae Thermotoga maritima Thermotoga naphthophila Thermotoga neapolitana Thermotoga petrophila Thermotoga subterranea Thermotoga thermarum Thermotoga are thermophile or hyperthermophile bacteria whose cell is wrapped in an outer toga membrane. ... Genera Verrucomicrobium Prosthecobacter Akkermansia Verrucomicrobia is a recently described phylum of bacteria. ...

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. They are typically a few micrometres long and have many shapes including curved rods, spheres, rods, and spirals. The study of bacteria is bacteriology, a branch of microbiology. Bacteria are ubiquitous in every habitat on Earth, growing in soil, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[1] seawater, and deep in the earth's crust. There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water; in all, there are approximately five nonillion (5×1030) bacteria in the world.[2] Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients, and many important steps in nutrient cycles depend on bacteria, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. However, most of these bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that can be cultured in the laboratory.[3] A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... Adjectives: Terrestrial, Terran, Telluric, Tellurian, Earthly Atmosphere Surface pressure: 101. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57°F or... Political Punk band from Victorville, Ca WWW.MYSPACE.COM/NUCLEARWASTEX ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... // Throughout this article, exponential or scientific notation is used. ... A cycle by which chemical substance are constantly being recycled through the biosphere from the soil, as plant nutrients, to producers (plants), to consumers (animals), to decomposers in the soil, and then back to the producers. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[3] Earths atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earths gravity. ... For the linguistic term, see Phylum (linguistics). ... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... For other uses of lab, see Lab. ...


There are approximately 10 times as many bacterial cells as human cells in the human body, with large numbers of bacteria on the skin and in the digestive tract.[4] Although the vast majority of these bacteria are rendered harmless or beneficial by the protective effects of the immune system, a few pathogenic bacteria cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2 million people a year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa.[5] In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and in various agricultural processes, so antibiotic resistance is becoming common. In industry, bacteria are important in processes such as wastewater treatment, the production of cheese and yoghurt, and the manufacture of antibiotics and other chemicals.[6] Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... In zootomy and dermatology, skin is the largest organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of epithelial tissues that guard underlying muscles and organs. ... Upper and Lower gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), also called the digestive tract, or the alimentary canal, is the system of organs within multicellular animals that takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... The bubonic plague (more properly Bubonic Fever; a plague is an epidemic) is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Upper respiratory tract infection, also popularly known as either the acronym URTI or URI, is the disease characterised by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... A political map showing national divisions in relation to deonte Shepard Club Of America Free burgers for new members the ecological break (Sub-Saharan Africa in green) A geographical map of Africa, showing the ecological break that defines the sub-Saharan area Sub-Saharan Africa is the term used to... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


Bacteria are prokaryotes. Unlike animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific nomenclature changed after the discovery that prokaryotic life consists of two very different groups of organisms that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.[7] Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ...

Contents

History of bacteriology

Further information: Microbiology
Anton van Leeuwenhoek, the first person to observe bacteria using a microscope.

Bacteria were first observed by the Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1674, using a single-lens microscope of his own design. He called them "animalcules" and published his observations in a long series of letters to the Royal Society.[8][9] The name bacterium was introduced much later, by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg in 1828, and is derived from the Greek word βακτήριον -α , bacterion -a , meaning "small staff".[10] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Antoni_van_Leeuwenhoek. ... Image File history File links Antoni_van_Leeuwenhoek. ... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ... Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...


Louis Pasteur demonstrated in 1859 that the fermentation process is caused by the growth of microorganisms, and that this growth is not due to spontaneous generation. (Yeasts and molds, commonly associated with fermentation, are not bacteria, but rather fungi.) Along with his contemporary, Robert Koch, Pasteur was an early advocate of the germ theory of disease.[11] Robert Koch was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked on cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. In his research into tuberculosis, Koch finally proved the germ theory, for which he was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1905.[12] In Koch's postulates, he set out criteria to test if an organism is the cause of a disease; these postulates are still used today.[13] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in microbiology. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (biochemistry). ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ...


Though it was known in the nineteenth century that bacteria are the cause of many diseases, no effective antibacterial treatments were available.[14] In 1910, Paul Ehrlich developed the first antibiotic, by changing dyes that selectively stained Treponema pallidum—the spirochete that causes syphilis—into compounds that selectively killed the pathogen.[15] Ehrlich had been awarded a 1908 Nobel Prize for his work on immunology, and pioneered the use of stains to detect and identify bacteria, with his work being the basis of the Gram stain and the Ziehl-Neelsen stain.[16] An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... The Ziehl-Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two german doctors; Franz Ziehl (1859 to 1926), a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelsen (1854 to 1894), a pathologist. ...


A major step forward in the study of bacteria was the recognition in 1977 by Carl Woese that archaea have a separate line of evolutionary descent from bacteria.[17] This new phylogenetic taxonomy was based on the sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA, and divided prokaryotes into two evolutionary domains as part of the three-domain system.[18] Carl Richard Woese (born July 15, 1928, Syracuse, New York) is an American microbiologist famous for defining the Archaea (a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique pioneered by Woese and which is now standard practice. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (or primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. ... A Svedberg (symbol S, sometimes Sv) is a non-SI physical unit used in ultracentrifugation. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ...


Origin and early evolution

Further information: Timeline of evolution

The ancestors of modern bacteria were single-celled microorganisms that were the first forms of life to develop on earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, all organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.[19][20] Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the past history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species. However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.[21] The most recent common ancestor of bacteria and archaea was probably a hyperthermophile that lived about 2.5 billion–3.2 billion years ago.[22][23] This timeline of the evolution of life outlines the major events in the development of life on the planet Earth. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 1017 seconds and 1018 seconds (3. ... FOSSIL is a standard for allowing serial communication for telecommunications programs under DOS. FOSSIL is an acronym for Fido Opus Seadog Standard Interface Layer. ... Pre-Cambrian stromatolites in the Siyeh Formation, Glacier National Park. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Phylogenetic groups, or taxa, can be monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ... This article is about an organism. ...


Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from ancient bacteria entering into endosymbiotic associations with the ancestors of eukaryotic cells, which were themselves possibly related to the Archaea.[24][25] This involved the engulfment by proto-eukaryotic cells of alpha-proteobacterial symbionts to form either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes, which are still being found in all known Eukarya (sometimes in highly reduced form, e. g. in ancient "amitochondrial" protozoa). Later on, an independent second engulfment by some mitochondria-containing eukaryotes of cyanobacterial-like organisms led to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants. There are even some algal groups known that clearly originated from subsequent events of endosymbiosis by heterotrophic eukaryotic hosts engulfing a eukaryotic algae that developed into "second-generation" plastids.[26][27] An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek μιτος or mitos, thread + χονδριον or khondrion, granule) is a membrane-enclosed organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells. ... A hydrogenosome is an organelle of ciliates, trichomonads and fungi. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ...


Morphology

Bacteria display a large diversity of cell morphologies and arrangements.

Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies. Bacterial cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5–5.0 micrometres in length. However, a few species–for example Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni–are up to half a millimetre long and are visible to the unaided eye.[28] Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma, which measure only 0.3 micrometres, as small as the largest viruses.[29] Image File history File links Bacterial_morphology_diagram. ... Image File history File links Bacterial_morphology_diagram. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Binomial name Thiomargarita namibiensis Schulz , 1999 Thiomargarita namibiensis (Sulfur pearl of Namibia) is the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm (0. ... Binomial name Epulopiscium fischelsoni Schulz , 1999 Epulopiscium fishelsoni (guest at a fishs banquet) is a gram-positive bacterium that has a symbiotic relationship with the surgeonfish. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus (from the Latin noun virus, meaning toxin or poison) is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the...


Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci (sing. coccus, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed) or rod-shaped, called bacilli (sing. bacillus, from Latin baculus, stick). Some rod-shaped bacteria, called vibrio, are slightly curved or comma-shaped; others, can be spiral-shaped, called spirilla, or tightly coiled, called spirochetes. A small number of species even have tetrahedral or cuboidal shapes.[30] This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton, and is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids and escape predators.[31][32] Staphylococcus Cocci (singular - coccus, from the latin word kokkus meaning a berry) are any spherical or near spherical bacteria. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Vibrio is a genus of bacteria, included in the gamma subgroup of the Proteobacteria. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... A juvenile Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator species kills and eats other organisms, known as prey. ...


Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells, others associate in characteristic patterns: Neisseria form diploids (pairs), Streptococcus form chains, and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters. Bacteria can also be elongated to form filaments, for example the Actinobacteria. Filamentous bacteria are often surrounded by a sheath that contains many individual cells; certain types, such as species of the genus Nocardia, even form complex, branched filaments, similar in appearance to fungal mycelia.[33] Neisseria is a genus of bacteria, included among the proteobacteria, a large group of gram-negative forms. ... Streptococcus is a genus of spherical shaped Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[1] and the lactic acid bacteria group. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Nocardia is a genus of Gram-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacteria; some species are pathogenic (nocardiosis). ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae that exists below the ground or within another substrate. ...

The range of sizes shown by prokaryotes, relative to those of other organisms and biomolecules

Bacteria often attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations called biofilms or microbial mats. These films can range from a few micrometers in thickness to up to half a metre in depth, and may contain multiple species of bacteria, protists and archaea. Bacteria living in biofilms display a complex arrangement of cells and extracellular components, forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients.[34][35] In natural environments, such as soil or the surfaces of plants, the majority of bacteria are bound to surfaces in biofilms.[36] Biofilms are also important for chronic bacterial infections and infections of implanted medical devices, as bacteria protected within these structures are much harder to kill than individual bacteria.[37] Image File history File links Relative_scale. ... Image File history File links Relative_scale. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Typical phyla Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: ) are a diverse group of organisms, comprising those eukaryotes that are not animals... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... An implant is an artificial device made to replace and act as a missing biological structure. ...


Even more complex morphological changes are sometimes possible. For example, when starved of amino acids, Myxobacteria detect surrounding cells in a process known as quorum sensing, migrate towards each other, and aggregate to form fruiting bodies up to 500 micrometres long and containing approximately 100,000 bacterial cells.[38] In these fruiting bodies, the bacteria perform separate tasks; this type of cooperation is a simple type of multicellular organisation. For example, about one in 10 cells migrate to the top of these fruiting bodies and differentiate into a specialised dormant state called myxospores, which are more resistant to desiccation and other adverse environmental conditions than are ordinary cells.[39] Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Quorum sensing is the ability of bacteria to communicate and coordinate behavior via signaling molecules. ... Wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite stained to highlight the nuclei of all cells Multicellular organisms are organisms consisting of more than one cell, and having differentiated cells that perform specialized functions. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ...


Cellular structure

Further information: Bacterial cell structure
Diagram of the cellular structure of a typical bacterial cell

Bacteria, despite their apparent simplicity contain a well developed cell structure which is responsible for many of their unique biological properties. ... Image File history File links Prokaryote_cell_diagram. ... Image File history File links Prokaryote_cell_diagram. ...

Intracellular structures

The bacterial cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane, or cell membrane, which encompasses the contents of the cell and acts as a barrier to hold nutrients, proteins and other essential components of the cytoplasm within the cell. As they are prokaryotes, bacteria do not have membrane-bound organelles in their cytoplasm and thus contain few intracellular structures. They consequently lack a nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells, such as the Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.[40] A polyunsaturated triglyceride. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-oht) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Electron micrograph of a mitochondrion showing its mitochondrial matrix and membranes In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) (from Greek μιτος or mitos, thread + χονδριον or khondrion, granule) is a membrane-enclosed organelle, found in most eukaryotic cells. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Diagram of the endomembrane system in a typical eukaryote cell Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... The endoplasmic reticulum or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport of proteins to be used in the cell membrane (e. ...


Many important biochemical reactions, such as energy generation, occur due to concentration gradients across membranes, creating a potential difference analogous to a battery. The absence of internal membranes in bacteria means these reactions, such as electron transport, occur across the cell membrane, between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic space.[41] Additionally, while some transporter proteins consume chemical energy, others harness concentration gradients to import nutrients across the cell membrane or to expel undesired molecules from the cytoplasm. Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Pair of AA Eveready Alkaline Cells Symbols representing a single Cell (top) and Battery (bottom), used in circuit diagrams. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ... The periplasmic space is the space seen between the plasma membrane and the outer membrane in the gram-negative bacteria. ...


Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus, and their genetic material is typically a single circular chromosome located in the cytoplasm in an irregularly shaped body called the nucleoid.[42] The nucleoid contains the chromosome with associated proteins and RNA. Like all living organisms, bacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins, but the structure of the bacterial ribosome is different from those of eukaryotes and Archaea.[43] The order Planctomycetes are an exception to the general absence of internal membranes in bacteria, because they have a membrane around their nucleoid and contain other membrane-bound cellular structures.[44] For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... In prokaryotes, the nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like and also known as the nuclear region, nuclear body or chromatin body) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell where the genetic material is localised. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers, that acts as a messenger between DNA and ribosomes, and that is also responsible for making proteins out of amino acids. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... Genera Gemmata Isosphera Pirellula Planctomyces Planctomycetes are an order of obligately aerobic aquatic bacteria and are found in field samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water samples. ...


Some bacteria produce intracellular nutrient storage granules, such as glycogen,[45] polyphosphate,[46] sulfur[47] or polyhydroxyalkanoates.[48] These granules enable bacteria to store compounds for later use. Certain bacterial species, such as the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, produce internal gas vesicles, which they use to regulate their buoyancy to achieve optimal light intensity and/or nutrient levels.[49] Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Polyphosphates are phosphate polymers linked between hydroxyl groups and hydrogen atoms. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ...


Extracellular structures

Further information: Cell envelope

Around the outside of the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are made of peptidoglycan (called murein in older sources), which is made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by unusual peptides containing D-amino acids.[50] Bacterial cell walls are different from the cell walls of plants and fungi, which are made of cellulose and chitin, respectively.[51] The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential to the survival of many bacteria, and the antibiotic penicillin is able to kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan.[51] The cell envelope is the cell membrane and cell wall plus an outer membrane, if one is present. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a homogeneous layer outside the plasma membrane of eubacteria. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Peptides (from the Greek πεπτος, digestible), are the family of short molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various α-amino acids. ... Phenylalanine is one of the standard amino acids. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Structure of the chitin molecule, showing two of the N-Acetylglucosamine units that repeat to form long chains in beta-1,4 linkage. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


There are broadly speaking two different types of cell wall in bacteria, called Gram-positive and Gram-negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain, a test long-employed for the classification of bacterial species.[52] Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ...


Gram-positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. Most bacteria have the Gram-negative cell wall, and only the Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria, respectively) have the alternative Gram-positive arrangement.[53] These differences in structure can produce differences in antibiotic susceptibility; for instance, vancomycin can kill only Gram-positive bacteria and is ineffective against Gram-negative pathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[54] Teichoic acids are polymers of glycerol or ribitol linked via phosphodiester bonds. ... Lipopolysaccharide (captions are in French) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a large molecule consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide (carbohydrate) joined by a covalent bond. ... A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Subclasses Acidimicrobidae Actinobacteridae Coriobacteridae Rubrobacteridae Sphaerobacteridae The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Binomial name Haemophilus influenzae (Lehmann & Neumann 1896) Winslow 1917 Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffers bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor...


In many bacteria an S-layer of rigidly arrayed protein molecules covers the outside of the cell.[55] This layer provides chemical and physical protection for the cell surface and can act as a macromolecular diffusion barrier. S-layers have diverse but mostly poorly understood functions, but are known to act as virulence factors in Campylobacter and contain surface enzymes in Bacillus stearothermophilus.[56] An S-layer is a part of cell envelope commonly found in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as among Archaea. ... A macromolecule is a large molecule with a large molecular mass bonded covalently, but generally the use of the term is restricted to polymers and molecules which structurally include polymers. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Bacillus stearothermophilus is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria and a member of the division Firmicutes. ...

Helicobacter pylori electron micrograph, showing multiple flagella on the cell surface

Flagella are rigid protein structures, about 20 nanometres in diameter and up to 20 micrometres in length, that are used for motility. Flagella are driven by the energy released by the transfer of ions down an electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane.[57] Image File history File linksMetadata EMpylori. ... Image File history File linksMetadata EMpylori. ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of gastric epithelium in the stomach, and also the duodenum when it has undergone gastric metaplasia. ... // A Flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. ... The metre or meter is a measure of length. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3−). Areas coloured red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow An ion is an atom or group of atoms which have lost or gained one or more electrons, making them negatively or positively charged. ... In cellular biology, an electrochemical gradient refers to the electrical and chemical properties across a membrane. ...


Fimbriae are fine filaments of protein, just 2–10 nanometres in diameter and up to several micrometers in length. They are distributed over the surface of the cell, and resemble fine hairs when seen under the electron microscope. Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells and are essential for the virulence of some bacterial pathogens.[58] Pili (sing. pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger than fimbriae, that can transfer genetic material between bacterial cells in a process called conjugation (see bacterial genetics, below).[59] A fimbria (plural fimbriae) is a Latin word that literally means fringe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image of bacteriological pili or fimbriae A pilus (Latin; plural : pili) is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell, especially Gram-negative bacteria, a protein appendage required for bacterial conjugation. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through cell-to-cell contact. ...


Capsules or slime layers are produced by many bacteria to surround their cells, and vary in structural complexity: ranging from a disorganised slime layer of extra-cellular polymer, to a highly structured capsule or glycocalyx. These structures can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages.[60] They can also act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, as well as aiding attachment to surfaces and the formation of biofilms.[61] A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... The term capsule in microbiology refers to a layer that lies outside the cell wall of bacteria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Glycocalix. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, makros = long, phagein = eat) are white blood cells, more specifically phagocytes, acting in the nonspecific defense as well as the specific defense system of vertebrate animals. ...


The assembly of these extracellular structures is dependent on bacterial secretion systems. These transfer proteins from the cytoplasm into the periplasm or into the environment around the cell. Many types of secretion systems are known and these structures are often essential for the virulence of pathogens, so are intensively studied.[62] Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Virulence is either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ...


Endospores

Further information: Endospores
Bacillus anthracis (stained purple) growing in cerebrospinal fluid

Certain genera of Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporohalobacter, Anaerobacter and Heliobacterium, can form highly resistant, dormant structures called endospores.[63] In almost all cases, one endospore is formed and this is not a reproductive process, although Anaerobacter can make up to seven endospores in a single cell.[64] Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes surrounded by a cortex layer and protected by an impermeable and rigid coat. An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Image File history File links Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid showing gram-positive anthrax baccilli (purple rods). ... Image File history File links Gram stained cerebrospinal fluid showing gram-positive anthrax baccilli (purple rods). ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Sporohalobacter are a genus of anerobic bacteria belonging to the family Haloanaerobiaceae. ... Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. ... Genera Heliobacterium Heliobacillus Heliophilum Heliorestis The heliobacteria are a small family of bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Anaerobacter are a genus of Gram-positive bacteria related to Clostridium. ... It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ...


Endospores show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light, gamma radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, pressure and desiccation.[65] In this dormant state, these organisms may remain viable for millions of years,[66][67] and endospores even allow bacteria to survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space.[68] Endospore-forming bacteria can also cause disease: for example, anthrax can be contracted by the inhalation of Bacillus anthracis endospores, and contamination of deep puncture wounds with Clostridium tetani endospores causes tetanus.[69] A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... “UV” redirects here. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Laundry detergents are just one of many possible uses for detergents Detergent is a compound, or a mixture of compounds, intended to assist cleaning. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Look up Vacuum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Clostridium tetani Flügge, 1886 Clostridium tetani is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ...


Metabolism

Further information: Microbial metabolism

In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types.[70] The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of bacteria has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy, but these traits often do not correspond with modern genetic classifications.[71] Bacterial metabolism is classified on the basis of three major criteria: the kind of energy used for growth, the source of carbon, and the electron donors used for growth. An additional criterion of respiratory microorganisms are the electron acceptors used for aerobic or anaerobic respiration.[72] Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains energy and the nutrients (e. ... Image File history File links Bluegreen_algae. ... Image File history File links Bluegreen_algae. ... Leaf. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... A few of the metabolic pathways in a cell. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... An electron donor is a compound that gives up or donates an electron during cellular respiration, resulting in the release of energy. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ...


Carbon metabolism in bacteria is either heterotrophic, where organic carbon compounds are used as carbon sources, or autotrophic, meaning that cellular carbon is obtained by fixing carbon dioxide. Typical autotrophic bacteria are phototrophic cyanobacteria, green sulfur-bacteria and some purple bacteria, but also many chemolithotrophic species, e. g. nitrifying or sulfur-oxidising bacteria.[73] Energy metabolism of bacteria is either based on phototrophy, the use of light through photosynthesis, or on chemotrophy, the use of chemical substances for energy, which are mostly oxidised at the expense of oxygen or alternative electron acceptors (aerobic/anaerobic respiration). Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Carbon fixation is a process found in autotrophs, usually driven by photosynthesis, whereby carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Purple bacteria or purple photosynthetic bacteria are proteobacteria that are phototrophic, i. ... Phototrophs or photoautotrophs are photosynthetic algae, fungi, bacteria and cyanobacteria which build up carbon dioxide and water into organic cell materials using energy from sunlight. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donating molecules in their environments. ...


Finally, bacteria are further divided into lithotrophs that use inorganic electron donors and organotrophs that use organic compounds as electron donors. Chemotrophic organisms use the respective electron donors for energy conservation (by aerobic/anaerobic respiration or fermentation) and biosynthetic reactions (e.g. carbon dioxide fixation), whereas phototrophic organisms use them only for biosynthetic purposes. Respiratory organisms use chemical compounds as a source of energy by taking electrons from the reduced substrate and transferring them to a terminal electron acceptor in a redox reaction. This reaction releases energy that can be used to synthesise ATP and drive metabolism. In aerobic organisms, oxygen is used as the electron acceptor. In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds, such as nitrate, sulfate or carbon dioxide are used as electron acceptors. This leads to the ecologically important processes of denitrification, sulfate reduction and acetogenesis, respectively. A lithotroph is a microorganism which uses an inorganic substrate to synthesize all its organic molecules. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for oxidation/reduction reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced by anaerobic bacteria from a variety of energy (for example, hydrogen) and carbon (for example, carbon dioxide) sources. ...


Another way of life of chemotrophs in the absence of possible electron acceptors is fermentation, where the electrons taken from the reduced substrates are transferred to oxidised intermediates to generate reduced fermentation products (e. g. lactate, ethanol, hydrogen, butyrate). Fermentation is possible, because the energy content of the substrates is higher than that of the products, which allows the organisms to synthesise ATP and drive their metabolism.[74][75] For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... The butyrate (also butanoate) ion is C3H7COO- (butyric acid minus one hydrogen ion). ...


These processes are also important in biological responses to pollution; for example, sulfate-reducing bacteria are largely responsible for the production of the highly toxic forms of mercury (methyl- and dimethylmercury) in the environment.[76] Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste. Facultative anaerobes can switch between fermentation and different terminal electron acceptors depending on the environmental conditions in which they find themselves. It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... Sulfate-reducing bacteria comprise several groups of bacteria that use sulfate as an oxidizing agent, reducing it to sulfide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... Methylmercury (sometimes methyl mercury), an organometallic cation with the formula [CH3Hg]+. It is a bioaccumulative environmental toxin. ... Dimethylmercury ((CH3)2Hg) is a flammable, colorless liquid, and one of the strongest known neurotoxins. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ...


Lithotrophic bacteria can use inorganic compounds as a source of energy. Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia (leading to nitrification), ferrous iron and other reduced metal ions, and several reduced sulfur compounds. Unusually, the gas methane can be used by methanotrophic bacteria as both a source of electrons and a substrate for carbon anabolism.[77] In both aerobic phototrophy and chemolithotrophy, oxygen is used as a terminal electron acceptor, while under anaerobic conditions inorganic compounds are used instead. Most lithotrophic organisms are autotrophic, whereas organotrophic organisms are heterotrophic. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. ... Nitrogen cycle Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. ... Iron(II) oxide, also known as ferrous oxide or ferrous iron, is one of the iron oxides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Methanotrophs are bacteria that are able to grow using methane as their only source of carbon and energy. ... e- redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In addition to fixing carbon dioxide in photosynthesis, some bacteria also fix nitrogen gas (nitrogen fixation) using the enzyme nitrogenase. This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of nearly all the metabolic types listed above, but is not universal.[78] General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Nitrogenase (EC 1. ...


Growth and reproduction

Further information: Bacterial growth

Unlike multicellular organisms, increases in the size of bacteria (cell growth) and their reproduction by cell division are tightly linked in unicellular organisms. Bacteria grow to a fixed size and then reproduce through binary fission, a form of asexual reproduction.[79] Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial populations can double as quickly as every 9.8 minutes.[80] In cell division, two identical clone daughter cells are produced. Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that facilitate the dispersal of the newly formed daughter cells. Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxobacteria and arial hyphae formation by Streptomyces, or budding. Budding involves a cell forming a protrusion that breaks away and produces a daughter cell. Bacterial growth is process in which two clone daughter cells are produced by the cell division of one bacterium. ... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binary fission Binary fission is the form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryotes. ... It has been suggested that Parthenogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Hyphae of Penicillium A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filamentous cell of a fungus, and also of unrelated Actinobacteria. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ...

Solid agar plate with bacterial colonies

In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using solid or liquid media. Solid growth media such as agar plates are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain. However, liquid growth media are used when measurement of growth or large volumes of cells are required. Growth in stirred liquid media occurs as an even cell suspension, making the cultures easy to divide and transfer, although isolating single bacteria from liquid media is difficult. The use of selective media (media with specific nutrients added or deficient, or with antibiotics added) can help identify specific organisms.[81] Image File history File links An agar plate with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... Image File history File links An agar plate with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ...


Most laboratory techniques for growing bacteria use high levels of nutrients to produce large amounts of cells cheaply and quickly. However, in natural environments nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely. This nutrient limitation has led the evolution of different growth strategies (see r/K selection theory). Some organisms can grow extremely rapidly when nutrients become available, such as the formation of algal (and cyanobacterial) blooms that often occur in lakes during the summer.[82] Other organisms have adaptations to harsh environments, such as the production of multiple antibiotics by Streptomyces that inhibit the growth of competing microorganisms.[83] In nature, many organisms live in communities (e.g. biofilms) which may allow for increased supply of nutrients and protection from environmental stresses.[36] These relationships can be essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy).[84] In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of traits (in organisms) that allow success in particular environments. ... Algal blooms can present problems for ecosystems and human society An algal bloom is a relatively rapid increase in the population of (usually) phytoplankton algae in an aquatic system. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Syntrophy is the phenomenon that one species lives of the products of another species. ...


Bacterial growth follows three phases. When a population of bacteria first enter a high-nutrient environment that allows growth, the cells need to adapt to their new environment. The first phase of growth is the lag phase, a period of slow growth when the cells are adapting to fast growth. The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates, as enzymes and nutrient transporters are produced.[85] The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase (log phase), also known as the exponential phase. The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth. The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate (k), and the time it takes the cells to double is known as the generation time (g). During log phase, nutrients are metabolised at maximum speed until one of the nutrients is depleted and starts limiting growth. The final phase of growth is the stationary phase and is caused by depleted nutrients. The cells reduce their metabolic activity and consume non-essential cellular proteins. The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to a stress response state and there is increased expression of genes involved in DNA repair, antioxidant metabolism and nutrient transport.[86] Bacterial growth is process in which two clone daughter cells are produced by the cell division of one bacterium. ... Latent period (also known as incubatory period) is the interval between exposure to an infectious organism, toxin or carcinogen and the onset of clinical symptoms of disease. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Sodium-Potassium pump, an example of Primary active transport secondary active transport Active transport (sometimes called active uptake) is the mediated transport of biochemicals, and other atomic/molecular substances, across membranes. ... In mathematics, if two variables of bn = x are known, the third can be found. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ... DNA damage resulting in multiple broken chromosomes DNA repair refers to a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Sodium-Potassium pump, an example of Primary active transport secondary active transport Active transport (sometimes called active uptake) is the mediated transport of biochemicals, and other atomic/molecular substances, across membranes. ...


Genetics

Further information: Plasmid, Genome

Most bacteria have a single circular chromosome that can range in size from only 160,000 base pairs in the endosymbiotic bacteria Candidatus Carsonella ruddii,[87] to 12,200,000 base pairs in the soil-dwelling bacteria Sorangium cellulosum.[88] Spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia are a notable exception to this arrangement, with bacteria such as Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, containing a single linear chromosome.[89] Bacteria may also contain plasmids, which are small extra-chromosomal DNAs that may contain genes for antibiotic resistance or virulence factors. Another type of bacterial DNA are integrated viruses (bacteriophages). Many types of bacteriophage exist, some simply infect and lyse their host bacteria, while others insert into the bacterial chromosome. A bacteriophage can contain genes that contribute to its host's phenotype: for example, in the evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Clostridium botulinum, the toxin genes in an integrated phage converted a harmless ancestral bacteria into a lethal pathogen.[90] Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Base pairs, of a DNA molecule. ... An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i. ... Binomial name Candidatus Carsonella ruddii Synonyms Carsonella ruddii Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacteria; it has the smallest genome of any characterised bacteria. ... Sorangium cellulosum is a soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacteria of the group myxobacteria. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson RC et al 1984 Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete bacteria and the causative agent of Lyme disease. ... Lyme disease (Borreliosis) is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes, or black-legged, tick, also known as a deer tick. ... Figure 1: Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Virulence is either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... It has been suggested that Lysogenic cycle be merged into this article or section. ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... The lytic cycle is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction, the other being the lysogenic cycle. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Binomial name Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bacteria, as asexual organisms, inherit identical copies of their parent's genes (i.e., they are clonal). However, all bacteria can evolve by selection on changes to their genetic material DNA caused by genetic recombination or mutations. Mutations come from errors made during the replication of DNA or from exposure to mutagens. Mutation rates vary widely among different species of bacteria and even among different clones of a single species of bacteria.[91] Genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from either random mutation during replication or "stress-directed mutation", where genes involved in a particular growth-limiting process have an increased mutation rate.[92] Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it in vivo. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... Genetic recombination is the process by which a strand of DNA is broken and then joined to the end of a different DNA molecule. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ...


Some bacteria also transfer genetic material between cells. This can occur in three main ways. Firstly, bacteria can take up exogenous DNA from their environment, in a process called transformation. Genes can also be transferred by the process of transduction, when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome. The third method of gene transfer is bacterial conjugation, where DNA is transferred through direct cell contact. This gene acquisition from other bacteria or the environment is called horizontal gene transfer and may be common under natural conditions.[93] Gene transfer is particularly important in antibiotic resistance as it allows the rapid transfer of resistance genes between different pathogens.[94] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through cell-to-cell contact. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Movement

Further information: Chemotaxis, Flagella, Pilus
The different arrangements of bacterial flagella: A-Monotrichous; B-Lophotrichous; C-Amphitrichous; D-Peritrichous;

Motile bacteria can move using flagella, bacterial gliding, twitching motility or changes of buoyancy.[95] A unique group of bacteria, the spirochaetes, have structures similar to flagella, called axial filaments that are found between two membranes in the periplasmic space. They have a distinctive helical body that twists about as it moves.[95] In twitching motility, bacterial use their type IV pili as a grappling hook, repeatedly extending it, anchoring it and then retracting it with remarkable force (>80 pN).[96] Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Image of bacteriological pili or fimbriae A pilus (Latin; plural : pili) is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell, especially Gram-negative bacteria, a protein appendage required for bacterial conjugation. ... Image File history File links Flagella. ... Image File history File links Flagella. ... // A Flagellum (plural: flagella) is a long, slender projection from the cell body, composed of microtubules and surrounded by the plasma membrane. ... Bacterial gliding is a process whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral (correctly termed helical) staircase. ... Image of bacteriological pili or fimbriae A pilus (Latin; plural : pili) is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell, especially Gram-negative bacteria, a protein appendage required for bacterial conjugation. ... The newton (symbol: N) is the SI unit of force. ...


Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum (monotrichous), a flagellum at each end (amphitrichous), clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell (lophotrichous), while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell (peritrichous). The bacterial flagella is the best-understood motility structure in any organism and is made of about 20 proteins, with approximately another 30 proteins required for its regulation and assembly.[95] The flagellum is a rotating structure driven by a motor at the base that uses the electrochemical gradient across the membrane for power. This motor drives the motion of the filament, which acts as a propeller. Many bacteria (such as E. coli) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. The tumbling allows them to reorient and makes their movement a three-dimensional random walk.[97] (See external links below for link to videos.) A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... In cellular biology, an electrochemical gradient refers to the electrical and chemical properties across a membrane. ... E. coli redirects here. ... In mathematics, computer science, and physics, a random walk, sometimes called a drunkards walk, is a formalisation of the intuitive idea of taking successive steps, each in a random direction. ...


Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli in behaviors called taxes: these include chemotaxis, phototaxis and magnetotaxis.[98][99] In one peculiar group, the myxobacteria, individual bacteria move together to form waves of cells that then differentiate to form fruiting bodies containing spores.[100] The myxobacteria move only when on solid surfaces, unlike E. coli which is motile in liquid or solid media. In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. ... Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... Phototaxis is an organisms automatic movement toward or away from light. ... Magnetotaxis is the ability of certain cells to sense the polarity or the inclination of the earths magnetic field, as an aid to navigation. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Motile A term to describe Intelligent Mobile Applications. ...


Several Listeria and Shigella species move inside host cells by usurping the cytoskeleton, which is normally used to move organelles inside the cell. By promoting actin polymerization at one pole of their cells, they can form a kind of tail that pushes them through the host cell's cytoplasm.[101] Species Listeria monocytogenes Listeria ivanovii Listeria innocua Listeria welshimeri Listeria seegligeri Listeria grayi Listeria innocua Listeria is a bacterial genus containing six species. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... Schematic of typical animal cell, showing subcellular components. ... G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Classification and identification

Streptococcus mutans visualized with a Gram stain
Further information: Taxonomy, Clinical pathology

Classification seeks to describe the diversity of bacterial species by naming and grouping organisms based on similarities. Bacteria can be classified on the basis of cell structure, cellular metabolism or on differences in cell components such as DNA, fatty acids, pigments, antigens and quinones.[81] While these schemes allowed the identification and classification of bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species. This uncertainty was due to the lack of distinctive structures in most bacteria, as well as lateral gene transfer between unrelated species.[102] Due to lateral gene transfer, some closely related bacteria can have very different morphologies and metabolisms. To overcome this uncertainty, modern bacterial classification emphasizes molecular systematics, using genetic techniques such as guanine cytosine ratio determination, genome-genome hybridization, as well as sequencing genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer, such as the rRNA gene.[103] Image File history File links Streptococcus_mutans_Gram. ... Image File history File links Streptococcus_mutans_Gram. ... Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Clinical Pathology is one of the two major divisions of Pathology. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... An antigen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... A quinone (or benzoquinone) is either one of the two isomers of cyclohexadienedione or a derivative thereof. ... Horizontal gene transfer is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ... It has been suggested that molecular phylogeny be merged into this article or section. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... In genetics, the guanine-cytosine content (GC content) is the ratio of guanine and cytosine to the total number of nucleotides of a given genome. ... DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order of the nucleotide bases, adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine, in a DNA oligonucleotide. ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are sequences encoding ribosomal RNA. These sequences regulate amplification and transcription initiation and contain transcribed and nontranscribed spacer segments. ...


The term "bacteria" was traditionally applied to all microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes. However, molecular systematics showed prokaryotic life to consist of two separate domains, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, but now called Bacteria and Archaea[104] that evolved independently from an ancient common ancestor. These two domains, along with Eukarya, are the basis of the three-domain system, which is currently the most widely used classification system in bacteriology.[105] However, due to the relatively recent introduction of molecular systematics and the analysis of genome sequences, bacterial classification remains a changing and expanding field.[3][106] For example, a few biologists argue that Archaea evolved from Gram-positive bacteria.[107] In biology, a domain (also superregnum, superkingdom, or empire) is the top-level grouping of organisms in scientific classification, higher than a kingdom. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ...


Identification of bacteria in the laboratory is particularly relevant in medicine, where the correct treatment is determined by the bacterial species causing an infection. Consequently, the need to identify human pathogens was a major impetus for the development of techniques to identify bacteria. medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ...

Phylogenetic tree showing the incredible diversity of bacteria, compared to other organisms.[108] Eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue.

The Gram stain, developed in 1884 by Hans Christian Gram, characterises bacteria based on the structural characteristics of their cell walls.[52] The thick layers of peptidoglycan in the "Gram-positive" cell wall stain purple, while the thin "Gram-negative" cell wall appears pink. By combining morphology and Gram-staining, most bacteria can be classified as belonging to one of four groups (Gram-positive cocci, Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative cocci and Gram-negative bacilli). Some organisms are best identified by stains other than the Gram stain, particularly mycobacteria or Nocardia, which show acid-fastness on Ziehl–Neelsen or similar stains.[109] Other organisms may need to be identified by their growth in special media, or by other techniques, such as serology. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 741 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/png) A highly resolved Tree Of Life, based on completely sequenced genomes [1]. The image was generated using iTOL: Interactive Tree Of Life[2], an online phylogenetic... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1122 × 741 pixel, file size: 90 KB, MIME type: image/png) A highly resolved Tree Of Life, based on completely sequenced genomes [1]. The image was generated using iTOL: Interactive Tree Of Life[2], an online phylogenetic... A phylogenetic tree, also called an evolutionary tree or a tree of life, is a tree showing the evolutionary interrelationships among various species or other entities that are believed to have a common ancestor. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Phyla Crenarchaeota Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Nanoarchaeota Archaea are a major division of microorganisms. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Professor Hans Christian Gram Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 - November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist. ... A bacillus is a rod-shaped bacterium: an acid-fast bacillus (or AFB) is a rod-shaped bacterium which, when stained with certain compounds, retains that stain despite treatment with an acidic solution. ... The Ziehl-Neelsen stain, also known as the acid-fast stain, was first described by two german doctors; Franz Ziehl (1859 to 1926), a bacteriologist and Friedrich Neelsen (1854 to 1894), a pathologist. ... Serology is literally the scientific study of the blood serum. ...


Culture techniques are designed to promote the growth and identify particular bacteria, while restricting the growth of the other bacteria in the sample. Often these techniques are designed for specific specimens; for example, a sputum sample will be treated to identify organisms that cause pneumonia, while stool specimens are cultured on selective media to identify organisms that cause diarrhoea, while preventing growth of non-pathogenic bacteria. Specimens that are normally sterile, such as blood, urine or spinal fluid, are cultured under conditions designed to grow all possible organisms.[110][81] Once a pathogenic organism has been isolated, it can be further characterised by its morphology, growth patterns such as (aerobic or anaerobic growth, patterns of hemolysis) and staining. A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Sputum is matter that is coughed up from the respiratory tract, such as mucus or phlegm, mixed with saliva and then expectorated from the mouth. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) In humans, defecation may occur (depending on the individual and the circumstances) from once every two or three days to several times a day. ... A selective medium is a substance (usually agar-based) which grows a specific type of microbe. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), Liquor cerebrospinalis, is a clear bodily fluid that occupies the subarachnoid space in the brain (the space between the skull and the cerebral cortex—more specifically, between the arachnoid and pia layers of the meninges). ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Examples of alpha (top), beta (middle), and gamma (bottom) hemolysis on sheep blood agar plates Hemolysis is used in the empirical identification of microorganisms based on the ability of bacterial colonies grown on agar plates to break down red blood cells in the culture. ...


As with bacterial classification, identification of bacteria is increasingly using molecular methods. Diagnostics using such DNA-based tools, such as polymerase chain reaction, are increasingly popular due to their specificity and speed, compared to culture-based methods.[111] These methods also allow the detection and identification of "viable but nonculturable" cells that are metabolically active but non-dividing.[112] However, even using these improved methods, the total number of bacterial species is not known and cannot even be estimated with any certainty. Attempts to quantify bacterial diversity have ranged from 107 to 109 total species, but even these diverse estimates may be out by many orders of magnitude.[113][114] PCR tubes in a stand after a colony PCR The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biochemistry and molecular biology technique[1] for exponentially amplifying DNA, via enzymatic replication, without using a living organism (such as E. coli or yeast). ...


Interactions with other organisms

Despite their apparent simplicity, bacteria can form complex associations with other organisms. These symbiotic associations can be divided into parasitism, mutualism and commensalism. Due to their small size, commensal bacteria are ubiquitous and grow on animals and plants exactly as they will grow on any other surface. However, their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat, and large populations of these organisms in humans are the cause of body odor. Meat Ants harvest Leaf Hoppers for their honey dew. ... Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one of the individuals. ... In biology, mutualism is an interaction between two or more species, where both species derive benefit. ... Commensalism is an interaction between two living organisms, where one organism benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the production and evaporation of a fluid, consisting primarily of water as well as a smaller amount of sodium chloride (the main constituent of table salt), that is excreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Bromhidrosis or body odour (also called bromidrosis, osmidrosis and ozochrotia) is the smell of bacteria growing on the body. ...


Mutualists

Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival. One such mutualistic association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids such as butyric acid or propionic acid and produce hydrogen, and methanogenic Archaea that consume hydrogen.[115] The bacteria in this association are unable to consume the organic acids as this reaction produces hydrogen that accumulates in their surroundings. Only the intimate association with the hydrogen-consuming Archaea keeps the hydrogen concentration low enough to allow the bacteria to grow. An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... Butyric acid, (from Greek βουτυρος = butter) IUPAC name n-Butanoic acid, or normal butyric acid, is a carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3CH2CH2-COOH. It is notably found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste (similar to ether). ... Propionic acid (systematically named propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring carboxylic acid with chemical formula CH3CH2COOH. In the pure state, it is a colorless, corrosive liquid with a pungent odor. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. ...


In soil, microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) carry out nitrogen fixation, converting nitrogen gas to nitrogenous compounds.[116] This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves. Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms. For example, the presence of over 1,000 bacterial species in the normal human gut flora of the intestines can contribute to gut immunity, synthesise vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin K and biotin, convert milk protein to lactic acid (see Lactobacillus), as well as fermenting complex undigestible carbohydrates.[117][118][119] The presence of this gut flora also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion) and these beneficial bacteria are consequently sold as probiotic dietary supplements.[120] Rhizosphere, the zone that surrounds the roots of plants. ... Primary and secondary roots in a cotton plant In vascular plants, the root is that organ of a plant body that typically lies below the surface of the soil (compare with stem). ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide)[1] useful for other chemical processes. ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... The human body contains a large number of bacteria, most of them performing tasks that are useful or even essential to human survival. ... Escherichia coli, one of the many species of bacteria present in the human gut. ... In anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine (or colon). ... Retinol (Vitamin A) For the record label, see Vitamin Records A vitamin is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Vitamin H redirects here. ... A glass of cows milk. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... The competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gauses Law of competitive exclusion or just Gauses Law, states that two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist. ... Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the most common microbes used. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Pathogens

Further information: Bacteria and human health, Pathogen
Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells

If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and disease and cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, cholera, food-borne illness, leprosy and tuberculosis. A pathogenic cause for a known medical disease may only be discovered many years after, as was the case with Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Bacterial diseases are also important in agriculture, with bacteria causing leaf spot, fireblight and wilts in plants, as well as Johne's disease, mastitis, salmonella and anthrax in farm animals. Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells Bacteria are vital for the maintenance of human health, but they also pose and a significant health threat by causing disease. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1761, 1696 KB) Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH Source: NIAID: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2100x1761, 1696 KB) Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph showing Salmonella typhimurium (red) invading cultured human cells Credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID, NIH Source: NIAID: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... For a related disease which is caused by a different bacterium, see Paratyphoid fever. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... A foodborne illness or food poisoning is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of gastric epithelium in the stomach, and also the duodenum when it has undergone gastric metaplasia. ... Electron micrograph of This is a timeline of the events relating to the discovery that peptic ulcer disease is caused by . ... Leaf Spot - A cosmetic disease of oaks and elms. ... Binomial name Erwinia amylovora The causal pathogen is Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... When bacteria or fungi clog a plants water-conducting or vascular system, they can cause permanent wilting and death. ... distribution. ... Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast caused by the blocking of the milk ducts while the mother is lactating (see breastfeeding). ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ...


Each species of pathogen has a characteristic spectrum of interactions with its human hosts. Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming sepsis, a systemic inflammatory response producing shock, massive vasodilation and death.[121] Yet these organisms are also part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or in the nose without causing any disease at all. Other organisms invariably cause disease in humans, such as the Rickettsia, which are obligate intracellular parasites able to grow and reproduce only within the cells of other organisms. One species of Rickettsia causes typhus, while another causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Chlamydia, another phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, contains species that can cause pneumonia, or urinary tract infection and may be involved in coronary heart disease.[122] Finally, some species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Mycobacterium avium are opportunistic pathogens and cause disease mainly in people suffering from immunosuppression or cystic fibrosis.[123][124] Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Streptococcus is a genus of spherical shaped Gram-positive bacteria, belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[1] and the lactic acid bacteria group. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... This article is about the medical condition. ... Vasodilation is where blood vessels in the body become wider following the relaxation of the smooth muscle in the vessel wall. ... For the article about nose in humans, see human nose Human nose in profile Elephants have prehensile noses Dogs have very sensitive noses Anatomically, a nose is a protuberance in vertebrates that houses the nostrils, or nares, which admit and expel air for respiration in conjunction with the mouth. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Epidemic typhus. ... Binomial name Rickettsia rickettsii Wolbach, 1919 Wikispecies has information related to: Ixodidae Wikispecies has information related to: Rickettsia Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and has been diagnosed throughout the Americas. ... Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacterium belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... Burkholderia cenocepacia is a Gram-negative bacteria that is common in the environment and may cause disease in plants. ... Mycobacterium avium complex refers to infection by two species of bacteria, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare. ... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms and usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Bacterial infections may be treated with antibiotics, which are classified as bacteriocidal if they kill bacteria, or bacteriostatic if they just prevent bacterial growth. There are many types of antibiotics and each class inhibits a process that is different in the pathogen from that found in the host. An example of how antibiotics produce selective toxicity are chloramphenicol and puromycin, which inhibit the bacterial ribosome, but not the structurally different eukaryotic ribosome.[125] Antibiotics are used both in treating human disease and in intensive farming to promote animal growth, where they may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations.[126] Infections can be prevented by antiseptic measures such as sterilizating the skin prior to piercing it with the needle of a syringe, and by proper care of indwelling catheters. Surgical and dental instruments are also sterilized to prevent contamination and infection by bacteria. Disinfectants such as bleach are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens on surfaces to prevent contamination and further reduce the risk of infection. Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ... HIV protease in a complex with the protease inhibitor ritonavir. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Puromycin is an antibiotic that is a potent inhibitor of translation. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Intensive Farming Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs as relative to land area (as opposed to extensive farming). ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses and prions) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... Commercial chlorine bleach To bleach something, is to remove or lighten its color, sometimes as a preliminary step in the process of dyeing; a bleach is a chemical that produces these effects, often via oxidation. ...


Significance in technology and industry

Further information: Economic importance of bacteria

Bacteria, often Lactobacillus in combination with yeasts and molds, have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine and yoghurt.[127][128] The economic importance of bacteria derives from the fact that bacteria can be deliberately exploited by humans in a number of beneficial ways. ... Species L. acidophilus L. brevis L. delbrueckii subsp. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Fermentation (biochemistry). ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Cucumbers gathered for pickling. ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate Pickled Eisbein, served with Sauerkraut Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ...


The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste processing and bioremediation. Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills.[129] Fertilizer was added to some of the beaches in Prince William Sound in an attempt to promote the growth of these naturally occurring bacteria after the infamous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil. Bacteria are also used for the bioremediation of industrial toxic wastes.[130] In the chemical industry, bacteria are most important in the production of enantiomerically pure chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals or agrichemicals.[131] Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... An oil spill is the unintentional release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill was one of the largest manmade environmental disasters ever to occur at sea, seriously affecting plants and wildlife. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Toxic waste is waste material, often in chemical form, that can cause death or injury to living creatures. ... In chemistry, enantiomers are stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other. ... A pharmaceutical company, or drug company, is a commercial business whose focus is to research, develop, market and/or distribute drugs, most commonly in the context of healthcare. ... In agriculture, agrichemical (or agrochemical) is a generic term for the various synthetic chemical products manufactured and sold for use in growing crops. ...


Bacteria can also be used in the place of pesticides in the biological pest control. This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium. Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a Lepidopteran-specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide.[132] Because of their specificity, these pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, wildlife, pollinators and most other beneficial insects.[133][134] A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Predatory Polistes wasp looking for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant Biological control of pests and diseases is a method of controlling pests (including weeds and diseases) in agriculture that relies on natural predation, parasitism or other natural mechanism, rather than introduced chemicals. ... Binomial name Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... The phrase environmentally friendly is used to refer to goods or services considered to inflict little harm on the environment. ... Image:FRANKIE COBB.jpg Various species of deer are commonly seen wildlife across the Americas and Eurasia. ... A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... For most people, when they think of insects, they think of pests such as mosquitoes or tomato worms. ...


Because of their ability to quickly grow and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria are the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry. By making mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes, scientists can determine the function of genes, enzymes and metabolic pathways in bacteria, then apply this knowledge to more complex organisms.[135] This aim of understanding the biochemistry of a cell reaches its most complex expression in the synthesis of huge amounts of enzyme kinetic and gene expression data into mathematical models of entire organisms. This is achievable in some well-studied bacteria, with models of Escherichia coli metabolism now being produced and tested.[136][137] This understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allows the use of biotechnology to bioengineer bacteria for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin, growth factors, or antibodies.[138][139] Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... DNA, the molecular basis for inheritance. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell, catalyzed by enzymes, and resulting in either the formation of a metabolic product to be used or stored by the cell (metabolic sink), or the initiation of another metabolic pathway (then called a flux generating... Dihydrofolate reductase from with its two substrates, dihydrofolate (right) and NADPH (left), bound in the active site. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which a genes DNA sequence is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Biological engineering (also biosystems engineering and bioengineering) is a broad-based engineering discipline that deals with bio-molecular and molecular processes, product design, sustainability and analysis of biological systems. ... Insulin (from Latin insula, island, as it is produced in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. ... Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


See also

The human body contains a large number of bacteria, most of them performing tasks that are useful or even essential to human survival. ... A bioaerosol is a biological aerosol. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ... Transgenic bacteria, refers to bacteria which have been genetically engineered. ... The structure of insulin Biological technology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Desulforudis audaxviator is a bacterium, which lives in depths from 1,5 km to 3 km below the Earths surface in the groundwater. ...

References

  1. ^ Fredrickson J, Zachara J, Balkwill D, et al (2004). "Geomicrobiology of high-level nuclear waste-contaminated vadose sediments at the hanford site, Washington state". Appl Environ Microbiol 70 (7): 4230–41. PMID 15240306. 
  2. ^ Whitman W, Coleman D, Wiebe W (1998). "Prokaryotes: the unseen majority". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95 (12): 6578–83. PMID 9618454. 
  3. ^ a b Rappé M, Giovannoni S. "The uncultured microbial majority". Annu Rev Microbiol 57: 369–94. PMID 14527284. 
  4. ^ Sears C (2005). "A dynamic partnership: Celebrating our gut flora". Anaerobe 11 (5): 247–51. PMID 16701579. 
  5. ^ 2002 WHO mortality data Accessed 20 January 2007
  6. ^ Ishige T, Honda K, Shimizu S (2005). "Whole organism biocatalysis". Curr Opin Chem Biol 9 (2): 174–80. PMID 15811802. 
  7. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. PMID 2112744. 
  8. ^ Leeuwenhoek A (1753). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, concerning the Worms in Sheeps Livers, Gnats, and Animalcula in the Excrements of Frogs". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 22: 509–18.  Accessed 30 November. 2006
  9. ^ Leeuwenhoek A (1753). "Part of a Letter from Mr Antony van Leeuwenhoek, F. R. S. concerning Green Weeds Growing in Water, and Some Animalcula Found about Them". Philosophical Transactions (1683–1775) 23: 1304–11.  Accessed 30 November. 2006
  10. ^ Etymology of the word "bacteria" Online Etymology dictionary. Accessed November 23, 2006.
  11. ^ Pasteur's Papers on the Germ Theory LSU Law Center's Medical and Public Health Law Site, Historic Public Health Articles. Accessed November 23, 2006.
  12. ^ The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905 Nobelprize.org Accessed November 22, 2006.
  13. ^ O'Brien S, Goedert J (1996). "HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled". Curr Opin Immunol 8 (5): 613–18. PMID 8902385. 
  14. ^ Thurston A (2000). "Of blood, inflammation and gunshot wounds: the history of the control of sepsis". Aust N Z J Surg 70 (12): 855-61. PMID 11167573. 
  15. ^ Schwartz R (2004). "Paul Ehrlich's magic bullets". N Engl J Med 350 (11): 1079–80. PMID 15014180. 
  16. ^ Biography of Paul Ehrlich Nobelprize.org Accessed November 26, 2006.
  17. ^ Woese C, Fox G (1977). "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74 (11): 5088–90. PMID 270744. 
  18. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–79. PMID 2112744. 
  19. ^ Schopf J (1994). "Disparate rates, differing fates: tempo and mode of evolution changed from the Precambrian to the Phanerozoic". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 (15): 6735–42. PMID 8041691. 
  20. ^ DeLong E, Pace N (2001). "Environmental diversity of bacteria and archaea". Syst Biol 50 (4): 470–78. PMID 12116647. 
  21. ^ Brown J, Doolittle W (1997). "Archaea and the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61 (4): 456–502. PMID 9409149. 
  22. ^ Di Giulio M (2003). "The universal ancestor and the ancestor of bacteria were hyperthermophiles". J Mol Evol 57 (6): 721–30. PMID 14745541. 
  23. ^ Battistuzzi F, Feijao A, Hedges S. "A genomic timescale of prokaryote evolution: insights into the origin of methanogenesis, phototrophy, and the colonization of land.". BMC Evol Biol 4: 44. PMID 15535883. 
  24. ^ Poole A, Penny D (2007). "Evaluating hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes". Bioessays 29 (1): 74–84. PMID 17187354. 
  25. ^ Dyall S, Brown M, Johnson P (2004). "Ancient invasions: from endosymbionts to organelles". Science 304 (5668): 253–7. PMID 15073369. 
  26. ^ Lang B, Gray M, Burger G. "Mitochondrial genome evolution and the origin of eukaryotes". Annu Rev Genet 33: 351-97. PMID 10690412. 
  27. ^ McFadden G (1999). "Endosymbiosis and evolution of the plant cell". Curr Opin Plant Biol 2 (6): 513-9. PMID 10607659. 
  28. ^ Schulz H, Jorgensen B. "Big bacteria". Annu Rev Microbiol 55: 105–37. PMID 11544351. 
  29. ^ Robertson J, Gomersall M, Gill P. (1975). "Mycoplasma hominis: growth, reproduction, and isolation of small viable cells". J Bacteriol. 124 (2): 1007–18. PMID 1102522. 
  30. ^ Fritz I, Strömpl C, Abraham W (2004). "Phylogenetic relationships of the genera Stella, Labrys and Angulomicrobium within the 'Alphaproteobacteria' and description of Angulomicrobium amanitiforme sp. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54 (Pt 3): 651-7. PMID 15143003. 
  31. ^ Cabeen M, Jacobs-Wagner C (2005). "Bacterial cell shape". Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (8): 601–10. PMID 16012516. 
  32. ^ Young K (2006). "The selective value of bacterial shape". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 (3): 660–703. PMID 16959965. 
  33. ^ Douwes K, Schmalzbauer E, Linde H, Reisberger E, Fleischer K, Lehn N, Landthaler M, Vogt T (2003). "Branched filaments no fungus, ovoid bodies no bacteria: Two unusual cases of mycetoma". J Am Acad Dermatol 49 (2 Suppl Case Reports): S170–3. PMID 12894113. 
  34. ^ Donlan R (2002). "Biofilms: microbial life on surfaces". Emerg Infect Dis 8 (9): 881–90. PMID 12194761. 
  35. ^ Branda S, Vik S, Friedman L, Kolter R (2005). "Biofilms: the matrix revisited". Trends Microbiol 13 (1): 20–26. PMID 15639628. 
  36. ^ a b Davey M, O'toole G (2000). "Microbial biofilms: from ecology to molecular genetics". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64 (4): 847–67. PMID 11104821. 
  37. ^ Donlan RM, Costerton JW (2002). "Biofilms: survival mechanisms of clinically relevant microorganisms". Clin Microbiol Rev 15 (2): 167–93. PMID 11932229. 
  38. ^ Shimkets L. "Intercellular signaling during fruiting-body development of Myxococcus xanthus.". Annu Rev Microbiol 53: 525–49. PMID 10547700. 
  39. ^ Kaiser D. "Signaling in myxobacteria". Annu Rev Microbiol 58: 75–98. PMID 15487930. 
  40. ^ Berg J., Tymoczko J. and Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. W. H. Freeman and Company ISBN 0-7167-4955-6
  41. ^ Harold F (1972). "Conservation and transformation of energy by bacterial membranes". Bacteriol Rev 36 (2): 172–230. PMID 4261111. 
  42. ^ Thanbichler M, Wang S, Shapiro L (2005). "The bacterial nucleoid: a highly organized and dynamic structure". J Cell Biochem 96 (3): 506–21. PMID 15988757. 
  43. ^ Poehlsgaard J, Douthwaite S (2005). "The bacterial ribosome as a target for antibiotics". Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (11): 870–81. PMID 16261170. 
  44. ^ Fuerst J (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu Rev Microbiol 59: 299–328. PMID 15910279. 
  45. ^ Yeo M, Chater K (2005). "The interplay of glycogen metabolism and differentiation provides an insight into the developmental biology of Streptomyces coelicolor". Microbiology 151 (Pt 3): 855–61. PMID 15758231. 
  46. ^ Shiba T, Tsutsumi K, Ishige K, Noguchi T (2000). "Inorganic polyphosphate and polyphosphate kinase: their novel biological functions and applications". Biochemistry (Mosc) 65 (3): 315–23. PMID 10739474. 
  47. ^ Brune DC. (1995). "Isolation and characterization of sulfur globule proteins from Chromatium vinosum and Thiocapsa roseopersicina". Arch Microbiol 163 (6): 391–99. PMID 7575095. 
  48. ^ Kadouri D, Jurkevitch E, Okon Y, Castro-Sowinski S. (2005). "Ecological and agricultural significance of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates". Crit Rev Microbiol 31 (2): 55–67. PMID 15986831. 
  49. ^ Walsby A (1994). "Gas vesicles". Microbiol Rev 58 (1): 94–144. PMID 8177173. 
  50. ^ van Heijenoort J (2001). "Formation of the glycan chains in the synthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan". Glycobiology 11 (3): 25R–36R. PMID 11320055. 
  51. ^ a b Koch A (2003). "Bacterial wall as target for attack: past, present, and future research". Clin Microbiol Rev 16 (4): 673–87. PMID 14557293. 
  52. ^ a b Gram, HC (1884). "Über die isolierte Färbung der Schizomyceten in Schnitt- und Trockenpräparaten". Fortschr. Med. 2: 185–189. 
  53. ^ Hugenholtz P (2002). "Exploring prokaryotic diversity in the genomic era". Genome Biol 3 (2): REVIEWS0003. PMID 11864374. 
  54. ^ Walsh F, Amyes S (2004). "Microbiology and drug resistance mechanisms of fully resistant pathogens.". Curr Opin Microbiol 7 (5): 439-44. PMID 15451497. 
  55. ^ Engelhardt H, Peters J (1998). "Structural research on surface layers: a focus on stability, surface layer homology domains, and surface layer-cell wall interactions". J Struct Biol 124 (2–3): 276–302. PMID 10049812. 
  56. ^ Beveridge T, Pouwels P, Sára M, Kotiranta A, Lounatmaa K, Kari K, Kerosuo E, Haapasalo M, Egelseer E, Schocher I, Sleytr U, Morelli L, Callegari M, Nomellini J, Bingle W, Smit J, Leibovitz E, Lemaire M, Miras I, Salamitou S, Béguin P, Ohayon H, Gounon P, Matuschek M, Koval S (1997). "Functions of S-layers". FEMS Microbiol Rev 20 (1–2): 99–149. PMID 9276929. 
  57. ^ Kojima S, Blair D. "The bacterial flagellar motor: structure and function of a complex molecular machine". Int Rev Cytol 233: 93–134. PMID 15037363. 
  58. ^ Beachey E (1981). "Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surface". J Infect Dis 143 (3): 325–45. PMID 7014727. 
  59. ^ Silverman P (1997). "Towards a structural biology of bacterial conjugation". Mol Microbiol 23 (3): 423–9. PMID 9044277. 
  60. ^ Stokes R, Norris-Jones R, Brooks D, Beveridge T, Doxsee D, Thorson L (2004). "The glycan-rich outer layer of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis acts as an antiphagocytic capsule limiting the association of the bacterium with macrophages". Infect Immun 72 (10): 5676–86. PMID 15385466. 
  61. ^ Daffé M, Etienne G (1999). "The capsule of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its implications for pathogenicity". Tuber Lung Dis 79 (3): 153–69. PMID 10656114. 
  62. ^ Finlay B, Falkow S (1997). "Common themes in microbial pathogenicity revisited". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61 (2): 136–69. PMID 9184008. 
  63. ^ Nicholson W, Munakata N, Horneck G, Melosh H, Setlow P (2000). "Resistance of Bacillus endospores to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 64 (3): 548–72. PMID 10974126. 
  64. ^ Siunov A, Nikitin D, Suzina N, Dmitriev V, Kuzmin N, Duda V. "Phylogenetic status of Anaerobacter polyendosporus, an anaerobic, polysporogenic bacterium". Int J Syst Bacteriol 49 Pt 3: 1119–24. PMID 10425769. 
  65. ^ Nicholson W, Fajardo-Cavazos P, Rebeil R, Slieman T, Riesenman P, Law J, Xue Y (2002). "Bacterial endospores and their significance in stress resistance". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81 (1–4): 27–32. PMID 12448702. 
  66. ^ Vreeland R, Rosenzweig W, Powers D (2000). "Isolation of a 250 million-year-old halotolerant bacterium from a primary salt crystal". Nature 407 (6806): 897–900. PMID 11057666. 
  67. ^ Cano R, Borucki M (1995). "Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber". Science 268 (5213): 1060–4. PMID 7538699. 
  68. ^ Nicholson W, Schuerger A, Setlow P (2005). "The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV resistance: considerations for Earth-to-Mars transport by natural processes and human spaceflight". Mutat Res 571 (1–2): 249–64. PMID 15748651. 
  69. ^ Hatheway C (1990). "Toxigenic clostridia". Clin Microbiol Rev 3 (1): 66–98. PMID 2404569. 
  70. ^ Nealson K (1999). "Post-Viking microbiology: new approaches, new data, new insights". Orig Life Evol Biosph 29 (1): 73–93. PMID 11536899. 
  71. ^ Xu J (2006). "Microbial ecology in the age of genomics and metagenomics: concepts, tools, and recent advances". Mol Ecol 15 (7): 1713–31. PMID 16689892. 
  72. ^ Zillig W (1991). "Comparative biochemistry of Archaea and Bacteria". Curr Opin Genet Dev 1 (4): 544-51. PMID 1822288. 
  73. ^ Hellingwerf K, Crielaard W, Hoff W, Matthijs H, Mur L, van Rotterdam B (1994). "Photobiology of bacteria". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 65 (4): 331–47. PMID 7832590. 
  74. ^ Zumft W (1997). "Cell biology and molecular basis of denitrification". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 61 (4): 533–616. PMID 9409151. 
  75. ^ Drake H, Daniel S, Küsel K, Matthies C, Kuhner C, Braus-Stromeyer S (1997). "Acetogenic bacteria: what are the in situ consequences of their diverse metabolic versatilities?". Biofactors 6 (1): 13–24. PMID 9233536. 
  76. ^ Morel, FMM; Kraepiel AML, Amyot M (1998). "The chemical cycle and bioaccumulation of mercury". Annual Review of Ecological Systems 29: 543—566. 
  77. ^ Dalton H (2005). "The Leeuwenhoek Lecture 2000 the natural and unnatural history of methane-oxidizing bacteria". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 360 (1458): 1207–22. PMID 16147517. 
  78. ^ Zehr J, Jenkins B, Short S, Steward G (2003). "Nitrogenase gene diversity and microbial community structure: a cross-system comparison". Environ Microbiol 5 (7): 539–54. PMID 12823187. 
  79. ^ Koch A (2002). "Control of the bacterial cell cycle by cytoplasmic growth". Crit Rev Microbiol 28 (1): 61–77. PMID 12003041. 
  80. ^ Eagon R. "Pseudomonas natriegens, a marine bacterium with a generation time of less than 10 minutes". J Bacteriol 83: 736–7. PMID 13888946. 
  81. ^ a b c Thomson R, Bertram H (2001). "Laboratory diagnosis of central nervous system infections". Infect Dis Clin North Am 15 (4): 1047–71. PMID 11780267. 
  82. ^ Paerl H, Fulton R, Moisander P, Dyble J. "Harmful freshwater algal blooms, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria". ScientificWorldJournal 1: 76–113. PMID 12805693. 
  83. ^ Challis G, Hopwood D. "Synergy and contingency as driving forces for the evolution of multiple secondary metabolite production by Streptomyces species". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 Suppl 2: 14555–61. PMID 12970466. 
  84. ^ Kooijman S, Auger P, Poggiale J, Kooi B (2003). "Quantitative steps in symbiogenesis and the evolution of homeostasis". Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 78 (3): 435–63. PMID 14558592. 
  85. ^ Prats C, López D, Giró A, Ferrer J, Valls J (2006). "Individual-based modelling of bacterial cultures to study the microscopic causes of the lag phase". J Theor Biol 241 (4): 939–53. PMID 16524598. 
  86. ^ Hecker M, Völker U. "General stress response of Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria". Adv Microb Physiol 44: 35–91. PMID 11407115. 
  87. ^ Nakabachi A, Yamashita A, Toh H, Ishikawa H, Dunbar H, Moran N, Hattori M (2006). "The 160-kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella". Science 314 (5797): 267. PMID 17038615. 
  88. ^ Pradella S, Hans A, Spröer C, Reichenbach H, Gerth K, Beyer S (2002). "Characterisation, genome size and genetic manipulation of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56". Arch Microbiol 178 (6): 484-92. PMID 12420170. 
  89. ^ Hinnebusch J, Tilly K (1993). "Linear plasmids and chromosomes in bacteria". Mol Microbiol 10 (5): 917-22. PMID 7934868. 
  90. ^ Brüssow H, Canchaya C, Hardt W (2004). "Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68 (3): 560–602. PMID 15353570. 
  91. ^ Denamur E, Matic I (2006). "Evolution of mutation rates in bacteria". Mol Microbiol 60 (4): 820–7. PMID 16677295. 
  92. ^ Wright B (2004). "Stress-directed adaptive mutations and evolution". Mol Microbiol 52 (3): 643–50. PMID 15101972. 
  93. ^ Davison J (1999). "Genetic exchange between bacteria in the environment". Plasmid 42 (2): 73–91. PMID 10489325. 
  94. ^ Hastings P, Rosenberg S, Slack A (2004). "Antibiotic-induced lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance". Trends Microbiol 12 (9): 401–4. PMID 15337159. 
  95. ^ a b c Bardy S, Ng S, Jarrell K (2003). "Prokaryotic motility structures". Microbiology 149 (Pt 2): 295–304. PMID 12624192. 
  96. ^ Merz A, So M, Sheetz M (2000). "Pilus retraction powers bacterial twitching motility". Nature 407 (6800): 98–102. PMID 10993081. 
  97. ^ Wu M, Roberts J, Kim S, Koch D, DeLisa M (2006). "Collective bacterial dynamics revealed using a three-dimensional population-scale defocused particle tracking technique". Appl Environ Microbiol 72 (7): 4987–94. PMID 16820497. 
  98. ^ Lux R, Shi W (2004). "Chemotaxis-guided movements in bacteria". Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 15 (4): 207-20. PMID 15284186. 
  99. ^ Frankel R, Bazylinski D, Johnson M, Taylor B (1997). "Magneto-aerotaxis in marine coccoid bacteria". Biophys J 73 (2): 994–1000. PMID 9251816. 
  100. ^ Kaiser D. "Signaling in myxobacteria". Annu Rev Microbiol 58: 75–98. PMID 15487930. 
  101. ^ Goldberg MB (2001). "Actin-based motility of intracellular microbial pathogens". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 65 (4): 595–626. PMID 11729265. 
  102. ^ Boucher Y, Douady CJ, Papke RT, Walsh DA, Boudreau ME, Nesbo CL, Case RJ, Doolittle WF (2003). "Lateral gene transfer and the origins of prokaryotic groups.". Annu Rev Genet 37: 283–328. PMID 14616063. 
  103. ^ Olsen G, Woese C, Overbeek R (1994). "The winds of (evolutionary) change: breathing new life into microbiology". J Bacteriol 176 (1): 1–6. PMID 8282683. 
  104. ^ Woese C, Kandler O, Wheelis M (1990). "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87 (12): 4576–9. PMID 2112744. 
  105. ^ Gupta R (2000). "The natural evolutionary relationships among prokaryotes.". Crit Rev Microbiol 26 (2): 111-31. PMID 10890353. 
  106. ^ Doolittle RF (2005). "Evolutionary aspects of whole-genome biology". Curr Opin Struct Biol 15 (3): 248–253. PMID 11837318. 
  107. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (2002). "The neomuran origin of archaebacteria, the negibacterial root of the universal tree and bacterial megaclassification.". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 52 (Pt 1): 7–76. PMID 11837318. 
  108. ^ Ciccarelli FD, Doerks T, von Mering C, Creevey CJ, Snel B, Bork P (2006). "Toward automatic reconstruction of a highly resolved tree of life". Science 311 (5765): 1283-7. PMID 165139821. 
  109. ^ Woods G, Walker D (1996). "Detection of infection or infectious agents by use of cytologic and histologic stains". Clin Microbiol Rev 9 (3): 382–404. PMID 8809467. 
  110. ^ Weinstein M (1994). "Clinical importance of blood cultures". Clin Lab Med 14 (1): 9–16. PMID 8181237. 
  111. ^ Louie M, Louie L, Simor AE (2000). "The role of DNA amplification technology in the diagnosis of infectious diseases". CMAJ 163 (3): 301–309. PMID 10951731. 
  112. ^ Oliver J. "The viable but nonculturable state in bacteria". J Microbiol 43 Spec No: 93–100. PMID 15765062. 
  113. ^ Curtis T, Sloan W, Scannell J (2002). "Estimating prokaryotic diversity and its limits". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99 (16): 10494-9. PMID 12097644. 
  114. ^ Schloss P, Handelsman J (2004). "Status of the microbial census". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68 (4): 686-91. PMID 15590780. 
  115. ^ Stams A, de Bok F, Plugge C, van Eekert M, Dolfing J, Schraa G (2006). "Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities". Environ Microbiol 8 (3): 371–82. PMID 16478444. 
  116. ^ Barea J, Pozo M, Azcón R, Azcón-Aguilar C (2005). "Microbial co-operation in the rhizosphere". J Exp Bot 56 (417): 1761–78. PMID 15911555. 
  117. ^ O'Hara A, Shanahan F (2006). "The gut flora as a forgotten organ". EMBO Rep 7 (7): 688–93. PMID 16819463. 
  118. ^ Zoetendal E, Vaughan E, de Vos W (2006). "A microbial world within us". Mol Microbiol 59 (6): 1639–50. PMID 16553872. 
  119. ^ Gorbach S (1990). "Lactic acid bacteria and human health". Ann Med 22 (1): 37–41. PMID 2109988. 
  120. ^ Salminen S, Gueimonde M, Isolauri E (2005). "Probiotics that modify disease risk". J Nutr 135 (5): 1294–8. PMID 15867327. 
  121. ^ Fish D. "Optimal antimicrobial therapy for sepsis". Am J Health Syst Pharm 59 Suppl 1: S13–9. PMID 11885408. 
  122. ^ Belland R, Ouellette S, Gieffers J, Byrne G (2004). "Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis". Cell Microbiol 6 (2): 117–27. PMID 14706098. 
  123. ^ Heise E. "Diseases associated with immunosuppression". Environ Health Perspect 43: 9–19. PMID 7037390. 
  124. ^ Saiman, L. "Microbiology of early CF lung disease". Paediatr Respir Rev.volume=5 Suppl A: S367–369.  PMID 14980298
  125. ^ Yonath A, Bashan A (2004). "Ribosomal crystallography: initiation, peptide bond formation, and amino acid polymerization are hampered by antibiotics". Annu Rev Microbiol 58: 233–51. PMID 15487937. 
  126. ^ Khachatourians G (1998). "Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant bacteria". CMAJ 159 (9): 1129–36. PMID 9835883. 
  127. ^ Johnson M, Lucey J (2006). "Major technological advances and trends in cheese". J Dairy Sci 89 (4): 1174–8. PMID 16537950. 
  128. ^ Hagedorn S, Kaphammer B. "Microbial biocatalysis in the generation of flavor and fragrance chemicals". Annu Rev Microbiol 48: 773–800. PMID 7826026. 
  129. ^ Cohen Y (2002). "Bioremediation of oil by marine microbial mats". Int Microbiol 5 (4): 189–93. PMID 12497184. 
  130. ^ Neves L, Miyamura T, Moraes D, Penna T, Converti A. "Biofiltration methods for the removal of phenolic residues". Appl Biochem Biotechnol 129–132: 130–52. PMID 16915636. 
  131. ^ Liese A, Filho M (1999). "Production of fine chemicals using biocatalysis". Curr Opin Biotechnol 10 (6): 595–603. PMID 10600695. 
  132. ^ Aronson A, Shai Y (2001). "Why Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins are so effective: unique features of their mode of action". FEMS Microbiol Lett 195 (1): 1–8. PMID 11166987. 
  133. ^ Bozsik A (2006). "Susceptibility of adult Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to insecticides with different modes of action". Pest Manag Sci 62 (7): 651–4. PMID 16649191. 
  134. ^ Chattopadhyay A, Bhatnagar N, Bhatnagar R (2004). "Bacterial insecticidal toxins". Crit Rev Microbiol 30 (1): 33–54. PMID 15116762. 
  135. ^ Serres M, Gopal S, Nahum L, Liang P, Gaasterland T, Riley M (2001). "A functional update of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome". Genome Biol 2 (9): RESEARCH0035. PMID 11574054. 
  136. ^ Almaas E, Kovács B, Vicsek T, Oltvai Z, Barabási A (2004). "Global organization of metabolic fluxes in the bacterium Escherichia coli". Nature 427 (6977): 839–43. PMID 14985762. 
  137. ^ Reed J, Vo T, Schilling C, Palsson B (2003). "An expanded genome-scale model of Escherichia coli K-12 (iJR904 GSM/GPR)". Genome Biol 4 (9): R54. PMID 12952533. 
  138. ^ Walsh G (2005). "Therapeutic insulins and their large-scale manufacture". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 67 (2): 151–9. PMID 15580495. 
  139. ^ Graumann K, Premstaller A (2006). "Manufacturing of recombinant therapeutic proteins in microbial systems". Biotechnol J 1 (2): 164–86. PMID 16892246. 

November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Professor Hans Christian Gram Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 - November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist. ...

Further reading

  • Alcamo, I. Edward. Fundamentals of Microbiology. 6th ed. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin Cumming, 2001. ISBN 0-7637-1067-9
  • Atlas, Ronald M. Principles of Microbiology. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 1995. ISBN 0-8016-7790-4
  • Madigan, Michael and Martinko, John. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 11th ed. Prentice Hall, 2005. ISBN 0-13-144329-1
  • Holt, John. G. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins, 1994. ISBN 0-683-00603-7
  • Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR (1998). "Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity". J Bacteriol 180 (18): 4765–74. PMID 9733676. 
  • Tortora, Gerard; Funke, Berdell; Case, Christine. Microbiology: An Introduction. 8th ed. Benjamin Cummings, 2003. ISBN 0-8053-7614-3

External links

Find more information on Bacteria by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... It has been suggested that Darwinian Fundamentalism be merged into this article or section. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bacteria - Water Contaminates - Aquapure Filters (432 words)
Bacteria are tiny organisms occurring naturally in water.
Pathogenic bacteria cause illnesses such as typhoid fever, dysentery, gastroenteritis, infectious hepatitis, and cholera.
Iron bacteria can be readily identified by the red, feathery floc that forms overnight at the bottom of a sample bottle containing iron and iron bacteria.
Introduction to the Bacteria (205 words)
However, certain bacteria, the actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin and nocardicin; others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form.
Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough bread; bacteria help to break down dead organic matter; bacteria make up the base of the food web in many environments.
Bacteria are of such immense importance because of their extreme flexibility, capacity for rapid growth and reproduction, and great age - the oldest fossils known, nearly 3.5 billion years old, are fossils of bacteria-like organisms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m