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Encyclopedia > Backronym

A backronym (or bacronym) is a phrase that is constructed "after the fact" from a previously existing word or abbreviation, the abbreviation being an initialism or an acronym. Backronyms may be invented with humorous intent, or may be a type of false or folk etymology. The word is a portmanteau term combining back-formation and acronym, coined in 1983[1] and documented from 1994: Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ... An abbreviation (from Latin brevis short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... A false etymology is an assumed or postulated etymology which is incorrect from the perspective of modern scholarly work in historical linguistics. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


The arrival of coeducation at St. Paul's in 1971 inspired the verb to scope (a foreclipping and conversion of "telescope") and the derived noun scoper, "one who appreciatively ogles the opposite sex." From this process has arisen an unofficial organization named SCOPERS, a reverse acronym, or bacronym, for "Students Concentrating On the Palatable Extremities of the Reciprocal Sex.

-Richard Lederer, Adventures of a Verbivore, 1994

Contents

Backronym versus acronym

An acronym is a pronounceable word created from the initial letters of a phrase:[2] For example, the word radar comes from "Radio Detection and Ranging".[3] Letters from the originating phrase are used to construct a pronounceable word. By contrast, a backronym is constructed by starting with a word (or an initialism) and, beginning with the first letter, using each letter to form the next word of the phrase. The word then becomes an acronym or initialism of the newly formed phrase. In this sense, a backronym is the reversal of an acronym. For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


Since an acronym is defined as a word,[4] and a backronym is constructed from an acronym, it logically follows that the phrase must come from a word. However, this rule is commonly broken, even by dictionaries providing examples such as DVD (an initialism, see image)[5] and SOS (a representation of the emergency signal used in Morse code).[4] 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ...


Types

Backronyms can be classified along various types. Note that these types are not all exclusive of each other, that is, a backronym can be mnemonic, pure, and recursive. However, a backronym cannot be both pure and replacement.


Pure

A pure backronym occurs when the root word was not previously or commonly known as an acronym or abbreviation. Examples:

  • The word "wiki", from the Hawaiian word meaning "quick".[6] Since its application to consumer generated media, some have suggested that "wiki" means "What I Know Is".[7]
  • Adidas has been written about in All Day I Dream About Sports: The Story of the Adidas Brand. Adidas comes from the name of the shoe company's founder, Adolf Dassler, whose nickname was Adi (Dassler).[8] It has also been alternatively backronymed as "All Day I Dream About Sex".[9]. In Spanish, a popular and sarcastic backronym for Adidas is "Asociación De Idiotas Dispuestos A Superarse" (which could be translated as "Association For Idiots Willing To Better Themselves").[10]
  • Similarly, Adidas competitor Puma's name has been backronymed as "Probier Unbedingt Mal Adidas" ("You really must try out Adidas!") in German, also reflecting the fact that Puma was actually founded by Adi's brother Rudolf Dassler.
  • The word coma actually comes from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning deep sleep. It refers to a profound state of unconsciousness. However it has been suggested that it refers to Cessation Of Motor Activity.
  • Kiss is simply the name of the band, but is often referred to as "Knights In Satan's Service".[11]
  • Ford (automobiles), the company name of eponymous derivation from the name of the founder, Henry Ford, is humorously (or cynically, depending on personal experience) assigned the backronyms "Fix Or Replace Daily", the redundant "Fix Or Repair Daily", "First On Race Day", "Found On [a] Rubbish Dump", "Fucked Over Rebuilt Dodge","Fucker Only Rolls Downhill", or "Found On/Off Road, Dead". Other automobile manufacturers have seen similar treatment with their names and initials: Fiat = "Fix It Again, Tony"; Lotus = "Lick Over The Urine Samples," Chevrolet = "Cheap Heap, Every Valve Rattles, Oil Leaks Every Time." Holden = "Horny Old Ladies Doing Exercise Naked" Hyundai = "Horny youths under naked dudes anally penatrated." Saturn = "Sold as American Technology, Underneath its Really a Nissan."

Sometimes the backronym is so commonly heard, that it is generally but incorrectly believed to have been used in the formation of the word, and amounts to a folk etymology. Examples of these include: Look up wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... This article is about the company. ... Adolf Adi Dassler (November 3, 1900 in Herzogenaurach (Germany) - September 6, 1978 in Herzogenaurach), mainly known as Adi Dassler, is the founder of the German sportswear company adidas. ... This article is about the company. ... Species P. concolor P. yagouaroundi Puma is a Felidae genus that contains the Cougar (also known as the Puma, among other names) and the Jaguarundi. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ... Unconsciousness is the absence of consciousness. ... Kiss is an American rock band formed in New York City in January 1973. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... Lotus Logo with monogram of its founder, Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman Lotus Cars is a British manufacturer of sports and racing cars based at Hethel, Norfolk, England. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (also known as Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... Holdens rule This article is about the Australian car manufacturer. ... South Korean business tycoon Chung Ju-yung, founder and honorary chairman of Hyundai Group, 1998 Hyundai refers to a group of companies founded by Chung Ju-yung in South Korea, and related organizations. ... This article is about the planet. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ...

  • Perl does NOT stand for Practical Extraction and Report Language (although it appears in Perl documentation.), because according to Perl documentation., Perl is NOT an acronym. Many programmers make this misunderstanding.
  • Posh, which did not originally stand for "Port Out, Starboard Home" (referring to 1st class cabins shaded from the sun on outbound voyages east, and homeward heading voyages west).[12] The musical Chitty Chitty Bang Bang popularised this erroneous etymology.[12]
  • Golf is not an acronym for "Gentlemen Only, Ladies Forbidden" as has been suggested. It is actually derived from the Scottish name for the game, gowf. This word may, in turn, be related to the Dutch word kolf, meaning "bat", or "club", and the Dutch sport called Kolven.[12]
  • ISO The International Organization for Standardization chose the three letters "ISO" as a short form of its name, based partly on the Greek word Isos. ISO has often wrongly been assumed to be an acronym for "International Standards Organization", even though the correct title of the organization is "International Organization for Standardization".
  • The prefix afro- is merely a shortened version of the word African.[13] It has been suggested that AFRO stands for "Africans Fighting Racial Oppression", although there is no etymological link between the two.
The Lucky Goldstar group became LG and is now branded as "Life's Good".[14]

For other uses, see Perl (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Chitty the Musical is a stage musical based on the story Chitty Chitty Bang Bang by Ian Fleming and the 1968 film produced by Cubby Broccoli. ... This article is about the game. ... Kolven is a game similar to golf. ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ...

Replacement

Some backronyms are back-formed from an initialism or acronym that is an abbreviation with another meaning. For example, In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ...

  • IBM is the official abbreviation for "International Business Machines", but is sometimes jokingly referred to as "I've been moved", used among many IBM employees because of the frequent position changes within the company.[15]
  • SPAM luncheon meat, whose name is a portmanteau of "Shoulder of Pork and hAM" has been unofficially assigned acronyms such as "Specially Processed Assorted Meat", "Slime Posing As Meat", "Some Parts Are Meat",[16] "Specially Prepared American Meat", "Scientifically Produced Artificial Meat", "Sedatives, Preservatives, And Meat," "Stuff Posing As Meat," or "Spare Parts After Mutilation". After the word "spam" became associated with unsolicited commercial email (UCE), it became jokingly referred to as "Self-Propelled Automated Mailings" or "Stupid, Pointless, Annoying Messages". In Esperanto the word spamo is used with the same meaning and has been reinterpreted as "SenPete Alsendita Mesaĝo", that is, "message sent to someone without being asked for".
  • The .arpa Top-level domain originally stood for "Advanced Research Projects Agency" but as the internet transitioned from a strictly US government project to an independent computer network this TLD was instead officially declared to stand for "Address and Routing Parameter Area".

For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... This article is about the canned meat product. ... A portmanteau (IPA: ) is a word or morpheme that fuses two or more words or word parts to give a combined or loaded meaning. ... This article is about the language. ... .arpa is an Internet top-level domain (TLD) used exclusively for Internet-infrastructure purposes. ... “TLD” redirects here. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ...

Apronym

Many backronyms are apronyms, that is, the word itself is relevant to its associated phrase.[17] The relevance may be either serious or ironic. One example is the term BASE jumping, which was coined to signify a parachute jump from one of the bases building, antenna, span, or earth.[18] BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ...


Most of the examples in the following sections also count as apronyms.


Mnemonic

Backronyms are often constructed for educational purposes, to form mnemonics so that the word or initialism is easier to remember. For instance, when learning to read sheet music, students often learn For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Sheet music is written representation of music. ...

Every Good Boy Does Fine (US), Elvis' Guitar Broke Down Friday (US), Evil Giant Brain Devours France (US), Even George Bush Drives Fast (US), Every Good Boy Deserves (Favour/Fruit/Fudge/Football/Fun) (UK/Canada/US/AUS) or Every Green Bus Drives Fast (UK) or Empty Garbage Before Dad Flips/Freaks (US) Every Body Gets Drunk on Fridays (US)

to help remember that these notes (E, G, B, D, and F) are "on the lines". Another example, also applied in music, is FACE, referring to the "space" notes F, A, C, E. Another example is Go Down And Eat Breakfast|Banana and Fat Boys Eat All Day for the names of the major keys. G Major has one sharp as its key signature; D Major has two, and so on. The order of Sharps in those keys is also recalled via "Father Charles Goes Down And Ends Battle" or "Fluffy Cats Get Dirty After Every Bath" or even "Father Calls George Donkey Always Every Birthday". F Major has one flat as its key signature, B-flat major has two, etc. This also works in reverse for the order of flats: "Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father". In Finland, there is the backronym "Esko Aho Diggaa Golfista, Halonen Ei" (Esko Aho digs golf, Halonen doesn't) to help children remember the strings of a guitar in order (E, A, D, G, H/B, E). In Dutch, the corresponding backronym is "Een Aap Die Geen Bananen Eet" (A monkey that does not eat bananas). US versions include "Eddie Ate Dynamite Good Bye Eddie", "Every Acid Dealer Gets Busted Eventually", "Eat A Darn Good Breakfast Everyday" and "Every Alternate Day Grass Brings Energy".


In North America, geography students learn "HOMES" to remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior).[19]


Another example is the Apgar score, used to assess the health of newborn children. The rating system is named after Virginia Apgar, but ten years after the initial publication, the acronym APGAR was coined in the US as a mnemonic learning aid: Appearance (skin color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace (reflex irritability), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration. The Apgar score was devised in 1952 by Virginia Apgar as a simple and repeatable method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn children immediately after childbirth. ...

DVD is an example of an anacronymed backronym. Digital Video Disc changed to Digital Versatile Disc and then to not stand for anything.

In star classification the backronym Oh, Be A Fine Girl/Guy Kiss Me Right Now, Sweetheart, and a number of variations, are used to remember the order of star classes, from bluest to reddest. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x965, 108 KB) GFDL, improvement of http://commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x965, 108 KB) GFDL, improvement of http://commons. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ...


In Sweden, pupils in low-level school learn "Vi ska Äta Ni ska Laga" which literally means "We shall Eat You shall Cook" to remember the names of the rivers that float down the west coast. (Viskan Ätran Nissan Lagan). [20]


A Rat In The House May Eat The Ice Cream (or variations thereof) is a popular backronym used among younger school children as a way to help them remember the spelling of the word "arithmetic."[21][22]


Anacronym

Some backronyms are replacements of other phrases that have become obsolete, either for technological, political or marketing reasons. The result is an anacronym. For example,

  • SADD began as "Students Against Driving Drunk" in 1981, but was changed to its present name of "Students Against Destructive Decisions" in 1997 after requests from students themselves to expand the organization's mission.[23]
  • ESV, originally, in 1970, Experimental Safety Vehicle. Since 1991, Enhanced Safety of Vehicles.[24]
  • RAID, originally meant "Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks", and now usually "Redundant Array of Independent Disks". This arose as RAID was originally a way to expand the linear capacity of unreliable commodity hard disk devices while providing extra reliability. Now that the hard disk is standard, "independent" is more appropriate.[25]
  • SAT in the US originally meant Scholastic Achievement Test. In 1941, the College Board changed its name to Scholastic Aptitude Test (whereas "achievement" suggests what a student has accomplished, "aptitude" suggests a student's potential). In 1990, the name was changed to Scholastic Assessment Test, and finally in 1994, the initials were officially declared to stand for nothing at all[26]. (To add to the confusion, SAT in the UK still stands for Standard Attainment Test, the examination part of National Curriculum assessments carried out at the ages of 7, 11 and 14.)[27]
  • OCLC was named Ohio College Library Center when it was founded in 1967. But in 1981, after it had expanded to include libraries outside Ohio, its name was changed to Online Computer Library Center, Inc.[28]
  • DVDs were originally designed as media for audio-visual data, and as such the abbreviation originally stood for "Digital Video Disc", whether or not the medium could carry any data. As the format inevitably came into common use for other data storage, a different semi-official expansion was created, namely "Digital Versatile Disc". However, "DVD" officially does not stand for anything.[5]
  • SOAP was originally the acronym for Simple Object Access Protocol. An informal vote for a replacement anacronym took place at a W3C XML Working Group meeting. Candidates included Service Oriented Access Protocol and Simple Open Access Protocol, but "SOAP" without definition was officially adopted.[29] SOAP has also come to refer to a situation that is bizarre and unnecessarily complicated, stemming from the cult classic movie, Snakes on a Plane (SoaP).
  • GSM, originally from the French "Groupe Spécial Mobile", became Global System for Mobile Communications when the GSM mobile network became increasingly popular around the world. [30]
  • PHP, was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf and originally stood for "Personal Home Page", became "PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor", a recursive acronym. [31]

i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am gay i am... Volvo VESC (1972) Mercedes-Benz ESF22 (1973) Mini SRV4 (1974) Experimental Safety Vehicle (ESV) is the designation for experimental concept cars used to test car safety ideas. ... For other uses, see Raid. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... For other uses, see SAT (disambiguation). ... The College Board is a not-for-profit examination board in the United States that was formed in the nineteenth century as the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB). ... National Curriculum assessments are a series of educational assessments carried out on children attending schools in England, Wales and Northern Ireland that follow the National Curriculum. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... Snakes on a Plane is a cult high concept,[1] horror-thriller feature film[2] starring Samuel L. Jackson. ... For other uses, see GSM (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see PHP (disambiguation). ... A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ...

False

While not necessarily a type, many backronyms are falsely believed to come from an acronym or initialism that means something else. Unlike anacronyms, these original meanings still hold. Examples include:

  • B.C.E. and C.E., which stand for "Before the Common Era" and "of the Common Era", and correspond to the same reference system as do B.C. and A.D. respectively, were created as a religion-neutral alternative to specify the year. People familiar with the meanings of B.C./A.D. sometimes mistake the new initialisms as modern translations of the original initialisms, such as in "the year 570 of the Christian Era.
  • Ned is a Scottish term for a young hooligan; it is frequently claimed to derive from "Non-Educated Deliquent". However, the word has been in use since the 1950s and has never been used as official terminology. More likely etymologies are the old Scots word "ne'erdowell" ('never do well'), or Ted, a similarly nihilistic and violent youth subculture of the 1950s.
  • R.I.P., an internationally used initialism for the Latin Requiescat in pace ("May he/she rest in peace").[32] is not, as often stated, an English acronym for "Rest in Peace".
  • RPG is a transliteration of РПГ, the Russian abbreviation of реактивный противотанковый гранатомёт (reaktivniy protivotankoviy granatomyot), "rocket anti-tank launcher", now sometimes said to stand for "rocket-propelled grenade" instead.[33] (RPG is also used for role-playing game, in poker culture refers to the usenet group rec.gambling.poker and is the name of a programming language originally called "Report Program Generator" sometime referred to by the backronym "Right Program Guide".)
  • RSVP does not stand for "Respond to Sender Via Post" or "Respond So Very Promptly" but for the French "Répondez, s'il vous plaît," which literally translates to "Respond, if it pleases you" or simply "Please reply."[34]
  • AC/DC does not stand for "Anti-Christ/Devil's Children".[35] nor for "After Christ, the Devil Comes". It actually stands for the electrical terms, "Alternating Current" and "Direct Current". The founders of the hard rock band, AC/DC, (Angus and Malcolm Young) saw the letters on the back of a sewing machine,[35] and thought that a reference to electricity suited their energetic style. The name caused some confusion among Americans because AC/DC was a common euphemism for bisexuality.[36]

BCE is a TLA that may stand for: European Central Bank in some Romance languages (e. ... BCE redirects here. ... BCE redirects here. ... BC may stand for: Before Christ (see Anno Domini) : an abbreviation used to refer to a year before the beginning of the year count that starts with the supposed year of the birth of Jesus. ... Look up AD in Wiktionary, the free dictionary AD or ad may stand for: ad or advertisement, see advertising ad- prefix Administrative domain Air Defence Andorra, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code Anno Domini (In the Year of [Our] Lord). This year is A.D. 2005. ... NED can refer to: National Endowment for Democracy IOC code for the Netherlands NASA Extragalactic Database New English Dictionary, the original title of the Oxford English Dictionary A Non-executive director of a company NorthEast District - A District within the SPEBSQSA organization Nano-emissive display, a type of flat panel... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... // The Teddy boy youth culture first emerged in Britain (starting in London, and rapidly spreading across the country) during the early 1950s, and soon after became strongly associated with American rock and roll music of the period. ... Gods death or nonexistence is a quintessential nihilistic concern. ... A Youth subculture is youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors and interests. ... The abbreviation or acronym RIP has several different meanings: It can stand for Rest In Peace, a phrase which often appears on tombstones. ... Captain Andrew Drake (1684-1743) sandstone tombstone from the Stelton Baptist Church Cemetery in Edison, New Jersey Jarvis Andrew Lattin (1853-1941) granite tombstone from Powell Cemetery in Farmingdale, New York A headstone, tombstone or gravestone is a permanent marker, normally carved from stone, placed over or next to the... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... RPG or RPG IV is a native programming language for IBMs iSeries (aka AS400) minicomputer system. ... RSVP may refer to: Look up RSVP in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the band. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antichrist. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure. ... Direct current (DC or continuous current) is the continuous flow of electricity through a conductor such as a wire from high to low potential. ... This article is about the band. ... Angus Young (born on 31 March 1955) is a guitarist, songwriter, and co-founder of the Australian hard rock band AC/DC, known for his wild stage energy and schoolboy-uniform stage outfits. ... Malcolm Mitchell Young (born January 6, 1953) is a British guitarist, best known as a founding member, rhythm guitarist, backing vocalist and co-songwriter for the Australian hard rock band, AC/DC. He has been with them since he co-founded the band in November 1973. ... AC/DC could refer to: AC/DC the hard rock band AC/DC electrical systems, referring to alternating current and direct current systems ACDSee, a shareware image viewer software program Category: ... A euphemism is the substitution of an agreeable or less offensive expression in place of one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant to the listener;[1] or in the case of doublespeak, to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ... Bisexual redirects here. ...

Recursive

Main article: Recursive acronym

Some backronyms are also recursive acronyms. Perhaps the most famous of these is GNU, the open source software project, which stands for GNU's Not Unix.[37] A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ... A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ...


Backronyms and the 12 steps

Alcoholics Anonymous and other 12 step programs have a verbal culture that makes extensive use of backronyms.[38]. They're used as teaching tools, similar to slogans like "one day at a time," or "Let go, let God," but often have an ironic edge. GOD = Good Orderly Direction Halt = Hungry Angry Lonely or Tired Fear = False Evidence Appearing Real / Forgetting everything is all right / Fuck Everything And Run / Face Everything And Recover Slip = Sobriety Losing Its Priority Denial = Don't Even Notice I Am Lying AA meeting sign Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an informal meeting society for recovering alcoholics. ...


See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... A retronym is a type of neologism coined for an old object or concept whose original name has come to be used for something else, is no longer unique, or is otherwise inappropriate or misleading. ... A recursive acronym (or occasionally recursive initialism) is an abbreviation which refers to itself in the expression for which it stands. ...

External links

References

  1. ^ bacronym. Word Spy. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  2. ^ Acronym. Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  3. ^ RADAR means: Radio Detection and Ranging. Nasa Explores. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  4. ^ a b Acronym. WhatIs.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  5. ^ a b Backronym Definition. PC Magazine. Retrieved on 2006-11-14.
  6. ^ wiki - Definitions from Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  7. ^ The wiki principle. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  8. ^ All Day I Dream About Sport: The Story of the Adidas Brand, ISBN 1904879128
  9. ^ Urban Legends References Pages: Adidas. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
  10. ^ Ludoacronimia. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  11. ^ ; the claim may be advanced humorously, or as part of an urban legend. Or as in "Keep it Simple, Stupid," traditional advice to avoid unnecessary complexity. The KISS method Brothers, Fletcher A. in "The Rock Report", 1987 cites a January 1980 American Photographer
  12. ^ a b c Quinion, Michael (2005). Port Out, Starboard Home: And Other Language Myths. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-101223-4. ; published in the US as Quinion, Michael (2006). Ballyhoo, Buckaroo, and Spuds. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-085153-8. 
  13. ^ afro- - Definitions from Dictionary.com
  14. ^ Samsung, LG’s Brand Globalization History. Korean Times (2005-12-26). Retrieved on 2007-03-15.
  15. ^ Just another management move at IBM Lotus. Retrieved on 2006-11-15.
  16. ^ Hormel Foods - Glossary - SPAM.
  17. ^ What is an Apronym?. Anronyms.com.
  18. ^ Park, Michael. "BASE Jumping: Not Suicide, But Sure Looks Like It", Fox News.com, May 22, 2006. Retrieved on 2008-01-24.  — Note that the article erroneously refers to BASE as an acronym rather than an apronym, which is a far less well-known term and distinction.
  19. ^ School Work Ideas, Acronyms. Retrieved on 2008-01-16.
  20. ^
  21. ^ http://mathworld.wolfram.com/Arithmetic.html "A rat in the house..."
  22. ^ http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/pre-algebra-mnemonics.html " rat in the house..."
  23. ^ History of SADD. Retrieved on 2008-04-28.
  24. ^ ESV Conference History. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
  25. ^ RAID definition of RAID in computing dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  26. ^ FairTest.
  27. ^ "The Standards Site", DfES
  28. ^ "History of OCLC"
  29. ^ XML Protocol Working Group minutes. Retrieved on 2007-09-04.
  30. ^ "Brief History of GSM & the GSMA"
  31. ^ "Quickstudy: Personal Home Page (PHP)"
  32. ^ R.I.P - Definitions from Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  33. ^ RPG - Rocket Propelled Grenade - Anti-tank Infantry Weapon.
  34. ^ RSVP - Definitions from Dictionary.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  35. ^ a b Name Origins - Where did Bands Get Their Names?. Retrieved on 2006-11-16.
  36. ^ Discovery Health :: Bisexual Behavior. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
  37. ^ The GNU Operating System home page. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
  38. ^ For a list of common Backronyms and slogans [1]
Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Urban legend (disambiguation). ... Pastor Fletcher A. Brothers is a fundamentalist preacher and author from Rochester, New York. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
sociology - Backronym (196 words)
A backronym or bacronym is a reverse acronym, that is, the words of the expanded term were chosen to fit the letters of the acronym.
Some backronyms are back-formed from an existing acronym by creating a new expanded term for the initials when the original term becomes inaccurate.
Generally these backronyms are apronyms, as the word used as the backronym is relevant to the expanded term it stands for.
Backronym - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2337 words)
A backronym or bacronym is a type of acronym that begins as an ordinary word, and is later interpreted as an acronym.
When a backronym is peddled as the origin of a word, it is often an example of false etymology; when widely believed, it may have the status of a folk etymology; but more usually it is intended and understood as a joke.
Many 'backronyms' are apronyms, as the word used as the 'backronym' is relevant to the expanded phrase it stands for.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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