FACTOID # 19: Cheap sloppy joes: Looking for reduced-price lunches for schoolchildren? Head for Oklahoma!
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Back to the Future
Back to the Future

Back to the Future film poster
Directed by Robert Zemeckis
Produced by Bob Gale
Steven Spielberg
Neil Canton
Kathleen Kennedy
Frank Marshall
Johnny Colla (uncredited)
Geoffrey Power (uncredited)
Written by Robert Zemeckis
Bob Gale
Starring Michael J. Fox
Christopher Lloyd
Lea Thompson
Crispin Glover
Thomas F. Wilson
Music by Alan Silvestri
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Editing by Harry Keramidas
Arthur Schmidt
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) July 3, 1985
Running time 116 minutes
Country  United States
Language English
Budget US$19,000,000
Gross revenue US$381,109,762
(worldwide)
Followed by Back to the Future Part II
Allmovie profile
IMDb profile

Back to the Future is a 1985 Academy Award-winning science fictionadventure-comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and produced by Steven Spielberg. Zemeckis wrote the story, along with Bob Gale. It stars Michael J. Fox as teenager Marty McFly and Christopher Lloyd as scientist Dr. Emmett L. Brown. The Back to the Future trilogy is a comedic science fiction film trilogy written by Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis, directed by Zemeckis, and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... Cropped frame grab from Back to the Future DVD showing one of the iconic moments in the film. ... German Three sheet Movie poster for Metropolis. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... Bob Gale (May 25, 1951, University City, Missouri), born Michael Robert Gale, is an Academy Award nominated American screenwriter who, amongst other things, co-wrote Back to the Future with writing partner Robert Zemeckis and also wrote the two sequels for the film. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... Neil Canton is an American film producer from New York City. ... Kathleen Kennedy (b. ... Frank Marshall (born September 13, 1946) is a four-times Academy Award-nominated American movie producer and director, often working in collaboration with his wife, Kathleen Kennedy. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Christopher Lloyd, see Christopher Lloyd (disambiguation). ... Lea Thompson in Back to the Future. ... For the Scarling. ... Thomas F. Wilson in the Back to the Future trilogy as Biff Tannen. ... Alan Silvestri (b. ... Dean Cundey is a celebrated cinematographer born 12 March 1946 in Alhambra, California, USA. He has worked on some of the most influential special effects films in history and has collaborated extensively with directors John Carpenter and Robert Zemeckis. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... USD redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... // 3 December - Roger Moore steps down from the role of James Bond after twelve years and seven films. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Look up adventure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A comedy is a dramatic performance of a light and amusing character, usually with a happy conclusion to its plot. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... Bob Gale (May 25, 1951, University City, Missouri), born Michael Robert Gale, is an Academy Award nominated American screenwriter who, amongst other things, co-wrote Back to the Future with writing partner Robert Zemeckis and also wrote the two sequels for the film. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ... Martin Seamus Marty McFly is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Michael J. Fox in the three films and voiced by David Kaufman in the animated series. ... For other persons named Christopher Lloyd, see Christopher Lloyd (disambiguation). ... Doc Brown redirects here. ...


The film's basic storyline involves the premise of time travel being used to breach the generation gap. In a De Lorean time machine invented by Dr. Emmett L. Brown, Marty accidentally travels back to the year 1955 when his parents were teenagers. Having interfered with their first meeting, Marty must ensure that his young parents fall in love so that he will be born. Furthermore, the Dr. Brown of 1955 must find a way to return Marty to 1985 without the plutonium necessary to fuel the journey. The premise of a film or screenplay is the fundamental concept that drives the plot. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... A generation gap is a popular term used to describe wide differences in cultural norms between members of a younger generation and their elders. ... A front view of the DeLorean as seen on the Universal Studios backlot tour. ... Falling in love is a mainly Western term used to describe the process of moving from a feeling of neutrality towards someone, to one of love. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ...


Due to the film's success, three spin-off projects were made. CBS TV aired an animated series, Back to the Future: The Animated Series and Harvey Comics released a handful of similarly styled comic books, although their stories were original and not merely duplicates of the films. In 1991, Universal Studios Theme Parks opened a simulator ride based on the series called Back to the Future: The Ride. The ride closed on March 30, 2007 in Orlando, FL, and September 3, 2007 in Hollywood, California. The ride remains open at Universal Studios Japan. This article is about the broadcast network. ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Casper the Friendly Ghost in Theres Good Boos To-Night (1948). ... The current official logo for Universal Studios Theme Parks Universal Studios, the film division of NBC Universal, operates a number of theme parks based around the movies it has produced. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Universal Studios Hollywood is a movie studio in Universal City, California, and is the original Universal Studios theme park. ... Universal Studios Japan USJ2 Universal Studios Japan ) (USJ CO., LTD. TYO: 2142 ) is one of three Universal Studios theme parks, this one in Osaka, Japan. ...


The "Courthouse Square" area, where scenes incorporating the clock tower were shot, was a popular attraction on the backlot tour at Universal Studios Hollywood until most of it was destroyed in a fire on June 1, 2008. The courthouse itself was spared. Courthouse Square as it appeared in Back to the Future. ... Universal Studios Hollywood is a movie studio in Universal City, California, and is the original Universal Studios theme park. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Plot

Marty McFly (Fox) is a 17-year-old living in Hill Valley, California. On the morning of October 25, 1985, his eccentric friend, scientist Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown (Lloyd), calls him, asking to meet at 1:15 a.m. After school that day, a solicitor approaches Marty and his girlfriend Jennifer (Claudia Wells), asking for donations to preserve the town's clock tower which has not run since it was struck by lightning thirty years before. Upon arriving home, Marty finds the family car wrecked in the driveway. Inside the house, he finds his weak-willed father George (Crispin Glover) being bullied by his supervisor Biff Tannen (Thomas F. Wilson), who had borrowed and wrecked the car. At dinner that night, Marty's mother Lorraine (Lea Thompson) recounts how she and George first met when her father hit George with his car as George was "bird-watching". This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jennifer Jane Parker is a fictional character, a character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actress Claudia Wells in the first film, actress Elisabeth Shue in the 2 sequels, and voiced by Cathy Cavadini in the animated series. ... Claudia Wells (born July 5, 1966) is an American actress. ... George Douglas McFly is a fictional lead character in the first Back to the Future motion picture, played by actor Crispin Glover, and a minor character in the 2 sequels, played by Jeffrey Weissman. ... For the Scarling. ... Biff Tannen is a fictional character and an antagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played in the three films and the ride, and voiced in the animated series by Thomas F. Wilson. ... Thomas F. Wilson in the Back to the Future trilogy as Biff Tannen. ... Lorraine Baines McFly is a fictional character, a lead character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actress Lea Thompson. ... Lea Thompson in Back to the Future. ...

"Doc" Brown, (Christopher Lloyd) and Marty McFly, (Michael J. Fox) watch as the time machine vanishes.

That night, Marty meets Doc as planned in the parking lot of Twin Pines Mall. Doc presents a De Lorean DMC-12 which he has modified into a time machine. As Marty videotapes, Doc then explains that the car travels to a programmed date and time upon reaching eighty-eight miles per hour using plutonium in a nuclear reaction to generate the 1.21 gigawatts of power it requires. Demonstrating how to program the machine, Doc enters in November 5, 1955 as the target date, explaining that it was the day he conceived the idea of the flux capacitor; the device which "makes time travel possible". Before Doc can depart for his planned trip into the future, a pair of Libyan nationalists, from whom he stole the plutonium, arrive in a Volkswagen Type 2 and ruthlessly shoot him down. Marty jumps into the De Lorean and is pursued by the Libyans until he drives at eighty-eight miles per hour and is instantaneously transported back to 1955. Cropped frame grab from Back to the Future DVD showing one of the iconic moments in the film. ... Cropped frame grab from Back to the Future DVD showing one of the iconic moments in the film. ... Doc Brown redirects here. ... For other persons named Christopher Lloyd, see Christopher Lloyd (disambiguation). ... Martin Seamus Marty McFly is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Michael J. Fox in the three films and voiced by David Kaufman in the animated series. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hill Valley. ... The De Lorean DMC-12 is a sports car that was manufactured by the De Lorean Motor Company for the American market in 1981 and 1982 in Northern Ireland. ... A time machine is a device for traveling through time. ... Videotape is a means of recording television pictures and accompanying sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... This article is about the radioactive element. ... 1000000000 Watts ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... The Volkswagen Type 2 (aka Transporter) was the second automotive line introduced by German automaker Volkswagen. ...


The car stalls shortly thereafter; therefore Marty hides it and makes his way into town on foot, finding that the town square now reflects the popular culture of the 1950s. He runs into his own father, then a teenager, being tyrannized just as he was in 1985 by Biff, who was then the school bully. Marty follows George; as he is about to be hit by Lorraine's father's car, Marty saves his father by taking the hit himself, resulting in Lorraine becoming infatuated with Marty instead of George. Marty is disturbed by her sexual advances, which contrast sharply with her prudish attitude in 1985, and leaves her home to track down the Doc of 1955. After managing to convince the scientist that he is from the future, Marty shows Doc his videotape. After Doc hears his older self mention the power requirements of the De Lorean, he tells Marty that aside from plutonium, which is unobtainable, the only possible source of that much power is a bolt of lightning, which is unpredictable. Marty realizes that the lightning strike at the clock tower will occur the following Saturday; at this, Doc concocts a way to harness the bolt's power. A stall is the slowing or stopping of a process. ... A town square is an open area commonly found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... It has been suggested that Workplace bullying be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Infatuation (disambiguation). ... Look up Prude in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ...


However, Doc deduces that Marty has prevented his parents from meeting. Since Marty will not exist unless his parents fall in love, he finds that Marty is in danger of being erased from time. After several failed attempts at playing matchmaker, Marty eventually works out a plan to have George appear to rescue Lorraine from his (Marty's) own advances on the night of a school dance. When Biff shows up unexpectedly and attacks Lorraine, George manages to defend her in fact by knocking Biff out with a single punch. Lorraine and George return to the dance floor, where they kiss for the first time, ensuring Marty's existence. Doc, meanwhile, has used cables to connect the clock tower's antenna to two lamp posts, which he plans to have Marty drive under in the De Lorean, now sporting a lightning rod, at eighty-eight miles per hour the moment the lightning strikes. An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ...

The clock tower gets struck by lightning at 10:04 P.M. on November 12, 1955.

Before Marty can leave, Doc finds a letter in his coat pocket that Marty had written, warning him about his future assassination. Doc rips up the letter without reading it, anticipating the dangers of learning about his future. Marty adjusts the time machine to take him back to 1985 ten minutes earlier than he left, giving him time to prevent the shooting. Upon his arrival, however, the car stalls and Marty arrives at the mall too late to save Doc. When Marty reaches him, Doc is very much alive and opens his radiation suit to reveal a bulletproof vest while showing Marty the letter he had written in 1955, taped back together. When asked about it and his belief in not knowing about one's future, Doc replies, "I figured, what the hell?" Image File history File links ClockTower1955. ... Image File history File links ClockTower1955. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hazmat suit. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The next morning, Marty finds his family has been changed for the better. Most notably, Lorraine is no longer prudish, and George has become self-confident. Biff has become a rather servile car-cleaning agent. Just as Jennifer and Marty reunite, Doc arrives from the year 2015, appearing frantic about a problem concerning the couple's future children. Marty and Jennifer climb aboard the De Lorean; when after Marty points out there is not enough road wherein to reach 88 miles per hour, Doc responds, "Where we're going, we don't need roads." The car then lifts off into the sky and disappears.


Production

Script

The inspiration for the film largely stems from Bob Gale, who discovered his father's high school yearbook and wondered whether he would have been friends with his father as a teenager. His father was class president and pretty much the "big guy on campus," while Bob was on the other end of the social barometer—more of a nerd. [1] Gale and Robert Zemeckis originally wrote the script in September 1980 but struggled to find the time to make it. Steven Spielberg read it when Gale first had the idea and asked Zemeckis a number of years later what had happened to it. The year 1955 was chosen because it fell within the era that teenage culture was born. Bob Gale (May 25, 1951, University City, Missouri), born Michael Robert Gale, is an Academy Award nominated American screenwriter who, amongst other things, co-wrote Back to the Future with writing partner Robert Zemeckis and also wrote the two sequels for the film. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... A Youth subculture is youth-based subculture with distinct styles, behaviors and interests. ...


Zemeckis pitched the idea to several companies.[2] Disney turned it down because they thought that a story involving a mother falling in love with her son was too risqué, even if in a twist of time travel.[2] All other companies said it was not risqué enough, compared to other teen comedies at the time (such as Porky's, Fast Times at Ridgemont High and Revenge of the Nerds). Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Porkys is a comedy film about the escapades of teenagers at the fictional Angel Beach high school in Florida in 1954. ... Ridgemont High School redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Revenge of the Nerds (2007 film) be merged into this article or section. ...


Sid Sheinberg, the head of Universal Studios, made many changes to the movie. "Professor Brown" was changed to "Doc Brown" and his chimp Shemp to a dog named Einstein. Marty's mother had previously been Meg, then Eileen, but Sheinberg insisted that she be named Lorraine after his wife Lorraine Gary.[2] Sheinberg also did not like the title, insisting that no one would see a movie with "future" in the title[2]. In a memo to Robert Zemeckis, he said that the title should be changed to "Spaceman From Pluto," tying in with the Marty-as-alien jokes in the film.[3] Steven Spielberg replied in a memo thanking him for the wonderful "joke memo" and told him everyone got a kick out of it. Sheinberg, too proud to admit he was serious, let the title stand.[4] Sid Sheinburg was the head of Universal Studios productions from 1973 to 1995. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Lorraine Gary (born August 16, 1937 in New York City) is an actress best known for her role as Ellen Brody in Jaws, Jaws 2, and Jaws: The Revenge. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ...


In the original script, Marty's rock 'n roll performance caused a riot at the dance that had to be broken up by police. This, combined with Marty accidentally making the Professor (Doc) aware of the "secret ingredient" that made the time machine work (Coca-Cola) caused history to change. When Marty got back to 1985, he found that it was now the 1950s conception of the future, with air-cars and other electronic devices, all invented by Doc Brown and running on Coca-Cola. Marty also discovers that rock and roll was never invented (the most popular musical style was the mambo), and he dedicates himself to starting the delayed cultural revolution. Meanwhile, his dad opens a scrapbook containing newspaper clippings from the day after the 1955 dance and sees his son in the picture of the riot. The time machine is not built around a De Lorean DMC-12, and the power source for Marty's trip back to 1985 comes from atomic testing, rather than a lightning strike.[5] Early concept art made when it was planned that Marty would return to the future via atomic testing was later utilized by Steven Spielberg for a scene in Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.[6] The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... The jet pack, an icon of the future, appearing on an August 1928 issue of Amazing Stories science-fiction magazine. ... The De Lorean DMC-12 is a sports car that was manufactured by the De Lorean Motor Company for the American market in 1981 and 1982 in Northern Ireland. ... Concept art is a form of illustration where the main goal is to convey a visual representation of a design, idea, and/or mood for use in movies, video games, or comic books before it is put into the final product. ... Steven Allan Spielberg KBE (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. ... Indy 4 redirects here. ...


Doc Brown's "man hanging off a clock face"-themed clock reprises the famous scene in Harold Lloyd's Safety Last! (1923). The fact that Christopher Lloyd and Harold Lloyd have the same last name, however, is merely a coincidence. Harold Clayton Lloyd (April 20, 1893 – March 8, 1971) was an American film actor and director, most famous for his silent comedies. ... Safety Last! is a 1923 comedy silent film starring Harold Lloyd. ... For other persons named Christopher Lloyd, see Christopher Lloyd (disambiguation). ...


Pronunciation of "gigawatt"

In the film's script the word "gigawatt" is spelled and pronounced "jigowatt" (IPA: /ˈdʒɪgəwɒt/). The metric prefix "giga-" is now part of everyday speech due to its use in computing and is now most often pronounced with a hard g, even though the official (NIST) pronunciation is the soft g. However, in the 1980s, the soft g was the most common pronunciation of the prefix. Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis had been doing research for the film, during which they talked to someone who pronounced the word with a soft g. This note is explained when Bob Gale is giving a commentary of the film on the special edition DVD during the scene where Doc explains the plan to send Marty back to the future. The gigawatt (symbol: GW) is a unit for measuring power corresponding to one billion (109) watts. ... Look up giga- in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hard g vs a soft g is a feature that occurs in many languages, including English, in which there are two sounds both represented by the letter g. A hard g is a velar stop /g/ represented by g, and a soft g is an affricate or a fricative... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ...


Casting and filming

As Back to the Future's producers scouted locations on a residential street in Pasadena, Michael J. Fox was elsewhere on that street, filming his first starring feature role, Teen Wolf. The producers became interested in having Fox play Marty McFly, but Fox initially had to turn down the part because of his increasing involvement in the sitcom Family Ties. Another of the show's stars, Meredith Baxter-Birney, was pregnant at the time, and thus the show's producers were looking to Fox's character (Alex Keaton) to "carry the show."[7] Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, California, United States. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film. ... Martin Seamus Marty McFly is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Michael J. Fox in the three films and voiced by David Kaufman in the animated series. ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... For other uses, see Family Ties (disambiguation). ... Meredith Baxter (born June 21, 1947) is an American actress. ... Michael J. Fox as Alex P. Keaton Alex P. Keaton is a fictional character, portrayed by Michael J. Fox, on the 1980s American sitcom Family Ties. ...


Production of the film began on November 26, 1984, with actor Eric Stoltz portraying Marty McFly, and reportedly shot for more than four weeks, until the return of executive producer Steven Spielberg, who was out of the country at the time.[citation needed] After seeing a rough cut, Spielberg and the writer/directors agreed that Stoltz was a fine actor, but he was unfortunately not right for the part. Stoltz had played it seriously, and they wanted a lighter touch on the character. They returned to the idea of Michael J. Fox, who this time worked out a shooting schedule that would not interfere with his television commitment.[1] Fox spent his days rehearsing and shooting Family Ties, and then drove to the movie's set to film Back to The Future all night. The movie's day shots were filmed on weekends. Fox reportedly averaged only an hour or two of sleep each night during production, which was completed on April 20, 1985[citation needed], less than three months before the film's release.[4] is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Eric H. Stoltz (born September 30, 1961) is a Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...

The Flux Capacitor responsible for time travel.

Much of the original footage was retained for the film, for shots in which Eric Stoltz was not visible. Bob Gale later explained that some dialogue scenes with other actors were from the original shoot. A few long shots with Stoltz as Marty McFly still exist in the film, according to Zemeckis and Gale, and there was at least one "teaser" movie poster released with Stoltz's name and face visible. One notable scene that was kept in the final film is the one in which Stoltz as Marty drives the De Lorean in the mall parking lot. Since the shots were fairly distant, with the driver's face not particularly visible, the footage was retained.[citation needed] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Eric H. Stoltz (born September 30, 1961) is a Golden Globe-nominated American actor. ... Bob Gale (May 25, 1951, University City, Missouri), born Michael Robert Gale, is an Academy Award nominated American screenwriter who, amongst other things, co-wrote Back to the Future with writing partner Robert Zemeckis and also wrote the two sequels for the film. ...


Michael J. Fox had to learn to ride a skateboard for the film. To find a coordinator for the skateboarding scenes, Bob Gale went to Venice Beach and approached two skateboarders. One turned out to be European skate champ Per Welinder. The second skater became the stunt double for Eric Stoltz, but was later replaced in order to match Michael J. Fox's height.[2] A standard skateboard 1970s surfer print fiberglass skateboard A skateboard is a four wheeled platform used for the activity of skateboarding. ... ... Per Welinder has the distinction of being the only skateboarder to have ever beaten Rodney Mullen in a contest. ...


Christopher Lloyd reportedly based his performance as Doc Brown on a combination of physicist Albert Einstein and conductor Leopold Stokowski.[4] The extreme difference in height between Lloyd (6'1") and Fox (5'4") meant Doc's character was given a distinctive hunched-over look. For other persons named Christopher Lloyd, see Christopher Lloyd (disambiguation). ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ...


To play their roles at the age of 47, Lea Thompson (Lorraine), Crispin Glover (George), and Thomas F. Wilson (Biff) had several hours' worth of make-up and extra layers of skin added to their faces; all three actors were therefore able to play their characters' younger selves as well.[8] Lea Thompson in Back to the Future. ... For the Scarling. ... Thomas F. Wilson in the Back to the Future trilogy as Biff Tannen. ...


Several key scenes were filmed on the Universal Studios backlot in what is now known as Courthouse Square. The setting of hundreds of other productions, including the current television show Ghost Whisperer, it has suffered major fire damage on three occasions since Back to the Future was filmed.[9] [10] The Courthouse Square backlot at Universal Studios was used for both time periods, with the 1955 scenes filmed first so that the location could be "trashed down" for the 1985 scenes.[2] The scene where Marty McFly discovers that Doc Brown has a time machine was filmed in front of the Puente Hills Mall in City of Industry, California. A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio with permanent exterior sets for outdoor scenes in motion picture and/or television productions. ... Courthouse Square as it appeared in Back to the Future. ... -1... A backlot is an area behind or adjoining a movie studio with permanent exterior sets for outdoor scenes in motion picture and/or television productions. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... Puente Hills Mall, located in Industry, California, is a major regional shopping center in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County. ...


Music

The film's musical score was composed by Alan Silvestri, who later wrote music for Forrest Gump and numerous other films, many of them directed by Robert Zemeckis. The themes in his Back to the Future Suite have since been heard in Back to the Future Part II and Part III, which were also scored by Silvestri, in Back to the Future: The Ride and as ambient music at the Universal Studios theme parks. The hit, upbeat Back to the Future Soundtrack, featuring two new songs by Huey Lewis and the News, also contributed to the film's popularity. "The Power of Love" became the band's first song to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100 and was nominated for an Academy Award. Huey Lewis portrayed the high school band audition judge that rejects Marty's band, The Pinheads, as they perform "The Power of Love," for being "too darn loud." Lewis had an additional cameo appearance as a man wearing a fedora who walks past Marty upon his arrival in town in 1955. Sheet music is written represenation of music. ... Alan Silvestri (b. ... For other uses, see Forrest Gump (disambiguation). ... Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... For the video game based on this film, see Back to the Future Part III (video game). ... The soundtrack to the hit 1985 film Back to the Future, the Back to the Future Soundtrack was released in May 1985 under MCA. // Two 1950s hits Marty encounters when he arrives in 1955, Mr. ... ... The Power of Love is the title of a 1985 single by Huey Lewis & the News written for and featured in the film Back to the Future. ... “Hot 100” redirects here. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Huey Lewis (born Hugh Anthony Cregg, III on July 5, 1950) is an American musician and occasional actor. ...


The film's soundtrack, which was available on CD, also included songs by Eric Clapton, Lindsey Buckingham, Etta James and others. It used the largest orchestra ever assembled by Universal Pictures at the time.[8] Two 1950s hits Marty encounters when he arrives in 1955 ("Mr. Sandman" by The Chordettes and the Fess Parker recording of "The Ballad of Davy Crockett") were not included on the CD release. Neither was the "metal" version of, "Johnny B. Goode". Eric Patrick Clapton, CBE[2] (born 30 March 1945) [3], nicknamed Slowhand, is a Grammy Award-winning English rock guitarist, singer, songwriter and composer. ... Lindsey Adams Buckingham (born October 3, 1949) is an American guitarist and singer with the musical group Fleetwood Mac. ... Etta James (born Jamesetta Hawkins on January 25, 1938) is an American blues, soul, R&B, and jazz singer and songwriter. ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... For other uses, see Sandman (disambiguation). ... The Chordettes was a female popular singing quartet, usually singing a cappella, and specializing in traditional pop music. ... Fess Parker (born August 16, 1924) is an American film and television actor. ... The Ballad of Davy Crockett is a song with music by George Bruns and lyrics by Tom Blackburn. ... Music sample Johnny B. Goode Problems? See media help. ...


The material ostensibly performed by Marty McFly, and by Marvin Berry and the Starlighters, was recorded by Harry Waters, Jr. as Marvin Berry and Mark Campbell as Marty McFly, with the guitar solo played by Tim May (Campbell and May received a "special thanks" acknowledgment in the film's end credits, with the recording credit going to the fictional characters). Berry's group also plays the song "Night Train," first recorded by Jimmy Forrest in 1951.[11] Guitar solos are a melodic passage, section, or entire piece of music written for an electric guitar or an acoustic guitar. ... This article is about the rhythm and blues tune. ... Jimmy Forrest (January 24, 1920 - August 26, 1980) was a jazz musician who played tenor saxophone throughout his career. ... See also: 1950 in music, other events of 1951, 1952 in music, 1950s in music and the list of years in music // Events Johnnie Ray has his first hit record with Cry. ...


Reaction

The film opened on July 3, 1985 and grossed U.S. $210 million at the U.S. box office, making it the highest grossing American film of 1985.[12] The film was followed by two sequels: Back to the Future Part II in 1989 and Back to the Future Part III in 1990, forming a trilogy. On December 17, 2002, Universal Studios Home Entertainment released the film on DVD and VHS as part of Back to the Future: The Complete Trilogy. is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... USD redirects here. ... Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... For the video game based on this film, see Back to the Future Part III (video game). ... The Back to the Future trilogy is a comedic science fiction film trilogy written by Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis, directed by Zemeckis, and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Universal Studios Home Entertainment (formerly Universal Studios Home Video or MCA/Universal Home Video) is a home video company founded in 1979. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ...


Critics

Reviews were generally positive. Roger Ebert complimented the direction, writing that Zemeckis "shows not only a fine comic touch but also some of the lighthearted humanism of a Frank Capra."[13] Even the sequences where Marty's mom has the "hots for him" are regarded as "up-beat... without ever becoming uncomfortable."[14] The BBC applauded the intricacies of the "outstandingly executed" script, remarking that "nobody says anything that doesn't become important to the plot later."[15] Roger Joseph Ebert (born June 18, 1942) is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American film critic. ... For other persons named Frank Capra, see Frank Capra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


This movie ranked number 28 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies.[16] As of December 2006, Back to the Future had received a very respectable 95% overall rating on Rotten Tomatoes, with a 98% rating from the users.[17] In 2006, Back to the Future was voted the 20th greatest film ever made by readers of Empire.[18] Entertainment Weekly (sometimes abbreviated EW) is a magazine published by Time Inc. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Empire is a British film magazine published monthly by Emap Consumer Media since July 1989. ...


On December 27, 2007, Back to the Future was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[19] The National Film Registry is the registry of films selected by the United States National Film Preservation Board for preservation in the Library of Congress. ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ...


Cultural impact

The series was very popular in the 1980s, even making fans out of celebrities like Huey Lewis and the News (Lewis appeared in the first film) and ZZ Top (who appeared in the third film) and President Ronald Reagan, who referred to the movie in his 1986 State of the Union address when he said, "Never has there been a more exciting time to be alive, a time of rousing wonder and heroic achievement. As they said in the film Back to the Future, 'Where we're going, we don't need roads.'"[20] In fact, when he first saw the joke about him being president, i.e. "Ronald Reagan? The actor? Ha! Then who's Vice President, Jerry Lewis?", he made the projectionist of the theater stop the reel, roll it back, and run it again.[1] He also considered accepting a role in the third film as the 1885 mayor of Hill Valley but eventually declined.[citation needed]. ... ZZ Top (pronounced ) is an American hard rock band formed in 1969 in Houston, Texas. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... For other persons named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis (disambiguation). ...


Series continuity

Sequels were not initially planned. Zemeckis later stated that had sequels been envisioned, the first film would not have ended with Jennifer traveling in the De Lorean with Marty and Doc, which created logistical problems in plotting the other films. In addition, Zemeckis and Gale state in the DVD commentary that the "To Be Continued..." caption was not originally in the film (the filmmakers chose to omit the caption from the 2002 DVD release to remain true to the original theatrical version). A front view of the DeLorean as seen on the Universal Studios backlot tour. ...


Ultimately, the sequels did not fare as well at the box office. While the first installment grossed $210 million (making it the biggest-earning movie of 1985), Back to the Future Part II (Fall 1989) and Back to the Future Part III (Summer 1990) made roughly $118 million and $88 million, respectively. Part III received generally more favorable reviews than Part II.[21] Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... For the video game based on this film, see Back to the Future Part III (video game). ...


Home video release history

Not to be confused with disk laser, a type of solid-state laser in a flat configuration. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... North American redirects here. ...

See also

The grandfather paradox is a paradox of time travel, first described by the science fiction writer René Barjavel in his 1943 book Le Voyageur Imprudent (The Imprudent Traveller).[1] The paradox is this: Suppose a man traveled back in time and killed his biological grandfather before the latter met the... The decade of the 1980s in film involved many significant films. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Gale, Bob. Back to the Future, The Complete Trilogy - "The Making of the Trilogy, Part 1" [DVD]. Universal Home Video.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Zemeckis, Robert Gale, Bob. (2002). Back to the Future: The Complete Trilogy DVD commentary for part 1 [DVD]. Universal Pictures.
  3. ^ Haflidason, Almar. Back to the Future DVD (1985). Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  4. ^ a b c Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale, Q&A, Back to the Future [DVD], recorded at the University of Southern California
  5. ^ Back to the Future: FIRST DRAFT (24 February 1981). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  6. ^ Christensen III, Paulington James (2008-05-05). EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: George Lucas Prepares Us for Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. MovieWeb. Retrieved on 2008-06-03.
  7. ^ Frequently Asked Questions. bttf.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  8. ^ a b Zemeckis, Robert Gale, Bob. (1985). The making of Back to the Future [VHS]. Universal Pictures.
  9. ^ Universal Studios Hollywood History File: November 6 1990. thestudiotour.com. www.theatrecrafts.com/. Retrieved on 2006-12-01.
  10. ^ Fire destroys buildings at Universal Studios in LA. reuters.com (2008-06-01). Retrieved on 2008-06-01.
  11. ^ Dahl, Bill. Song Review: Night Train - Jimmy Forrest. AllMusicGuide. All Media Guide, LLC.. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  12. ^ "Top grossing movies for 1985 in the USA." The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). 9 December 2006.
  13. ^ Roger Ebert review of Back to the Future. Retrieved on 2 January 2008.
  14. ^ Panton, Gary (1 May 2003). Back To The Future (1985). Movie Gazette. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  15. ^ Back to the Future (1985). bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
  16. ^ The 50 Best High School Movies. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  17. ^ "Back to the Future." Rotten Tomatoes. 9 December 2006.
  18. ^ "201 Greatest Movie of all Time", Empire, March 2006 (Issue 201), pp. 97. 
  19. ^ National Film Registry 2007,Films Selected for the 2007 National Film Registry. Retrieved on 4 February, 2008.
  20. ^ PRESIDENT RONALD REAGAN'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF CONGRESS ON THE STATE OF THE UNION (February 4, 1986). Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
  21. ^ "Back to the Future Part III." Rotten Tomatoes. 10 March 2008
  22. ^ http://www.bttf.com/index.php?/weblog/more/bob_gale_hints_at_back_to_the_future_blu_ray_release_at_recent_screening

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Trojan Shrine, better known as Tommy Trojan located in the center of University of Southern California campus. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... -1... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Back to the Future
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Back to the Future
Awards
Preceded by
The Terminator
Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film
1985
Succeeded by
Aliens
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Wikia (no official pronunciation[2]; originally Wikicities) is a selective wiki hosting service (or wiki farm) operated by Wikia, Inc. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section should be merged with Yahoo! Yahoo! Movies provides information on current movie theater releases, including showtimes, critical reviews and general popular opinion. ... This article is about the first film in the series. ... The following are a list of Saturn Award winners for Best Science Fiction Film: See also Science fiction film Categories: | ... This article is about the film; for the video games see Aliens (Square computer game) and Aliens (arcade game). ... The Back to the Future trilogy is a comedic science fiction film trilogy written by Bob Gale and Robert Zemeckis, directed by Zemeckis, and distributed by Universal Pictures. ... Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... For the video game based on this film, see Back to the Future Part III (video game). ... Michael J. Fox as Marty McFly, the most prominent member of the McFly family in the movies. ... Martin Seamus Marty McFly is a fictional character and the main protagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actor Michael J. Fox in the three films and voiced by David Kaufman in the animated series. ... George Douglas McFly is a fictional lead character in the first Back to the Future motion picture, played by actor Crispin Glover, and a minor character in the 2 sequels, played by Jeffrey Weissman. ... Lorraine Baines McFly is a fictional character, a lead character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actress Lea Thompson. ... Jennifer Jane Parker is a fictional character, a character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played by actress Claudia Wells in the first film, actress Elisabeth Shue in the 2 sequels, and voiced by Cathy Cavadini in the animated series. ... Seamus and Maggie McFly are fictional characters in the Back to the Future films. ... Doc Brown redirects here. ... Clara Clayton is a fictional character, one of the lead characters in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played in Back to the Future Part III and voiced in the animated series by Mary Steenburgen. ... Jules Eratosthenes Brown is a fictional character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played in Back to the Future Part III by Todd Cameron Brown and voiced in the animated series by Josh Keaton. ... Verne Newton Brown is a fictional character in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played in Back to the Future Part III by Daniel Evans and voiced in the animated series by Troy Davidson. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Biff Tannen is a fictional character and an antagonist in the Back to the Future motion picture trilogy, played in the three films and the ride, and voiced in the animated series by Thomas F. Wilson. ... Griff Tannen is a fictional character, an important character in Back to the Future Part II, played by actor Thomas F. Wilson, who played all of the Tannen family members in different time periods of the Back to the Future trilogy. ... Buford Mad Dog Tannen is a fictional character, born in 1846, in Back to the Future Part III — he is a town outlaw in Hill Valley, California, in the year 1885. ... Back to the Future video games are a series of video games based on the movie trilogy with the same name. ... The Power of Love is the title of a 1985 single by Huey Lewis & the News written for and featured in the film Back to the Future. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Music sample Johnny B. Goode Problems? See media help. ... The Back to the Future film trilogy presents a detailed local history of the fictitious city of Hill Valley and the genealogies of its residents. ... A front view of the DeLorean as seen on the Universal Studios backlot tour. ... This article contains speculation and may try to argue its points. ... A Hoverboard (or hover board) is a futuristic hovering deck, resembling a skateboard without wheels or trucks. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... The decade of the 1970s in film involved many significant films. ... I Wanna Hold Your Hand is a comedy film directed and co-written by Robert Zemeckis. ... The decade of the 1980s in film involved many significant films. ... Used Cars is a 1980 comedy film. ... Romancing the Stone is an American 1984 action-adventure film. ... Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 film produced by Amblin Entertainment and The Walt Disney Company (released on its Touchstone Pictures banner), which blends traditional animation and live action. ... Back to the Future Part II is a 1989 film and the first sequel to the 1985 film Back to the Future. ... Films made in the 1990s included: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z A Above the Rim (1994) Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls (1995) Ace Ventura: Pet... For the video game based on this film, see Back to the Future Part III (video game). ... Death Becomes Her is a 1992 black comedy fantasy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and starring Goldie Hawn, Meryl Streep and Bruce Willis. ... Forrest gump redirects here. ... Contact is a 1997 science fiction film adapted from the novel by Carl Sagan. ... The first decade of the 2000s in film involved many significant films. ... What Lies Beneath is a 2000 motion picture that tells the story of a housewife who finds her home is haunted. ... For other uses, see Castaway (disambiguation). ... The Polar Express is a 2004 feature film based on the childrens book of the same title by Chris Van Allsburg. ... Beowulf is a 2007 performance capture action film based on the Old English epic poem of the same name. ... A Christmas Carol is a 2009 film adaptation of Charles Dickens 1843 story of the same name. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is under construction. ... This article is under construction. ... . ... This article is under construction. ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ... . ...

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m