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Encyclopedia > Bacillus subtilis
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Bacillus subtilis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Bacillaceae
Genus: Bacillus
Species: subtilis
Binomial name
Bacillus subtilis
(Ehrenberg 1835)
Cohn 1872
Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis
Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis
Sporulating Bacillus subtilis
Sporulating Bacillus subtilis

Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil.[1] A member of the genus Bacillus, B. subtilis has the ability to form a tough, protective endospore, allowing the organism to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. Unlike several other well-known species, B. subtilis has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe, though recent research has demonstrated that this is not strictly correct.[2] Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Orders Bacillales Lactobacillales The term bacilli (singular bacillus) is used to refer to any rod-shaped bacteria. ... Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg. ... Image File history File links microscopic image of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). ... Image File history File links microscopic image of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). ... Image File history File links Bacillus_subtilis_Spore. ... Image File history File links Bacillus_subtilis_Spore. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ...

Contents

Pathogenesis

B. subtilis is not considered a human pathogen; it may contaminate food but rarely causes food poisoning.[3] B. subtilis produces the proteolytic enzyme subtilisin which has been shown to be a potential cure for certain types of cancer.[4],[5] B. subtilis spores can survive the extreme heating that is often used to cook food, and it is responsible for causing ropiness in spoiled bread. Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Subtilisin is a proteolytic enzyme obtained from . ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ...



Nevertheless, a strain of B. subtilis formerly known as Bacillus natto is used in the commercial production of the Japanese delicacy natto as well as the similar Korean food cheonggukjang. Other strains of B. subtilis also have commercial applications. For instance, B. subtilis strain QST 713 (marketed as QST 713 or Serenade) has a natural fungicidal activity, and is employed as a biological control agent.[6],[7] Natto eaten on top of rice is commonly stirred before consumption Nattō ) is a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans, popular especially at breakfast. ... Cheonggukjang is a fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


Reproduction

B. subtilis can divide asymmetrically, producing an endospore that is resistant to environmental factors such as heat, acid, and salt, and which can persist in the environment for long periods of time. The endospore is formed at times of nutritional stress, allowing the organism to persist in the environment until conditions become favorable. Prior to the decision to produce the spore the bacterium might become motile, through the production of flagella, and also take up DNA from the environment.


B. subtilis as a model organism

B. subtilis has proven highly amenable to genetic manipulation, and has therefore become widely adopted as a model organism for laboratory studies, especially of sporulation, which is a simplified example of cellular differentiation.[8] It is also heavily flagellated, which gives B.subtilis the ability to move quite quickly. In terms of popularity as a laboratory model organism B. subtilis is often used as the Gram-positive equivalent of Escherichia coli, an extensively studied Gram-negative rod. Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Spore. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... Flagellata from Ernst Haeckels Artforms of Nature, 1904 Parasitic excavate (Giardia lamblia) Green alga (Chlamydomonas) Flagellates are cells with one or more whip-like organelles called flagella. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ...


Uses

B. subtilis is used as a soil inoculant in horticulture and agriculture. B. subtilis has been used for a biowarfare simulant during Project SHAD (aka Project 112).[1] B. subtilis hazard status is under dispute.[2] Soil inoculants are bacteria or fungi that are added to soils in order to enhance plant growth by either: Freeing up soil nutrients for plant use. ... Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: horticulture as used in anthropology, a label for agriculture as used in small-scale societies. ... Project SHAD stands for Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, a series of Cold War-era tests by the U.S. military of biological weapons and chemical weapons, and their behaviour. ...


Enzymes produced by B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are widely used as additives in laundry detergents. Bacillus licheniformis is a bacterium commonly found in the soil. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Its other uses include the following:
-a model organism for laboratory studies
-a strain of B. subtilis formerly known as Bacillus natto is used in the commercial production of the Japanese delicacy natto as well as the similar Korean food cheonggukjang
-B. subtilis strain QST 713 (marketed as QST 713 or Serenade™) has a natural fungicidal activity, and is employed as a biological control agent
-can convert nuclear waste and explosives into harmless compounds of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water
-plays a role in safe radionuclide waste [e.g. Thorium (IV) and Plutonium (IV)] disposal with the proton binding properties of its surfaces
-recombinants Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1 and Bacillus subtilis str. pBE2C1AB were used in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) and that they could use malt waste as carbon source for lower cost of PHA production

TEM cross-sectional image of a Bacillus subtilis bacterial cell (scale bar = 200 nm.
TEM cross-sectional image of a Bacillus subtilis bacterial cell (scale bar = 200 nm.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1376 × 1032 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Bacterium Bacillus subtilis taken with a Tecnai T-12 TEM. Taken by Allon Weiner, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1376 × 1032 pixel, file size: 73 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Bacterium Bacillus subtilis taken with a Tecnai T-12 TEM. Taken by Allon Weiner, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel. ... Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an imaging technique whereby a beam of electrons is focused onto a specimen causing an enlarged version to appear on a fluorescent screen or layer of photographic film (see electron microscope), or can be detected by a CCD camera. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ...

Genome

Bacillus subtilis has approximately 4,100 genes. Of these, only 192 were shown to be indispensable; another 79 were predicted to be essential, as well. Vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya.


History

Year Event
1835 The bacteria was named Vibrio subtilis
1872 The bacteria was renamed Bacillus subtilis
1941 Bacillus subtilis was discovered by the Nazi German medical corps
1966 July 7-10, Bacillus subtilis was released throughout the New York subway system, conducted by the U.S. Army's Special Operations Division, to test the vulnerability of the subway system to biowarfare that could kill more than a million civilians.


References

  1. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  2. ^ Nakano MM, Zuber P (1998). "Anaerobic growth of a "strict aerobe" (Bacillus subtilis)". Annu Rev Microbiol 52: 165-90. DOI:10.1146/annurev.micro.52.1.165. PubMed. 
  3. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  4. ^ Flindt MLH (1969) (2002). "Papers that have changed the practice of occupational medicine: 'Pulmonary disease due to inhalation of derivatives of Bacillus subtilis containing proteolytic enzyme'". Occup Med (Lond) 52 (1): 58-63; discussion 57-8. PMID 11872797. 
  5. ^ Flindt M (1969). "Pulmonary disease due to inhalation of derivatives of Bacillus subtilis containing proteolytic enzyme". Lancet 1 (7607): 1177-81. PMID 4181838. 
  6. ^ Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 (006479) Biopesticide Registration Action Document. US EPA: Pesticides: Regulating Pesticides. Retrieved on April 27, 2006.
  7. ^ Gielen S, Aerts R, Seels B (2004). "Biocontrol agents of Botrytis cinerea tested in climate chambers by making artificial infection on tomato leafs". Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci 69 (4): 631-9. PubMed. 
  8. ^ Branda S, González-Pastor J, Ben-Yehuda S, Losick R, Kolter R (2001). "Fruiting body formation by Bacillus subtilis". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (20): 11621-6. PMID 11572999. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology (1985 words)
The Bacillus subtilis chromosome with its 2 mm contour length is compacted into a 1 µm large nucleoid, and sister chromosomes are separated into opposite cell poles during ongoing replication through an active intracellular machinery.
The cell wall of Bacillus subtilis is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell's turgor.
subtilis has been the first bacterium for which the role of an actin-like cytoskeleton in cell shape determination and peptidoglycan synthesis was identified and for which the entire set of peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes has been localised.
Bacillus Cohn 1872, genus (6739 words)
1989 and the synonym is "Bacillus sphaericus subsp.
¤ Bacillus marinus (Rüger and Richter 1979) Rüger 1983, comb.
ARAHAL (D.R.), MÁRQUEZ (M.C.), VOLCANI (B.E.), SCHLEIFER (K.H.) and VENTOSA (A.): Bacillus marismortui sp.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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