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Encyclopedia > Bacillus anthracis
Bacillus anthracis
Photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis (fuchsin-methylene blue spore stain).
Photomicrograph of Bacillus anthracis (fuchsin-methylene blue spore stain).
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Bacillaceae
Genus: Bacillus
Species: B. anthracis
Binomial name
Bacillus anthracis
Cohn 1872
Structure of Bacillus anthracis.

Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. An endospore forming bacterium, B. anthracis is a natural soil-dwelling organism, as well as the causative agent of anthrax.[1] For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus globigii Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus globigii Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... Anthrax bacteria. ...


Each cell is about 1 by 6 μm in size. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ...

Contents

Historical background

B. anthracis was the first bacterium conclusively demonstrated to cause disease, by Robert Koch in 1877.[2] The species name anthracis is from the Greek anthrakis (ἄνθραξ), meaning coal and referring to the most common form of the disease, cutaneous anthrax, in which large black skin lesions are formed. For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... This article is about skin in the biological sense. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ...


Pathogenicity

Under conditions of environmental stress, B. anthracis bacteria naturally produce endospores which rest in the soil and can survive for decades in this state. B. anthracis may be inoculated into a wound, inhaled or ingested. In ruminants, the bacterium causes sudden death from septicaemia. For this reason any ruminants found to have died suddenly and without obvious reason should be treated as a suspected anthrax case. In these event, a blood sample is taken, by a qualified veterinary surgeon, from a superficial vein and subjected to the MacFaydean polychrome methylene blue staining procedure which screens for B.anthracis. Confirmational diagnosis is achieved through PCR and Immunofluorescence. Horses respond variably to B.anthracis depending on the site of entry. Ingestion tends to lead to a severe enteritis and septicaemia. Inoculation in the skin tends to result in a local swelling and associated lymphadenitis. In pigs, B. anthracis again causes an acute necrotising tonsillitis, or a subacute pharyngeal swelling, or the intestinal disease described in horses. The intestinal disease carries a higher mortality. Dogs and cats seem less susceptible to B.anthracis and require a relative large dose of infectious agent before they begin to show clinical signs. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ...


B. anthracis has at least 89 known strains, ranging from highly virulent strains with biological warfare and bioterrorism applications (Ames and Vollum) to benign strains used for inoculations (Sterne). The strains differ in presence and activity of various genes, determining their virulence and production of antigens and toxins. The form associated with the 2001 anthrax attacks produced both toxin (consisting of three proteins: the protective antigen, the edema factor and the lethal factor) and a capsule (consisting of a polymer of glutamic acid). Infection with anthrax requires the presence of all three of these exotoxins.[3] In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains from the anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis). ... Inoculation, originally Variolation, is a method of purposefully infecting a person with smallpox (Variola) in a controlled manner so as to minimise the severity of the infection and also to induce immunity against further infection. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Virulence refers to the degree of pathogenicity of a microbe, or in other words the relative ability of a microbe to cause disease. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... Anthrax toxin refers to three proteins secreted by virulent strains of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Anthrax toxin refers to three proteins secreted by virulent strains of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. ... The term capsule in microbiology refers to a layer that lies outside the cell wall of bacteria. ...


The bacterium can be cultivated in ordinary nutrient medium under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.


Treatment

Main article: Anthrax

Infections with B. anthracis can be treated with β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillin, and others which are active against Gram-positive bacteria.[4] A beta-lactam (β-lactam) or penam is a lactam with a heteroatomic ring structure, consisting of three carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ...


References

  1. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  2. ^ Madigan M, Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  3. ^ Dixon TC, Meselson M, Guillemin J, Hanna PC (1999). "Anthrax". N. Engl. J. Med. 341 (11): 815-26. PMID 10477781.
  4. ^ Barnes JM (1947). "Penicillin and B. anthracis.". J Path Bacteriol 194: 113.

External links

  • Bacillus anthracis Genome Projects

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) (2130 words)
Prior to that time, because of the tremendous number of anthrax bacilli observed in the blood of animals dying of the disease (>10^9 bacteria/ml), it was assumed that death was due to blockage of the capillaries, popularly known as the "log-jam" theory.
Bacillus anthracis coordinates the expression of its virulence factors in response to a specific environmental signal.
About 1-6 days after inhaling Bacillus anthracis spores there would be a gradual onset of vague symptoms of illness such as fatigue, fever, mild discomfort in the chest and a possibly a dry cough.
Medmicro Chapter 15 (4693 words)
Several other Bacillus spp, in particular B cereus and to a lesser extent B subtilis and B licheniformis, are periodically associated with bacteremia/septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, and infections of wounds, the ears, eyes, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract.
Bacillus species are used in many medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial processes that take advantage of their wide range of physiologic characteristics and their ability to produce a host of enzymes, antibiotics, and other metabolites.
Bacillus cereus and its close relatives B thuringiensis and B mycoides produce potent ß-lactamases and thus are not responsive to penicillin, ampicillin, or the cephalosporins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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