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Encyclopedia > Bacillus
Bacillus

Bacillus subtilis, Gram stained
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Bacillaceae
Genus: Bacillus
Cohn 1872
Species

Bacillus anthracis
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus coagulans
Bacillus globigii
Bacillus licheniformis
Bacillus natto
Bacillus subtilis
Bacillus sphaericus
Bacillus thuringiensis
etc. Image File history File links microscopic image of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Orders Bacillales Lactobacillales The term bacilli (singular bacillus) is used to refer to any rod-shaped bacteria. ... Families Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The Bacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria, placed within the Firmicutes. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland 1887 Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod shaped, beta hemolytic bacteria that causes foodborne illness. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Bacillus licheniformis is a bacterium commonly found in the soil. ... Bacillus natto is an old name for the bacterium used commercially in the production of natto, a traditional Japanese dish consisting of fermented soybeans. ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ... Binomial name Bacillus sphaericus is an obligate aerobe bacterium used as a larvicide for mosquito control. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ...

Bacillus is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria and a member of the division Firmicutes. Bacillus species are either obligate or facultative aerobes, and test positive for the enzyme catalase.[1] Ubiquitous in nature, Bacillus includes both free-living and pathogenic species. Under stressful environmental conditions, the cells produce oval endospores that can stay dormant for extended periods. These characteristics originally defined the genus, but not all such species are closely related, and many have been moved to other genera.[2] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Catalase (human erythrocyte catalase: PDB 1DGF, EC 1. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ...


Bacillus subtilis is one of the best understood prokaryotes in terms of molecular biology and cell biology. Its superb genetic amenability and relatively large size have provided the powerful tools required to investigate a bacterium from all possible aspects. Recent improvements in fluorescence microscopy techniques have provided novel and amazing insight into the dynamic structure of a single cell organism. Research on Bacillus subtilis has been at the forefront of bacterial molecular biology and cytology, and the organism is a model for differentiation, gene/protein regulation, and cell cycle events in bacteria. [3] Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ...


Two Bacillus species are considered medically significant: B. anthracis, which causes anthrax, and B. cereus, which causes a foodborne illness similar to that of Staphylococcus.[4] A third species, B. thuringiensis, is an important insect pathogen, and is sometimes used to control insect pests. The type species is B. subtilis, an important model organism. It is also a notable food spoiler, as is B. coagulans. Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Binomial name Bacillus cereus Frankland & Frankland 1887 Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod shaped, beta hemolytic bacteria that causes foodborne illness. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Binomial name Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that lives in the soil, in the caterpillars of some moths and butterflies and also on the surface of plants. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Type specimens When a new species is discovered, more important than creating a new and unique name for the species is developing a reasonably detailed description. ... Binomial name Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg 1835) Cohn 1872 Gram-stained Bacillus subtilis Sporulating Bacillus subtilis Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium commonly found in soil. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: no content If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ...


An easy way to isolate Bacillus is by placing non-sterile soil in a test tube with water, shaking, placing in melted Mannitol Salt Agar, and incubating at room temperature for at least a day. Colonies are usually large, spreading and irregularly-shaped. Under the microscope, the Bacillus appear as rods, and a substantial portion usually contain an oval endospore at one end, making it bulge. A test tube (Sometimes culture tube) is a kind of laboratory glassware, composed of a fingerlike length of glass tubing, open at the top, sometimes with a rounded lip at the top, and a rounded U shaped bottom. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ...

Contents

The cell wall

The cell wall of Bacillus is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell's turgor. The cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan, teichoic and teichuronic acids. B. subtilis is the first bacterium for which the role of an actin-like cytoskeleton in cell shape determination and peptidoglycan synthesis was identified and for which the entire set of peptidoglycan synthesizing enzymes was localised. The role of the cytoskeleton in shape generation and maintenance is important [5].


Word ambiguity

Although Bacillus, capitalized and italicized, specifically refers to the genus, the word 'bacillus' may also be used to describe any rod-shaped bacterium, and in this sense, bacilli are found in many different taxonomic groups of bacteria. Italic can refer to: Italic languages Italic scripts Italic means Of or from Italy; the usage is most commonly restricted to talking about the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. ...


Likewise, Bacilli refers to the particular class Bacillus belongs to, while bacilli are any rod-shaped bacteria. Orders Bacillales Lactobacillales The term bacilli (singular bacillus) is used to refer to any rod-shaped bacteria. ...


It should be noted that the cell morphology term bacillus does not necessarily indicate Gram-positive staining, as E. coli is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Binomial name Escherichia coli T. Escherich, 1885 Escherichia coli (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals (including birds and mammals) and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ...


See also

  • Paenibacillus, a genus of bacteria that was formerly included in Bacillus

Paenibacillus is a genus of bacteria, originally included within Bacillus. ...

References

  1. ^ Turnbull PCB (1996). Bacillus. In: Barron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  3. ^ Graumann P (editor). (2007). Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-12-7 . 
  4. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  5. ^ Scheffers DJ (2007). "The Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis", Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology (Graumann P, ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-12-7 . 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Medmicro Chapter 15 (4693 words)
Several other Bacillus spp, in particular B cereus and to a lesser extent B subtilis and B licheniformis, are periodically associated with bacteremia/septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, and infections of wounds, the ears, eyes, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and gastrointestinal tract.
Bacillus species are used in many medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial processes that take advantage of their wide range of physiologic characteristics and their ability to produce a host of enzymes, antibiotics, and other metabolites.
Bacillus cereus and its close relatives B thuringiensis and B mycoides produce potent ß-lactamases and thus are not responsive to penicillin, ampicillin, or the cephalosporins.
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NAKAMURA (L.K.): DNA relatedness of Bacillus brevis Migula 1900 strains and proposal of Bacillus agri sp.
1989 and the synonym is "Bacillus sphaericus subsp.
¤ Bacillus marinus (Rüger and Richter 1979) Rüger 1983, comb.
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