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Encyclopedia > Bachelor of Laws

The undergraduate academic degree of Bachelor of Laws is the degree required for the practice of law in the majority of common law countries, other than the United States, where their equivalent entry-level law degree is the Juris Doctor. It can also be classified as a First professional degree. A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... J.D. redirects here. ... A first professional degree is a type of academic degree designed to prepare the holder for a particular profession by emphasizing practical skills over theory and analysis. ...


Where the term Bachelor of Laws continues to be used, it is abbreviated LL.B. (or LLB): "LL." is an abbreviation of the genitive plural legum (of lex, legis f., law), thus "LL.B." stands for Legum Baccalaureus in Latin. In the United States it is sometimes erroneously called "Bachelor of Legal Letters" to account for the double "L". Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ...


Historically, in Canada, Bachelor of Laws was the name of the first degree in common law, but is also the name of the first degree in Quebec civil law awarded by a number of Quebec universities. All Canadian common-law LL.B. programs are second-entry professional degrees, meaning that the majority of those admitted to an LL.B. programme are already holders of one or more degrees, or, at a minimum, have completed two years of study in a first-entry, undergraduate degree in another discipline. Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ...


Bachelor of Laws is also the name of the first degree in Scots law and South African law (both being pluralistic legal systems that are based partly on common law and partly on civil law) awarded by a number of universities in Scotland and South Africa, respectively. Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... South Africa has a number of sources of legislation and law. ... World distribution of major legal traditions The four major legal systems of the world today consist of civil law, common law, customary law, and religious law. ... This article is about the country. ...

Contents

Structure of LL.B. programmes

Historically, law students studied both civil law and common law. Today, this is much less common. However, a few institutions, such as Cardiff University's Department of Canon (Ecclesiastical) Law and McGill University's and the University of Ottawa's combined programme, continue to offer alternatives to the common law. For other uses of civil law, see civil law. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ... McGill University is a public co-educational research university located in Montréal, Québec, Canada. ... For the university in Ottawa, Kansas, see Ottawa University. ...


Common law countries generally

In most common law countries (with the exception of Canada, the U.S.), the Bachelor of Laws programme is generally entered directly after completion of secondary school, but some universities in Britain also offer the programme as an accelerated (shorter duration), second-entry programme for the LL.B. following completion of a previous undergraduate degree.[citation needed]


Australia

The programme of study for the common law LLB can be either a graduate-entry degree programme requiring a previous bachelors degree or can be undertaken directly after high-school either by itself (the duration of which is usually 4 years) or with another degree (ie. BComm/LLB or BSc/LLB), the duration of which can vary between 4-7 years depending on the specific combination.


Canada

Canada has a dual system of laws. In the province of Quebec, a system of civil law is used. At the federal level, as well as in every province or territory except Quebec, a system of common law is used. Because of this, there are two Canadian law degrees generally in use.


The programme of study for the common law LL.B. is graduate-entry degree programme. While the degree awarded is at the first-degree level and admission may be granted to applicants with two or three years of undergraduate studies towards a degree, in practice the programme generally requires completion of a previous undergraduate degree before registration in that programme. In fact, almost all admitted law students hold at least a bachelor level degree, and a significant number hold a graduate level degree as well.


The common law programme is three years in length. At that time, the graduate holds a Bachelor of Laws degree, but cannot practice law yet. In order to practice law, the graduate must then be licensed by the Law Society of the province where he/she wishes to practice law, which also requires a traineeship. (See Becoming a Lawyer below.) Those law graduates wishing to become law professors instead of lawyers often obtain a more advanced academic degree, such as the Master of Laws (LL.M.) or the Doctor of Laws#Canada (LL.D, S.J.D or D.C.L). The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree, commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. ... Doctor of Laws (Latin: Legum Doctor, LL.D) is a doctorate-level academic degree in law. ...


The civil law programme in Canada is three years in length. The programme of study for the first degree in Quebec civil law (called LL.B., B.C.L. or LL.L.) is a first-entry degree programme. Like other first-entry university programmes in Quebec it requires a CEGEP diploma for entry. Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... A CEGEP (IPA: or ; French: Cégep) is a post-secondary education institution exclusive to the province of Quebec in Canada. ...


Law schools that offer civil law B.C.L. or LL.L. degrees include McGill University and the University of Ottawa.


Because of Canada's dual system of laws, some law schools offer joint or dual degrees of common law and civil law. McGill University and the University of Ottawa are two law schools which offer such degrees.


The law degree offered by McGill University is a mandatory joint common law LL.B. / Quebec civil law B.C.L. degree. The programme is four years in length. Admission to that programme is a first-entry programme in the case of Quebec students (as the CEGEP diploma is required) while it is a second-entry programme in the case of students from other provinces (since two years of university studies is required - effectively one extra year of studies more than for a CEGEP diploma). The University of Ottawa offers a civil law degree (LL.L.) on its own.


A number of Canadian law schools offer students the opportunity to earn, besides their three-year first degrees in common law, programmes in common law for holders of baccalaureate degrees in Quebec civil law enabling those individuals to earn the LL.B. in common law in two or three semesters, depending on the offering university's program. Similarly, the University of Ottawa offers, besides its three year LL.L. program in Quebec civil law, a one year LL.L. program in Quebec civil law for holders of an LL.B. or J.D. degree in common law from a Canadian law school. For the university in Ottawa, Kansas, see Ottawa University. ...


Additionally, some Canadian universities with common law law schools have an arrangement with a Canadian university with a Quebec civil law law school enabling students to obtain the home school's law degree in three years and the exchange school's law degree in the fourth year.


India

In India, legal education has been traditionally offered as a three years graduate degree. However the structure has been changed since 1987. Law degrees in India are granted and conferred in terms of the Advocates Act, 1961, which is a law passed by the Parliament both on the aspect of legal education and also regulation of conduct of legal profession. Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country. Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law. ... Sansad Bhavan, The Parliament of India The Parliament of India (or Sansad) is bicameral. ... It is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal / law institutions in India. ...


To this regard, the Bar Council of India prescribes the minimum curriculum required to be taught in order for an institution to be eligible for the grant of a law degree. The Bar Council also carries on a period supervision of the institutions conferring the degree and evaluates their teaching methodology and curriculum and having determined that the institution meets the required standards, recognizes the institution and the degree conferred by it. It is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal / law institutions in India. ... A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law. ...


Traditionally the degrees that were conferred carried the title of LL.B. (Bachelor of Laws) or B.L. (Bachelor of Law). The eligibility requirement for these degrees were that the application was already a holder of a graduate degree in any subject from a recognized institution. Thereafter the LL.B. / B.L. course was for three years, upon the successful completion of which the application was granted the either degree. This article is about academic degrees. ...


However upon the suggestion by the Law Commission of India and also given the prevailing cry for reform the Bar Council of India instituted upon an experiment in terms of establishing specialized law universities solely devoted to legal education and thus to raise the academic standards of legal profession in India. This decision was taken somewhere in 1985 and thereafter the first law University in India was set up in Bangalore which was named as the National Law School of India University (popularly 'NLS'). These law universities were meant to offer a multi-disciplinary and integrated approach to legal eduction. It was therefore for the first time that a law degree other than LL.B. or B.L. was granted in India. NLS offered a five years law course upon the successful completion of which an intergrated degree with the title of "B.A.,LL.B. (Honours)" would be granted. The National Law School of India University (NLSIU or NLS) is an institution for under-graduate and graduate legal education. ... Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... , For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... The National Law School of India University (NLSIU or NLS) is an institution for under-graduate and graduate legal education. ... The National Law School of India University (NLSIU or NLS) is an institution for under-graduate and graduate legal education. ...


Thereafter other law universities were set up, all offering five years integrated law degree with different nomenclature. For example the National Law University, Jodhpur offered for the first time in 2001 the integrated law degree of "B.B.A, LL.B. (Honours)" which was preceded by the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences offering the "B.Sc., LL.B. (Honours)" degree. Autonomous law schools in India were founded in 1984 in an attempt to improve legal education throughout India. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, often abbreviated to NUJS, located in the Salt Lake City district of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, is a law university imparting legal education at the undergraduate and post graduate level. ...


However despite these specialized law universities, the tradition three years degree continues to be offered in India by other institutions and which are equally recognized as eligible qualifications for practicing law in India. Another essential difference that remains is that while the eligibility qualification for the three years law degree is that the application must already be a holder of a graduate degree, for being eligible for the five years integrated law degree, the application must have successfully Class XII from a recognized Boards of Education in India. Autonomous law schools in India were founded in 1984 in an attempt to improve legal education throughout India. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... This article is about academic degrees. ... The following boards of education have been recognized by Government of India Andhra Pradesh Board of Secondary Education Andhra Pradesh Board of Intermediate Education Assam Board of Secondary Education Assam Higher Secondary Education Council Bihar School Examination Board Bihar Intermediate Education Council Goa Board of Secondary & Higher Secondary Education Gujarat...


Both the holders of the three year degree of the five years integrated degree are entitled for enrollment with the Bar Council of India upon the fulfillment of eligibility conditions and upon enrollment, can appear before any court in India. It is an autonomous body in India which governs the legal / law institutions in India. ...


Bangladesh

Like other Common Law countries, Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is a condition precedent to practice as an Advocate in the Courts of Law of Bangladesh. Both LL.B. and LL.B. (Hons.) degrees are offered in different Public and Private Universities. Only four Public Universities offer LL.B. (Hons.) degree. These Universities are-the University of Dhaka, the University of Rajshahi, the University of Chittagong, the Islamic University of Kustia. All these Universities also offer one year LL.M. course. Private Universities like Green University of Bangladesh, Eastern University, South East University, University of Asia Pacific, Stamford University, Northan University, World University of Bangladesh also offer LL.B. (Hons.) degree. Besides, the National University of Bangladesh also offers two years LL.B. degree to the graduates of subjects other than Law through some Law Colleges.


Becoming a lawyer

See also: Legal education and Legal education in the United Kingdom Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... // England, Wales and Northern Ireland Qualifying law degrees The term qualifying law degree refers to a degree (generally a Bachelor of Laws degree or its equivalent) from a university that is accredited by the Inns of Court or the Law Society of England and Wales and in which a passing...


Upon completion of the LL.B. degree (or its equivalent), graduates are generally qualified to apply for membership of the bar or law society. The membership eligibility bestowed may be subject to completion of professional exams. A student may have to gain a further qualification at postgraduate level, for example a traineeship and the Legal Practice Course or Bar Vocational Course in England and Wales or the Postgraduate Certificate in Laws in Hong Kong. A bar association is a body of lawyers who, in some jurisdictions, are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession. ... The Law Society of England and Wales is the professional association that regulates and represents the solicitors profession in England and Wales. ... It is not uncommon for students to take as many as 15 different examinations during the Legal Practice Course. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... PCLL redirects here. ...


In Australia, LL.B. graduates are required to undertake a one year articled clerkship or the Legal Practice Course (Commonly Practical Legal Training or PLT) before applying for registration as a solicitor. Depending on the State to which a practitioner is admitted membership of the Bar is either restricted to Barristers, or open to both Solicitors and Barristers in the states where both roles are fused. In the states that maintain membership of the bar as a separate entity, entry is attained through the successful completion of an exam and a nine-month period of tutelage (the reading period) under a senior Barrister. A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ...


In Canada, the lawyer licensing process usually requires the law graduate to 1.) take further classroom law courses, taught by the law society itself, and pass a set of written examinations, commonly referred to as bar exams, related to the taken courses and 2.) complete articled clerkship commonly known as articling. Although the vast majority of law graduates fulfill the articled clerkship requirement by articling (i.e. working and learning) in a law firm, a government's legal department, a corporation's (in house) legal department, a community legal clinic or some other type of non-profit organization involved in legal work, a small minority of law graduates (with exceptional academic records) satisfy the articled clerkship requirement by undergoing what is commonly called clerkship with a specific courthouse and under the supervision of a judge instead of working in a more "lawyer-type environment" under the supervision of a lawyer called a "principal". In either articling or clerkship, there is the expectation that the law graduate will work in a variety of legal fields and be exposed to the harsh realities of legal practice that are absent from law school's academic atmosphere.


In the province of Ontario, for example, the licensing process for the Law Society of Upper Canada (Ontario's governing law society) consists of three mandatory components: The Skills and Professional Responsibility Program with assignments and assessments, Licensing Examinations (a Barrister Licensing Examination and a Solicitor Licensing Examination), and a 10-month Articling term.[6] This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Law Society of Upper Canada (LSUC) is responsible for the self-regulation of lawyers in the province of Ontario. ...


At the conclusion of the licensing process, the law graduate is "called to the bar" whereby he/she signs his/her name in the rolls of solicitors and swears lawyer-related oaths in a formal ceremony where he/she must appear in a complete barrister's gown and bow before judges of the local superior court and benchers of the licensing law society. After the call ceremony, he/she can designate him/herself as a "solicitor and barrister", and can practice law in the province in which he/she is licensed. In the Province of British Columbia, licensed lawyers are automatically permitted to practice the powers of a Notary Public. In Ontario and other provinces, a licensed lawyer requires further licensing from another authority, such as the provincial attorney general, before he/she can work in a Notary Public capacity. Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... A US Embossed Notary Seal. ...


Although not required by the licensing process, many 1st and 2nd year law students work in law firms during the summer off-school season to earn extra money and to guarantee themselves an articling position (with the same law firms) upon their graduation from law school, because there is always fierce competition for articling positions, especially for those in large law firms offering attractive remuneration and prestige, and a law graduate cannot become a licensed lawyer in Canada if he/she has not gone through articled clerkship.


Alternative titles and formats

Doctor of Jurisprudence or Juris Doctor (J.D.)

For main article, see Juris Doctor J.D. redirects here. ...


In the United States, the LL.B. as a requisite for admission to practice was replaced by the requirement of a graduated degree, the Doctor of Jurisprudence or Juris Doctor (J.D.). The accepted post-nominal abbreviations noting the conferral of the degree are either "J.D." or "D.Jur." J.D. redirects here; for alternate uses, see J.D. (disambiguation) J.D. is an abbreviation for the Latin Juris Doctor, also called a Doctor of Law or Doctorate of Jurisprudence, and is the law degree typically awarded by an accredited U.S. law school after successfully completing three years... J.D. redirects here. ...


Universities in some other common-law jurisdictions generally continue to award the LL.B. degree as the 'first degree' in law. Some law schools in Canada, Hong Kong, and Australia have begun to offer Juris Doctor programmes. For instance, in 2001, Canada’s University of Toronto began conferring the J.D. instead of the LL.B. it had previously.[1] The Faculty of Law at Canada’s Queen’s University voted to replace its LL.B. with a J.D.[2] The decision received the approval of the University’s Senate in February 2008.[3] A similar change is pending at Toronto's Osgoode Hall Law School, where 73% of students casting a ballot in a 2008-03 plebiscite supported the change. Finally, in a unique, joint degree programme, The University of Detroit Mercy School of Law [4]and the University of Windsor Faculty of Law[5] have collaborated to create a program wherein, after three years of study, the American law school issues the Canadian student an American J.D., while the Canadian law school issues the same student an LL.B.


Irish B.C.L.

Three of the four universities under the National University of Ireland (NUI) umbrella, award the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.). These are UCC, UCD and NUIG. Five (three in the republic) Irish universities (Trinity College Dublin; NUIG; The Queen's University of Belfast; the University of Limerick, and the University of Ulster), one English university (Nottingham Trent University) and one Welsh university (University of Wales) award the LL.B. in Ireland as a basic professional degree in law (the latter two are run via local private colleges). NUIG therefore, awards both. It should be noted, though, that Ireland is a common law jurisdiction (in fact there are two common law jurisdictions on the island) and the expression "civil law" is used to differentiate common law from ecclesiastical law in the republic. In the past NUI B.C.L. graduates who went to work in Britain sometimes didn't disabuse people of the casual notion that it was a post-graduate degree, similar to the more famous Oxford B.C.L. The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ... Nui is one of the 9 districts (3 of them consist of 1 isle, 6 are atolls with several isles) of the Oceanian realm of Tuvalu. ... Bachelor of Civil Law or BCL is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. ... The initialism UCC may stand for: University College Cork - National University of Ireland, Cork Union County College, a two-year college in New Jersey University College Chichester, now named University of Chichester University College of the Cariboo, Thompson Rivers University University of Caloocan City, lone public university in Caloocan City... UCD can refer to: University College Dublin or their association football club University College Dublin FC Democratic Center Union University of California, Davis User-centered design The Universal Child Database, a government database in the United Kingdom. ... The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ... The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin or more commonly Trinity College, Dublin (TCD) was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I, is the only constituent college of the University of Dublin, Irelands oldest university. ... The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ... Queens University, Belfast - or officially The Queens University of Belfast (QUB; in Irish, Ollscoil na Banríona, Béal Feirste) - is a university in Belfast, Northern Ireland. ... The University of Limerick (UL) was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989. ... The University of Ulster (UU) is a multi-centre university located in Northern Ireland and is the largest single university on the island of Ireland, discounting the federal National University of Ireland. ... Arkwright Building Nottingham Trent University (NTU) is a university in Nottingham, England. ... The University of Wales (Prifysgol Cymru in Welsh) is a federal university founded in 1893. ... The National University of Ireland, Galway (NUI, Galway) (Irish Ollscoil na hÉireann, Gaillimh or OÉ, Gaillimh) can trace its existence to 1845 as Queens College, Galway and was known until recently as University College, Galway (UCG) (Irish: Coláiste na hOllscoile, Gaillimh or COG). ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Nui is one of the 9 districts (3 of them consist of 1 isle, 6 are atolls with several isles) of the Oceanian realm of Tuvalu. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


Zimbabwe B.L. and LL.B.

At the University of Zimbabwe, the first degree in common law is the Bachelor of Law (B.L.) which is equivalent to the LL.B. in other common law jurisdictions. It is followed by a one year programme at the university (analogous to post-LL.B. vocational programmes in other common law jurisdictions) at the end of which a second degree, the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.), is awarded. [7] The University of Zimbabwe (UZ), is the first, largest and most complete university in Zimbabwe. ...


The LL.B. in Pakistan

In Pakistan, a person going for an LL.B. degree should have a bachelor's degree. Most law students choose to obtain a two year bachelor degree before enrolling for an LL.B. degree in a law college. The LL.B. itself is a three year programme. In Punjab, a five year joint B.A./LL.B. degree is being offered by law colleges.


After obtaining an LL.B. degree, a person wishing to practise has to intimate the concerned Bar Council that he is undergoing a six month training period under the supervision of a High Court lawyer with ten year standing. After he completes the pupillage, he will be asked to take a written test and undergo a viva-voce exam.


Variations on the LL.B.

Some universities in the United Kingdom and New Zealand offer variations of this degree, such as the LL.B. (Europe), which generally take four years to complete and include a wider range of topics as well as some degree of specialisation.


Various universities in the United Kingdom and Australia will allow a degree that combines study with a non-law discipline. For example, some universities in the United Kingdom offer a combined study of law and history leading to a B.A. degree that is accepted by the Law Society and Inns of Court as equivalent to an LL.B.


The University of London External Programme in Laws (LL.B.) has been awarding its law degree via distance learning since 1858. The LL.B. awarded by the University of London External Programme is of the same standard and quality irrespective of the mode or manner of learning. Distance Learning is learning carried out apart from the usual classroom setting; in an asynchronous setting. ...


At various universities in the UK such as Oxford, and Cambridge the principal law degree is a B.A., in either Jurisprudence or Law respectively; the B.C.L. and LL.B. are second-entry postgraduate degrees. The University of Cambridge has recently replaced their LL.B. degree with an LL.M. The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... A Bachelor of Arts (B.A. or A.B.) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or program in the arts and/or sciences. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree that allows someone to specialize in a particular area of law. ...


Eligibility to Practice Law in the U.S. with Foreign Credentials

For the most part, foreign law graduates seeking admission to the bar in the United States will find their LL.B. law degree does not of itself fulfill the core admission requirements of most states, thereby not allowing them to take the bar exam. The major exception to this is New York, where those foreign graduates who have fulfilled the educational requirements to practice law in another common law country through study at an approved educational institution, similar in both duration and content to the equivalent teaching at an approved U.S. law school, are permitted to sit the bar.[8]. Additionally, both New York and Massachusetts permit Canadian LL.B. holders to take the bar. The requirements of each of the states procedures vary, and in some states sufficient years of practice in one's home country may allow for those otherwise excluded to sit for the bar. Interested applicants should check the requirements of each state bar association carefully as requirements vary markedly. This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Situation within the European Union

European Union law permits European Union citizens with LL.B. degrees from Ireland or the UK, who practise law in one of these countries for three or more years, to practise also in every other member state. The actual procedure to receive the respective national licence is regulated by the member state and therefore differs from country to country, but every EU member has to apply the relevant EU Directives to its own national law. European Union law is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ...


Recently many universities in Germany have introduced LL.B. degrees as part of the Bologna process.The LL.B. is a three or four year basic law degree. Some students pursue the LL.M. after pursuing the LL.B. The LL.B. in Germany doesn't cover all classes which are also required for the First State Exam. A credit point system is used for the LL.B. degree. In order to obtain the LL.B. students have to pass different sorts of exams and collect fewer points than needed for the First State Exam. The LL.B. degrees are intended for those students not necessarily seeking to be lawyers by profession. The background in law obtained is, however, solid. Currently, in Germany, there is a huge dispute as to the value of Bachelor degrees in general. One will often hear State Exam students criticizing the Bachelor as being a lesser degree. In fact, the objective is simply different. By obtaining the LL.B., a student is not automatically qualified to sit for the First State Exam. It is expected that the First State Exam will be completely replaced by the LL.B. by 2010. The LL.B. is a cornerstone to the future of law practice in Germany. The purpose of the Bologna process (or Bologna accords) is to create the European higher education area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe. ...


In Malta, the Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree, offered by the University of Malta, is an undergraduate degree that of itself is not sufficient for admission into any of the legal professions. The University of Malta is the highest teaching institution in the Republic of Malta. ...


Alternative to a law degree in England/Alternative degree route in Scotland

There are also conversion courses available for non-law graduates, available as an alternative to the full-length LL.B. degree course. One such example of a conversion course in England and Wales is the GDL (Graduate Diploma in Law), which takes one year to complete.


In the UK, as well as in other Common Law jurisdictions, the main approach to this, is the so-called Graduate Entry (undergraduate) LL.B. degree, where graduates from another discipline can complete the LL.B. in two years, although this may occasionally require taking qualifying law courses within the first degree to meet professional requirements in full. Therefore it is not entirely correct to regard it as an 'accelerated' degree.


This 'double degree' system was, at one time, an alternative route to the former B.L. degree (now obsolete) but students were required to have independent means to complete the second degree. The current Scots LL.B. degree, a direct-entry undergraduate degree, meets all professional requirements when coupled with the Diploma in Legal Practice. The Diploma was introduced circa 1980; prior to this, all professional exams were taken within the degree itself (or as part of an earlier non-law degree), limiting the scope for academic study.


Therefore the pursuit of the double degree nowadays, for school-leavers at least, is mainly to indicate that one (or, more precisely, one's parents) can afford to do so - in other words, a marker of affluence. The first non-law degree will almost invariably be an arts degree although science or other degrees are not unknown. Rarely, the double degree principle is found in reverse; just as an arts or science degree can provide exemption from the full academic (not professional) requirements of a subsequent law degree, similarly a law degree can provide exemption from the full academic requirements of a subsequent arts or science degree[citation needed]. In this case, it is more likely that the second degree will be taken as a self-funding mature student, possibly on a part-time basis.


References

  1. ^ "JD Program," University of Toronto Faculty of Law.[1]
  2. ^ “A law degree by any other name: Proposed changes from LL.B. to J.D. ‘consistent with international norms,’ dean says” The Queen’s Journal, November 29, 2007.[2]
  3. ^ “J.D. Proposal,” Queen’s University Faculty of Law.[3]
  4. ^ "Joint & Multiple Degree Programs," University of Detroit Mercy School of Law.[4]
  5. ^ "J.D./LL.B. Program," University of Windsor Faculty of Law.[5]

See also

Legal education is the education of individuals who intend to become legal professionals (attorneys and judges) or those who simply intend to use their law degree to some end, either related to law (such as politics or academic) or unrelated (such as business entrepreneurship). ... This is an index of lists of law schools, divided by country. ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. ... In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted to a lawyer to practice law. ... The Call to the Bar is a legal term of art in most common law jurisdictions. ... The Master of Laws is an advanced law degree, commonly abbreviated LL.M. (also LLM or LL.M) from its Latin name, Legum Magister. ... Autonomous law schools in India were founded in 1984 in an attempt to improve legal education throughout India. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Bachelor of Laws (588 words)
We teach the law but encourage you to look deeper to find out why laws are made, who made them, how they work and how to change them.
Candidates who have completed Law 1 and Law 2, as listed in sections 6.1 and 6.2 of the regulations for the degree of Bachelor of Laws, are eligible to be considered for admission to the degree of Bachelor of Laws with Honours.
Law graduates are employed as solicitors in legal firms or as barristers and primarily undertake court work.
Bachelor of Laws (LLB) - The University of the South Pacific (442 words)
Bachelor of Laws (LLB) - The University of the South Pacific
The Bachelor of Laws (LLB) degree is offered as a face-to-face four-year program at Emalus Campus, but most of the Law courses are now available by DFL Internet mode as well.
The Bachelor of Laws consists of 32 courses, of which eight are at 100-level, eight are at 200-level and sixteen are at 300-level, as listed below.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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