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Encyclopedia > Babylonian numerals
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
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List of numeral system topics
Positional systems by base
(2n) 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64
(3n) 3, 9, 27  (5n) 5
(7n) 7  (11n) 11  (13n) 13
(2n·3m) 6, 12, 24, 36
(2n·5m) Decimal (10), 20
(2n·7m) 14  (3n·5m) 15
(2n·3m·5p) 30, 60   more…
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Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-seven. ... Quinary (base-5) is a numeral system with five as the base. ... The septenary numeral system is the base seven number system, and uses the digits 0-6. ... The undecimal (base-11) positional notation system is based on the number eleven, rather than ten as in decimal or eight in octal and so on. ... Base-13, tridecimal, or tredecimal is a positional numeral system with thirteen as its base. ... A senary numeral system is a base-six numeral system. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... The tetradecimal (base-14) positional notation system is based on the number fourteen. ... The pentadecimal (base-15) positional notation system is based on the number fifteen. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Cuneiform script The Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... species Pragmites australis Reed is a generic term used to describe numerous plants including: Common Reed (Phragmites australis Cav. ... Modern stylus, used for touch-screen enabled devices such as the Nintendo DS and personal digital assistants Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... The Gay Head cliffs in Marthas Vineyard are made almost entirely of clay. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...


The Babylonians, who were famous for their astrological observations and calculations (aided by their invention of the abacus), used a sexagesimal (base-60) positional numeral system inherited from the Sumerian and also Akkadian civilizations. Neither of the predecessors was a positional system (having a convention for which ‘end’ of the numeral represented the units). Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For the finite element analysis software, see ABAQUS. An abacus (plurals abacuses or abaci) is a calculating tool, often constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ...


This system first appeared around 1900 BC to 1800 BC. It is also credited as being the first known place-value numeral system, in which the value of a particular digit depends both on the digit itself and its position within the number. This was an extremely important development, because prior to place-value systems people were obliged to use unique symbols to represent each power of a base (ten, one-hundred, one thousand, and so forth), making even basic calculations unwieldy. (Redirected from 1900 BC) (20th century BC - 19th century BC - 18th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events Hittite empire in Anatolia 1829 - 1818 BC -- Egyptian-Nubian war 1818 BC -- Egyptian Campaign in Palestine 1813 BC -- Amorite Conquest of Northern Mesopotamia 1806 BC... (Redirected from 1800 BC) (19th century BC - 18th century BC - 17th century BC - other centuries) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: End of Twelfth Dynasty, start of Thirteenth Dynasty, start of Fourteenth Dynasty 1766... Positional notation or place-value notation is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier called the base (or radix) of that numeral system. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ...


Only two symbols (one similar to a "Y" to count units, and another similar to a "<" to count tens) were used to notate the 59 non-zero digits. These symbols and their values were combined to form a digit in a sign-value notation way similar to that of Roman numerals; for example, the combination "<<YYY" represented the digit for 23 (see table of digits below). A space was left to indicate a place without value, similar to the modern-day zero. Babylonians later devised a sign to represent this empty place. They lacked a symbol to serve the function of radix point, so the place of the units had to be inferred from context. Digit may refer to: A finger or a toe Numerical digit, as used in mathematics or computer science Digit (unit), an ancient meterological unit Digit (magazine), an Indian information technology magazine This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... In Computers Sign-value notation in computers is the use of the high-order bit (left end) of a binary word to represent the numeric sign: 0 for +, 1 for - followed by a binary number that is an absolute magnitude or a twos complement of an absolute magnitude. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... 0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. ... The decimal separator is used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ...


Their system clearly used internal decimal to represent digits, but it was not really a mixed-radix system of bases 10 and 6, since the ten sub-base was used merely to facilitate the representation of the large set of digits needed, while the place-values in a digit string were consistently 60-based and the arithmetic needed to work with these digit strings was correspondingly sexagesimal. The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... Mixed radix numeral systems are more general than the usual ones in that the numerical base may vary from position to position. ... Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. ...


The legacy of sexagesimal still survives to this day, in the form of degrees (360° in a circle, i.e. 60° in the angle of an equilateral triangle), minutes, and seconds in trigonometry and the measurement of time, although both of these systems are actually mixed radix. A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... Circle illustration This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... An angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle. ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Trigonometry Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon triangle + metron measure[1]) is a branch of mathematics that deals with triangles, particularly triangles in a plane where one angle of the triangle is 90 degrees (right angled triangles). ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


A common theory is that 60, a superior highly composite number (the previous and next in the series being 12 and 120), was chosen due to its prime factorization: 2×2×3×5, which makes it divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30. In fact, it is the smallest integer divisible by all integers from 1 to 6. Integers and fractions were represented identically — a radix point was not written but rather made clear by context. 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ... In mathematics, a superior highly composite number is a certain kind of natural number. ... A highly composite number is a positive integer which has more divisors than any positive integer below it. ... Look up twelve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 120 (one hundred twenty in American English; one hundred and twenty in British English) is the natural number following 119 and preceding 121. ... In mathematics, the integer prime-factorization (also known as prime decomposition) problem is this: given a positive integer, write it as a product of prime numbers. ... Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “II” redirects here. ... This article discusses the number three. ... This article discusses the number Four. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... Look up twelve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 15 (fifteen) is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16. ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... 30 (thirty) is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. ... The integers are commonly denoted by the above symbol. ... A cake with one quarter removed. ... In mathematics, radix point refers to the symbol used in numerical representations to separate the integral part of the number (to the left of the radix) from its fractional part (to the right of the radix). ...

Contents

Numerals

Babylonian numerals Babylonian Numerals (1-59) This image has been (or is hereby) released into the public domain by its creator, sugarfish. ...


The Babylonians did not technically have a digit for, or a concept of, the number zero. Although they understood the idea of nothingness, it was not seen as a number—merely the lack of a number. What the Babylonians had instead was a space (and later a disambiguating placeholder symbol) to mark the nonexistence of a digit in a certain place value. 0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. ...


Bibliography

  • Menninger, Karl W. (1969). Number Words and Number Symbols: A Cultural History of Numbers. MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-13040-8. 
  • McLeish, John (1991). Number: From Ancient Civilisations to the Computer. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-654484-3. 

See also

Babylonia was a state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... 0 (zero) is both a number and a numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Babylonian numerals (2091 words)
The Babylonian civilisation in Mesopotamia replaced the Sumerian civilisation and the Akkadian civilisation.
Often when told that the Babylonian number system was base 60 people's first reaction is: what a lot of special number symbols they must have had to learn.
Now although the Babylonian system was a positional base 60 system, it had some vestiges of a base 10 system within it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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