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Encyclopedia > Baby boomer

Baby boomer is a term used to describe a person who was born during the Post-World War II baby boom between 1946 and the early 1960s.[1][2] Following World War II, these countries experienced an unusual spike in birth rates, a phenomenon commonly referred to as the baby boom. The terms "baby boomer" and "baby boom", along with others expressions, are also used in countries with demographics that did not mirror the sustained growth in American families over the same interval.[3] Baby Boomer is a 1989 action game created by Color Dreams for the NES. The player uses his zapper to make the baby jump in order to avoid bottomless pits and dangerous obstacles and enemies. ... For further information, see Baby boomer. ... For further information, see Baby boomer. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds. ... Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ...

Contents

Demographics

If the gross number of births were the indicator, births began to decline from the peak in 1957 (4,300,000), but fluctuated or did not decline by much more than 40,000 (1959-1960) to 60,000 (1962-1963) until a sharp decline from 1964 (4,027,490) to 1965 (3,760,358). This sharp decline resulted from millions of women using birth control pills, which were introduced in 1960 in the U.S., and widely used by 1964.[4] This makes 1965 a good year to mark the end of the baby boom in the U.S.[5] However, it is important to note that 1964 is a nationwide average. Although it is true that 1946 marks the beginning of the boom nationwide, the end of the boom (the year of baseline birthrates returning to pre-war levels) on a state-by-state basis varied a great deal spanning throughout the 1960s. Oral contraceptives are contraceptives which are taken orally and inhibit the bodys fertility by chemical means. ...


While 1945-1965 reflect the post-World War II demographic boom in births, there is a growing consensus among generational experts that two distinct cultural generations occupy these years. The conceptualization that has gained the most public acceptance is that of a 1942-1953 Baby Boom Generation, followed by a 1954-1965 Generation Jones. Boomers and Jonesers had dramatically different formative experiences which gave rise to dramatically different collective personalities. Other monikers have been sometimes used to describe the younger cohort, like "Trailing Edge Boomers", "Late Boomers", and "Shadow Boomers". In his book Boomer Nation, Steve Gillon states that the baby boom began in 1946 and ends in 1960, but he divides Baby Boomers into two groups: Boomers, born between 1945 and 1957; and Shadow Boomers born between 1958 and 1964.[6] Further, in Marketing to Leading-Edge Baby Boomers, author Brent Green defines Leading-Edge Boomers as those born between 1946 and 1955. This group is a self-defining generational cohort or unit because its members all reached their late teen years during the height of the Vietnam War era, the defining historical event of this coming-of-age period. Green describes the second half of the demographic baby boom, born from the mid-1950s through the mid-1960s as either Trailing-Edge Boomers or Generation Jones.[7] In some cases the term Shadow Boomer is incorrectly applied to the children of the Baby Boomers; this group is more accurately referred to as Echo Boomers.. Generations redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Generations) is being considered for deletion. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Echo Boom Generation is an American sub-generation branching off Generation Y. The Echo Boom was a period in America between 1982 and 1994[1] in which the number of live births reached over 4 million for the first time since 1964. ...


It can be argued that the defining event of early Baby Boomers was the Vietnam War and the protest over the draft, which ended in 1973. Since anyone born after 1955 was not subject to the draft, this argues for the ten years including 1946 to 1955 as defining the baby boomers. This would fit the thirtysomething demographic covered by the TV show of the same name which aired from 1987-1991. The cultural disaffinities of those born after 1955 (thereby missing the draft and being too young to be part of the 1960s) could be captured by the Gen X of Douglas Coupland in his book Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture. The term "X" has itself been transformed to cover a later cohort. Conscription in the United States has been employed several times, usually during war but also during the nominal peace of the Cold War. ... The term thirtysomething was initially introduced during the 1980s to describe a person of the baby boom generation, born during the 1940s and 1950s. ... For other uses, see Generation X (disambiguation). ... Douglas Coupland (born December 30, 1961) is a major Canadian fiction writer as well as a playwright and visual artist. ... Generation X: Tales for an Accelerated Culture, published in 1991, is the first novel by Douglas Coupland. ...


In the United States, Kathleen Casey-Kirschling, born in Philadelphia on January 1, 1946, at 12:00:01 a.m., is generally recognized as the nation's first baby boomer. Casey-Kirschling, a former teacher, applied for Social Security benefits on 15 October 2007 over the Internet at an event attended by Social Security Commissioner Michael Astrue.[1]. This signaled the start of an expected avalanche of applications from the post World War II war generation. For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the pattern of increased birth rates was more likely to decrease within six months. There was a sharp post-World War II peak in 1947, when more babies were born than in any year since the post-World War I peak in 1920, followed by a decline, followed by a broader but lower peak in the 1960s. Thus British Baby Boomers are younger than their American counterparts and had not risen to such prominence when the term was coined. The two peaks can clearly be seen in the age structure of England and Wales.[8] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ...


Soviet Union

In the former Soviet Union, members of the birth upswing after World War II are called the Sputnik Generation after the Soviet-satellite launched in 1957. One of the many aspects of the competition between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. which characterized the Cold War was competition in birth rate.[9] Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Australia

The Australian Bureau of Statistics defines the Baby Boomers as “those who were born in Australia or overseas during the years 1946 to 1964”. In fact the fertility rate began its rapid rise in 1946, peaking in 1961 and by 1965 it had dropped just below the 1946 level.


Characteristics

Size and economic impact

Seventy-six million American children were born between 1945 and 1964, representing a cohort that is significant on account of its size alone. In 2004, the UK baby boomers held 80% of the UK's wealth and bought 80% of all top of the range cars, 80% of cruises and 50% of skincare products.[10]


In addition to the size of the group, Steve Gillon has suggested that one thing that sets the baby boomers apart from other generational groups is the fact that "almost from the time they were conceived, Boomers were dissected, analyzed, and pitched to by modern marketers, who reinforced a sense of generational distinctiveness."[6] This is supported by the articles of the late 1940s identifying the increasing number of babies as an economic boom, such as in the Newsweek article of August 9, 1948, "Population: Babies Mean Business",[11] or Time article of February 9, 1948.[12] The effect of the baby boom continued to be analyzed and exploited throughout the 1950s and 60s.[13] The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Boomers have often found difficulty managing their time and money due to an issue that other generations have not had a problem with. Because the Baby Boomer generation has found that their parents are living longer, their children are seeking a better and longer college education, and they themselves are having children later in life, the boomers have become "sandwiched" between generations. The "sandwich generation", coined in the 1980s, refers to baby boomers who must care for both elderly parents and young children at the same time. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


The age wave theory suggests an impending economic slowdown when the boomers start retiring during 2007-2009.


Cultural identity

The baby boomers were the first group to be raised with televisions in the home, and television has been identified as "the institution that solidified the sense of generational identity more than any other."[6] Starting in the 1950s, people in diverse geographic locations could watch the same shows, listen to the same news, and laugh at the same jokes. Television shows such as Father Knows Best and Leave it to Beaver showed idealized family settings. Later, the boomers watched scenes from the Vietnam War and the assassinations of John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Robert F. Kennedy. Robert Young and Jean Vander Pyl on NBC Radios Father Knows Best Father Knows Best, a popular American TV and radio sitcom of the 1950s and 1960s, portrayed an idealized vision of middle-class American life of the era. ... For other uses, see Leave It to Beaver (disambiguation). ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ...


The boomers found that their music, most notably rock and roll, was another expression of their generational identity. Transistor radios were personal devices that allowed teenagers to listen to The Beatles and The Motown Sound. Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Regency TR-1. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Motown, also known as Tamla-Motown outside the U.S., is a record label founded on December 14, 1959 by Berry Gordy, Jr. ...


In 1993, Time magazine reported on the religious affiliations of baby boomers. Citing Wade Clark Roof, a sociologist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, the articles stated that about 42% of baby boomers were dropouts from formal religion, a third had never strayed from church, and one-fourth of boomers were returning to religious practice. The boomers returning to religion were "usually less tied to tradition and less dependable as church members than the loyalists. They are also more liberal, which deepens rifts over issues like abortion and homosexuality."[14] TIME redirects here. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Berkeley Davis Irvine Los Angeles Merced Riverside San Diego Santa Barbara Santa Cruz UC Office of the President in Oakland The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the state of California. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Barbara Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - Total 41. ...


It is jokingly said that, whatever year they were born, boomers were coming of age at the same time across the world; so that Britain was undergoing Beatlemania (which in fact occurred before the peak of the British baby boom in 1966) while people in the United States were driving over to Woodstock, organizing against the Vietnam War, or fighting and dying in the same war; boomers in Italy were dressing in mod clothes and "buying the world a Coke"; boomers in India were seeking new philosophical discoveries; American boomers in Canada had just found a new home after escaping the draft south of the border; Canadian Boomers were organizing support for Pierre Trudeau;. It is precisely these experiences why many believe that trailing boomers (those born in the 1960s) belong to another cohort, as events that defined their coming of age have nothing in common with leading or core boomers (which Daniel Yankelovich and other demographers made perfectly clear). This article is about Beatlemania, fan frenzy towards The Beatles. ... The Woodstock Music and Art Fair was an event held at Max Yasgurs 600 acre (2. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... “Trudeau” redirects here. ... Daniel Yankelovich, born 1924, is a public opinion analyst and social researcher. ...


In the 1985 study of US generational cohorts by Schuman and Scott, a broad sample of adults was asked, "What world events over the past 50 years were especially important to them?"[15] For the baby boomers the results were:

  • Baby Boomer cohort #1 (born from 1946 to 1954)
  • Baby Boomer cohort #2 (born from 1955 to 1964)
    • Memorable events: Watergate, Nixon resigns, the Cold War, the oil embargo, raging inflation, gasoline shortages
    • Key characteristics: less optimistic, distrust of government, general cynicism

John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The Apollo program was a human spaceflight program undertaken by NASA during the years 1961 – 1975 with the goal of conducting manned moon landing missions. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... The environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a diverse scientific, social, and political movement. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Watergate redirects here. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations...

Aging and end of life issues

As of 1998, it was reported that a generation boomers had tended to avoid discussions and planning for their demise and avoided much long term planning.[16] However, beginning at least as early as that year, there has been a growing dialogue on how to manage aging and end of life issues as the generation ages. [17] In particular, a number of commentators have argued that Baby Boomers are in a state of denial regarding their own aging and death and are leaving an undue economic burden on their children for their retirement and care. [18][19][20]


Journalist Jeff Chang wrote in his book Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation, "Boomers seem to have had great difficulty imagining what could come after themselves."[21]


One book, written by Colorado doctor Terry Grossman, titled "The Baby Boomers' Guide to Living Forever", proposes how Baby Boomers might avoid death. On page 3 of the book, Grossman writes, unironically, "As an official member of the Baby Boomer Generation, I really and truly do not believe that it was intended for us to die. Death, if and when it occurs, clearly will represent a mistake of some kind."[22]


The humor publication The Onion published a satirical article celebrating the anticipated large-scale deaths of Baby Boomers in the upcoming years, quoting one fictional expert as saying the Boomers are "the most odious generation America has ever produced."[23]


James Love of BoomerDeathCounter.com claims that a Baby Boomer will die every 49.5 seconds in the USA during the year 2008.[24]


Impact on history and culture

An indication of the importance put on the impact of the boomer was the selection by Time magazine of the Baby Boom Generation as its 1967 "Man of the Year". As Claire Raines points out in ‘Beyond Generation X’, “never before in history had youth been so idealized as they were at this moment.” When Generation X came along it had much to live up to and to some degree has always lived in the shadow of the Boomers, more than often criticized (‘slackers’, ‘whiners’ and ‘the doom generation’) than not.[25]


One of the contributions made by the Boomer generation appears to be the expansion of individual freedom. Boomers often are associated with the civil rights movement, the feminist cause in the 1970s, gay rights, handicapped rights, and the right to privacy.[6] For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ...


Baby boomers presently make up the lion's share of the political, cultural, industrial, and academic leadership class in the United States. Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, born within sixty days of each other in mid-1946, are the first and second Baby Boomer U.S. presidents, and their careers in office illustrate the wide, often diverging, spectrum of values and attitudes espoused by this largest American generational group to date. To date, baby boomers also have the highest median household incomes in the United States.[citation needed] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more. ...


Boomer labels

The labels reflect the times of a generation: national or global events, trends and developments - as well as stereotypes.

  • The baby-boomers
  • Generation Jones (cusp generation)
  • The stress generation
  • The sandwich generation
  • The new generation
  • The love generation
  • The lost generation
  • War babies
  • Leading-edge boomers
  • Trailing-edge boomers
  • The beatniks
  • The hippies
  • The Me Generation
  • Now generation
  • TV generation
  • Spock generation
  • Vietnam generation
  • Pepsi generation
  • The breakthrough generation
  • Generation gap[26]

See also

The first U.S. census, in 1790, recorded four million Americans. ... A generation gap is a popular term used to describe wide differences in cultural norms between members of a younger generation and their elders. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Statistics Canada - Canada's population by age and sex
  2. ^ US Census Bureau - Oldest Boomers Turn 60 (2006)
  3. ^ Marchand, Philip, "Life Inside the Population Bulge: The scared, scrambling lives of the Boomies", Saturday Night Magazine, October 1979 retrieved from It Seems Like Yesterday e-zine on January 25, 2007
  4. ^ The Pill: 30 Years of Safety Concerns (December 1990)
  5. ^ Birth numbers from the CDC, retrieved 2007-01-29
  6. ^ a b c d Gillon, Steve (2004) Boomer Nation: The Largest and Richest Generation Ever, and How It Changed America, Free Press, "Introduction", ISBN 0743229479
  7. ^ Green, Brent (2006) Marketing to Leading-Edge Baby Boomers: Perceptions, Principles, Practices, Predictions, Paramount Market Books, ISBN 0976697351
  8. ^ Age Structure of England and Wales, UK Office for National Statistics UK population pyramids
  9. ^ Russian baby boomers of "Sputnik Generation" tell their stories in Donald J. Raleigh's book Russia's Sputnik Generation: Soviet Baby Boomers Talk about Their Lives
  10. ^ Walker, Duncan (Sept 16, 2004) "Live Fast, Die Old", BBC News site, retrieved 2007-01-26.
  11. ^ "Population: Babies Mean Business", Newsweek, August 9, 1948 retrieved 2007-01-26
  12. ^ "Baby Boom", Time, February 9, 1948, retrieved 2007-01-26
  13. ^ Edsall, Richard Bouncing Birth Rate Will Mean Big Future Consumer Market, Canadian Business, February 1957
  14. ^ Ostling, Richard N., "The Church Search", 5 April 1993 Time article retrieved 2007-01-27
  15. ^ Schuman, H. and Scott, J. (1989), Generations and collective memories, American Psychological Review, vol. 54, 1989, pp. 359-81.
  16. ^ Baby boomers lag in preparing funerals, estates, et al The Business Journal of Milwaukee - December 18, 1998 by Robert Mullins retrieved 2007-06-18
  17. ^ Article in the New York Times, March 30, 1998
  18. ^ Article from the Associated Press, March 5, 2004
  19. ^ Article in the San Diego Union-Tribune
  20. ^ Article by Robert Samuelson
  21. ^ Excerpt from the book Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation
  22. ^ Link to search the text of Terry Grossman's book The Baby Boomers' Guide to Living Forever
  23. ^ Satirical article from The Onion
  24. ^ Boomer Death Counter
  25. ^ 1997, Beyond generation X, Crisp Publications, USA.
  26. ^ McCrindle Research 2008, 'The ABC of XYZ', http://www.mccrindle.com.au, accessed 9 April, 2008.

is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the day. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Preceded by
Silent Generation
(1925-1945)
Baby Boom Generation
(1946-1953)
Succeeded by
Generation Jones
(1954-1965)

tags

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