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Encyclopedia > Baal
Ancient Southwest Asian deities
Levantine deities

Adonis | Anat | Asherah | Ashima | Astarte | Atargatis | Ba'al | Berith | Dagon | Derceto | El | Elyon | Eshmun | Hadad | Kothar | Mot | Moloch | Qetesh | Resheph | Shalim | Yarikh | Yam This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /lÉ™vænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Adonis is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity in Greek mythology, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... It has been suggested that Asherah pole be merged into this article or section. ... In the Hebrew Bible, Ashima is one of several deities protecting the individual cities of Samaria who are mentioned specifically by name in 2 Kings 17:30. ... Astarte on a car with four branches protruding from roof. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Other deities worshipped at Ugarit were El Shaddai, El Elyon, and El Berith. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly a god of grain and agriculture, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla and Ugarit, and a major god, perhaps the chief god, of the Biblical Philistines, enemies of the ancient nation of Israel. ... Atargatis, in Aramaic ‘Atar‘atah, was a Syrian deity, more commonly known to the Greeks by a shortened form of the name, Derceto or Derketo (Strabo 16. ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Ely... Eshmun (or Eshmoun, less accurately Esmun or Esmoun) was a northwestern Semitic god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. ... Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Kothar-wa-Khasis Kothar-wa-Khasis means Skillful-and-Wise or Adroit-and-Perceptive or Deft-and-Clever. Another of his names means Deft-with-both-hands. Kothar is smith, craftsman, engineer, architect, and inventor. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... In Egyptian mythology, Qetesh (also Qadesh, Kadesh) was a goddess of love and fertility who was perhaps Syrian in origin. ... Resheph was a Semitic god of plague and war. ... Shalim is the god of dusk in the pantheon of Ugarit, the counterpart of Shahar the god of dawn. ... Yarikh, in Canaanite mythology, is a god of the moon whose epithets are Illuminator of the Heavens, Illuminator of the Myriads of Stars, and Lord of the Sickle (the latter may come from the appearance of the crescent moon). ... Yam is the name of the Ugaritic god of Rivers and Sea, and in some myths he is one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El, the name given to the Levantine pantheon. ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | Amurru | An/Anu | Anshar | Ashur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ningizzida | Ninhursag | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... This article is about the Sumerian god Adad also known as Ishkur. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (also An; (from Sumerian *An = sky, heaven)) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) (which means sky pivot or sky axle) is a sky god. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Introduction In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology, Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Irkalla, the land of the dead. ... Inanna was one of the most revered of goddesses among later Sumerian mythology. ... Ishtar is the Assyrian and Babylonian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... In Akkadian mythology, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpent-gods who were in turn the first children of Tiamat and Apsu. ... Lahmu is a deity from Akkadian mythology, first-born son of Apsu and Tiamat. ... Lahamu was the first-born daughter of Tiamat and Apsu in Akkadian mythology. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... For other uses, see Mummu (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal, Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... The Sumerian god Ningizzida accompanied by two gryphons. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... Ninlil, first called Sud, is the daughter of Nammu and An in Sumerian mythology. ... Tiamat is a mother goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash or Sama, was the common Akkadian name of the sun-god in Babylonia and Assyria, corresponding to Sumerian Utu. ...

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Ba`al (baʕal; Hebrew: בעל) (often spelled Baal) is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord" that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Babylon, cognate to Assyrian Bēlu. Baal was condemned in the Jewish Tanakh.[1] Baal may refer to: Baal, a Hebrew word Hadad, a Canaanite deity commonly known as Baal or Balu. ... The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... The East Semitic languages are one of the two major subdivisions of Semitic languages, the other being West Semitic. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ...


"Ba`al" can refer to any god and even to human officials; in some texts it is used as a substitute for Herod, a god of the rain, thunder, fertility and agriculture, and the lord of Heaven. Since only priests were allowed to utter his divine name Herod, Ba`al was used commonly. Nevertheless, few if any Biblical uses of "Ba`al" refer to Hadad, the lord over the assembly of gods on the holy mount of Heaven, but rather refer to any number of local spirit-deities worshipped as cult images, each called ba`al and regarded as a false god. Therefore, in any text using the word ba`al it is important first to determine precisely which god, spirit or demon is meant. Herod was the name of several members of the Herodian Dynasty of Roman Iudaea Province: Herod the Great (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

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Deities called Ba`al and Ba`alath

Ba`al with raised arm, 14th-12th century BC, found at Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit), Louvre

Because more than one god bore the title "Ba`al" and more than one goddess bore the title "Ba`alat" or "Ba``alah," only the context of a text can indicate which Ba`al 'Lord' or Ba`alath 'Lady' a particular inscription or text is speaking of. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x1725, 890 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Baal Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (900x1725, 890 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Baal Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... This article is about the museum. ...


Though the god Hadad (or Adad) was especially likely to be called Ba`al, Hadad was far from the only god to have that title. The Ugaritic texts (mainly preserved in the Ba`al cycle) place the dwelling of Baal on Mount Saphon,[2] so references to Baal Zephon in the Tanach and in inscriptions and tablets referring to the Baal of Mount Saphon may indicate the storm-god Hadad. It is said[citation needed] that Ba`al Pe’or, the Lord of Mount Pe’or, whom Israelites were forbidden from worshipping (Numbers 25:3) was also Hadad. In the Canaanite pantheon, Hadad was the son of El, who had once been the primary god of the Canaanite pantheon, and whose name was also used interchangeably with that of the Hebrew God, Yahweh. Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... The Ugaritic language is only known in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit in Syria since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ... Canaanite cycle of stories regarding Baal, also known as Hadad the god of storm and fertility. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The... In the Tanach Baal Peor (Hebrew בעל פעור Ba‘al Pə‘ r), in the Septuagint Beelpheg r, was a god associated with Mount Pe‘or in Moab whom many Israelites began to worship under the influence of Moabite women as told... For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Ä’l (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... Tetragrammaton redirects here. ...


Melqart, the god of Tyre, was often called the Ba`al of Tyre. 1 Kings 16:31 relates that Ahab, king of Israel, married Jezebel, daughter of Ethba’al, king of the Sidonians, and then served habba’al ('the Ba`al'.) The cult of this god was prominent in Israel until the reign of Jehu, who put an end to it (2 Kings 10:26): Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Ahab or Achav (אַחְאָב Brother of the father, Standard Hebrew Aḥʼav, Tiberian Hebrew ʼAḥăʼāḇ, ʼAḫʼāḇ) was King of the province of Samaria in the greater Kingdom of Israel, and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). ... Jezebel (אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל (not exalted) Standard Hebrew Izével/Izável, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) is the name of two women in the Hebrew Bible. ... Ithobaal I was king of Tyre (887 - 856 BC). ... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا á¹¢aydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... This article does not discuss cult in its original sense of religious practice; for that usage see Cult (religious practice). ... Jehu son of Omri kneeling at the feet of Shalmaneser III on the Black Obelisk. ...

And they brought out the pillars (massebahs) of the house of the Ba`al and burned them. And they pulled down the pillar (massebah) of the Ba`al and pulled down the house of the Ba`al and turned it into a latrine until this day.

It is uncertain whether "the Ba`al" 'the Lord' refers to Melqart, to Hadad, who was also worshipped in Tyre, or Ba`al Shamîm 'Lord of Heaven' who was also worshipped in Tyre and often distinguished from Hadad. Josephus (Antiquities 8.13.1) states clearly that Jezebel "built a temple to the god of the Tyrians, which they call Belus" which certainly refers to Melqart. But Josephus may be relying on likelihood rather than knowledge. Hadad is generally a rain god but Melqart is not known to be connected with bringing of rain. But so little is known of Melqart's cult that such reasoning is not decisive. Ba‘al Shamîm Lord of Heaven is a northwest Semitic god or a title applied to different gods at different places or times found in various ancient Middle-eastern inscriptions. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 AD),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Jezebel (אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל (not exalted) Standard Hebrew Izével/Izável, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) is the name of two women in the Hebrew Bible. ...


In any case, King Ahab, despite supporting the cult of this Ba‘al, had a semblance of worship to Yahweh (1Kings 16-22). Ahab still consulted Yahweh's prophets and cherished Yahweh's protection when he named his sons Ahaziah ("Yahweh holds") and Jehoram ("Yahweh is high.") This entry is not about King Ahaziah of Judah. ...


Ba`al of Carthage

The worship of Ba`al Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage. Ba`al Hammon was the supreme god of the Carthaginians and is generally identified by modern scholars either with the northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon, and generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn. Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Ēl (אל) is a Northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly a god of grain and agriculture, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla and Ugarit, and a major god, perhaps the chief god, of the Biblical Philistines, enemies of the ancient nation of Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Saturnus, Caravaggio, 16th c. ...


The meaning of Hammon or Hamon is unclear. In the 19th century when Ernest Renan excavated the ruins of Hammon (Ḥammon), the modern Umm al-‘Awamid between Tyre and Acre, he found two Phoenician inscriptions dedicated to El-Hammon. Since El was normally identified with Cronus and Ba‘al Hammon was also identified with Cronus, it seemed possible they could be equated. More often a connection with Hebrew/Phoenician ḥammān 'brazier' has been proposed. Frank Moore Cross argued for a connection to Khamōn, the Ugaritic and Akkadian name for Mount Amanus, the great mountain separating Syria from Cilicia based on the occurrence of an Ugaritic description of El as the one of the Mountain Haman. Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... The city of Acre [1] is in the Western Galilee district in northern Israel. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ... The Ugaritic language is only known in the form of writings found in the lost city of Ugarit in Syria since its discovery by French archaeologists in 1928. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ...


Classical sources relate how the Carthaginians burned their children as offerings to Ba`al Hammon. See Moloch for a discussion of these traditions and conflicting thoughts on the matter. Such a devouring of children fits well with the Greek traditions of Cronus. Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ...


Scholars tend to see Ba`al Hammon as more or less identical with the god El, who was also generally identified with Cronus and Saturn. However, Yigal Yadin thought him to be a moon god. Edward Lipinski identifies him with the god Dagon in his Dictionnaire de la civilisation phenicienne et punique (1992: ISBN 2-503-50033-1). Inscriptions about Punic deities tend to be rather uninformative. Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, reportedly a god of grain and agriculture, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla and Ugarit, and a major god, perhaps the chief god, of the Biblical Philistines, enemies of the ancient nation of Israel. ...


In Carthage and North Africa Ba`al Hammon was especially associated with the ram and was worshiped also as Ba`al Qarnaim ("Lord of Two Horns") in an open-air sanctuary at Jebel Bu Kornein ("the two-horned hill") across the bay from Carthage.


Ba`al Hammon's female cult partner was Tanit. He was probably not ever identified with Ba`al Melqart, although one finds this equation in older scholarship. Basic Tanit symbol Tanit was a Carthaginian lunar goddess. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ...


Ba`alat Gebal ("Lady of Byblos") appears to have been generally identified with ‘Ashtart, although Sanchuniathon distinguishes the two. {{Fertile Crescent myt==External links== [http://depts. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ...


Priests of Ba`al

The Priests of Ba`al are mentioned in The Bible numerous times, including a confrontation with the Prophet Elijah (1 Kings 18:21-40), the burning of incense symbolic of prayer (2 Kings 23:5), and rituals followed by priests adorned in special vestments (2 Kings 10:22) offering sacrifices similar to those given to honor YaHWeH (Jehovah in English). The confrontation with the Prophet Elijah is also mentioned in the Qur'an (37:123, 37:124, 37:125)


Ba‘al as a divine title in Palestine

At first the name Ba`al was used by the Jews for their God without discrimination, but as the struggle between the two religions developed, the name Ba`al was given up in Judaism as a thing of shame, and even names like Jerubba`al were changed to Jerubbosheth: Hebrew bosheth means "shame". Zondervan's Pictorial Bible Dictionary (1976) ISBN 0-310-23560-X

Since Ba‘al simply means 'Lord', there is no obvious reason why it could not be applied to Yahweh as well as other gods. In fact, Hebrews generally referred to Yahweh as Adonai ('My Lord') in prayer (the word Hashem - 'The Name' - is substituted in everyday speech). The judge Gideon was also called Jeruba`al, a name which seems to mean 'Ba‘al strives' though Judges 6:32 makes the claim that the name was given to mock the god Ba‘al, whose shrine Gideon had destroyed, the intention being to imply: "Let Ba‘al strive as much as he can ... it will come to nothing." Gideon may refer to: Gideon (album), a 1980 album by Kenny Rogers Gideon, a character in the book of Judges Gideons International GIDEON-Global Infectious Disease Epidemiology Network Gideon the Elder, a character in Charmed Gideon (comics), a Marvel Comics Supervillain Gideon v. ...


After Gideon's death, according to Judges 8:33, the Israelites went astray and started to worship the Ba‘alîm (the Ba‘als) especially Ba‘al Berith ("Lord of the Covenant.") A few verses later (Judges 9:4) the story turns to all the citizens of Shechem — actually kol-ba‘alê šəkem another case of normal use of ba‘al not applied to a deity. These citizens of Shechem support Abimelech's attempt to become king by giving him 70 shekels from the House of Ba‘al Berith. It is hard to disassociate this Lord of the Covenant who is worshipped in Shechem from the covenant at Shechem described earlier in Joshua 24:25 in which the people agree to worship Yahweh. It is especially hard to do so when Judges 9:46 relates that all "the holders of the tower of Shechem" (kol-ba‘alê midgal-šəkem) enter bêt ’ēl bərît 'the House of El Berith', that is, 'the House of God of the Covenant'. Was Ba‘al then here just a title for El? Or did the covenant of Shechem perhaps originally not involve El at all but some other god who bore the title Ba‘al? Or were there different viewpoints about Yahweh, some seeing him as an aspect of Hadad, some as an aspect of El, some with other theories? Again, there is no clear answer. Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... pages edit history. ...


One also finds Eshba`al (one of Saul's sons) and Be`eliada (a son of David). The last name also appears as Eliada. This might show that at some period Ba‘al and El were used interchangeably even in the same name applied to the same person. More likely a later hand has cleaned up the text. Editors did play around with some names, sometimes substuting the form bosheth 'abomination' for ba‘al in names, whence the forms Ishbosheth instead of Eshba`al and Mephibosheth which is rendered Meriba`al in 1 Chronicles 9:40. 1 Chronicles 12:5 mentions the name Be`aliah (more accurately be‘alyâ) meaning "Yahweh is Ba‘al." Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: שָׁאוּל, Standard Tiberian  ; asked for or borrowed) is a figure identified in the Books of Samuel and Quran as having been the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... David and Goliath, by Caravaggio, c. ...


It is difficult to determine to what extent the false worship which the prophets stigmatize is the worship of Yahweh under a conception and with rites which treated him as a local nature god or whether particular features of gods more often given the title Ba‘al were consciously recognized to be distinct from Yahwism from the first. Certainly some of the Ugaritic texts and Sanchuniathon report hostility between El and Hadad, perhaps representing a cultic and religious differences reflected in Hebrew tradition also, in which Yahweh in the Tanach is firmly identified with El and might be expected to be somewhat hostile to Ba`al/Hadad and the deities of his circle. But for Jeremiah and the Deuteronomist it also appears to be monotheism against polytheism (Jeremiah 11:12): Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ... The figure of Jeremiah on the Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo. ... Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ...

Then shall the cities of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem go and cry to the gods to whom they offer incense: but they shall not save them at all in the time of their trouble. For according to the number of your cities are your gods, O Judah; and according to the number of the streets of Jerusalem you have set up altars to the abominination, altars to burn incense to the Ba‘al. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...

Does this refer to other gods and one particular god, perhaps Hadad, who is especially "the Ba‘al"? Or does it refer to altars to burn incense to "the Ba‘al" to which each altar is raised, that is to as many different Ba‘al's as there were altars?


Multiple Ba‘als and ‘Ashtarts

One finds in the Tanach the plural forms bə‘ālîm 'Ba‘als' or 'Lords' and ‘aštārôt '‘Ashtarts', though such plurals don't appear in Phoenician or Canaanite or independent Aramaic sources.


One theory is that the folk of each territory or in each wandering clan worshipped their own Ba‘al, as the chief deity of each, the source of all the gifts of nature, the mysterious god of their fathers. As the god of fertility all the produce of the soil would be his, and his adherents would bring to him their tribute of first-fruits. He would be the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the use of analogy characteristic of early thought, this Ba‘al would be the god of the productive element in its widest sense. Originating perhaps in the observation of the fertilizing effect of rains and streams upon the receptive and reproductive soil, Ba‘al worship became identical with nature-worship. Joined with the Ba‘als there would naturally be corresponding female figures which might be called ‘Ashtarts, embodiments of ‘Ashtart. Ba`al Hadad is associated with the goddess "Virgin" Anat, his sister and lover. Fertility is a measure of reproduction: the number of children born per couple, person or population. ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (transliterated Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ...


Through analogy and through the belief that one can control or aid the powers of nature by the practice of magic, particularly sympathetic magic, sexuality might characterize part of the cult of the Ba‘als and ‘Ashtarts. Post-Exilic allusions to the cult of Ba‘al Pe'or suggest that orgies prevailed. On the summits of hills and mountains flourished the cult of the givers of increase, and "under every green tree" was practised the licentiousness which was held to secure abundance of crops. Human sacrifice, the burning of incense, violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes (see also Asherah), appear among the offences denounced by the post-Exilic prophets; and show that the cult of Ba‘al (and ‘Ashtart) included characteristic features of worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic (and non-Semitic) world, although attached to other names. But it is also possible that such rites were performed to a local Ba‘al 'Lord' and a local ‘Ashtart without much concern as to whether or not they were the same as that of a nearby community or how they fitted into the national theology of Yahweh who had become a ruling high god of the heavens, increasingly disassociated from such things, at least in the minds of some worshippers. The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic and sorcery are the influencing of events, objects, people and physical phenomena by mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Incense is a preparation of aromatic organic materials, intended to release fragrant smoke when burned. ... It has been suggested that Asherah pole be merged into this article or section. ...


Another theory is that the references to Ba‘als and ‘Ashtarts (and Asherahs) are to images or other standard symbols of these deities, that is statues and icons of Ba‘al Hadad, ‘Ashtart, and Asherah set up in various high places as well as those of other gods, the author listing the most prominent as types for all. The Deuteronomistic editor is as angered and saddened by worshipping of images as by worshipping other deities than Yahweh and wishes to emphasize the plurality of false deities as opposed to true worship of Yahweh at his single temple in Jerusalem as called for in the reforms of Josiah. Josiah or Yoshiyahu (יֹאשִׁיָּהוּ supported of the LORD, Standard Hebrew YoÅ¡iyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew Yôšiyyāhû) was king of Judah, and son of Amon and Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. ...


A reminiscence of Ba‘al as a title of a local fertility god (or referring to a particular god of subterraneous water) may occur in the Talmudic Hebrew phrases field of the ba‘al and place of the ba‘al and Arabic ba‘l used of land fertilised by subterraneous waters rather than by rain. The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...


Common confusion over Ba‘al

Because the word Ba`al is used as a common substitute for the sacred name Hadad, confusion often arises when the same word is used for other deities, physical representations of gods and even people.


Historically, this confusion was resolved in the nineteenth century as new archaeological evidence indicated multiple gods bearing the title Ba‘al and little about them that connected them to the sun. In 1899, the Encyclopædia Biblica article Baal by W. Robertson Smith and George F. Moore states:

That Baal was primarily a sun-god was for a long time almost a dogma among scholars, and is still often repeated. This doctrine is connected with theories of the origin of religion which are now almost universally abandoned. The worship of the heavenly bodies is not the beginning of religion. Moreover, there was not, as this theory assumes, one god Baal, worshipped under different forms and names by the Semitic peoples, but a multitude of local Baals, each the inhabitant of his own place, the protector and benefactor of those who worshipped him there. Even in the astro-theology of the Babylonians the star of Bēl was not the sun: it was the planet Jupiter. There is no intimation in the OT that any of the Canaanite Baals were sun-gods, or that the worship of the sun (Shemesh), of which we have ample evidence, both early and late, was connected with that of the Baals ; in 2 K. 235 cp 11 the cults are treated as distinct. Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 80km south of Baghdad. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ...

The demon entitled Baal

Main article: Baal (demon)
The Dictionnaire Infernal illustration of Baal.

Other spellings: Bael, Baël (French), Baell. The Dictionnaire Infernal illustration of Baal. ... The demon Bael, from Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire infernal (1862) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The demon Bael, from Collin de Plancys Dictionnaire infernal (1862) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


Baal is also seen as a Christian demon. This is a potential source of confusion. Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


Until archaeological digs at Ras Shamra and Ebla uncovered texts explaining the Syrian pantheon, the demon Ba‘al Zebûb was frequently confused with various Semitic spirits and deities entitled Baal, and in some Christian writings it might refer to a high-ranking devil or to Satan himself. Entrance to the Palace of Ugarit Ugarit (modern site Ras Shamra رأس شمرة; meaning top/head/cape of the wild fennel in Arabic) was an ancient cosmopolitan port city, sited on the Mediterranean coast of northern Syria a few kilometers north of the modern city of Latakia. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Gustave Dorés depiction of Satan from John Miltons Paradise Lost Satan, from the Hebrew word for adversary (Standard Hebrew: , Satan; Tiberian Hebrew ; Koine Greek: Σατανάς Satanás, Persian: , Satanás; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , , Geez: , Turkish: Åžeytan), is a term that originates from the Abrahamic faiths, being traditionally applied to...


In the ancient world of the Persian Empire, from the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, worship of inanimate idols of wood and metal was being rejected in favor of "the one living God". In the Levant the idols were called "ba`als", each of which represented a local spirit-deity or "demon". Worship of all such spirits was rejected as immoral, and many were in fact considered malevolent and dangerous. The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: /ləvænt/) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ...


Early demonologists, unaware of Hadad or that "Ba`al" in the Bible referred to any number of local spirits, came to regard the term as referring to but one personage. Baal (usually spelt "Bael" in this context; there is a possibility that the two figures aren't connected) was ranked as the first and principal king in Hell, ruling over the East. According to some authors Baal is a duke, with 66 legions of demons under his command. Demonology is the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. ... “The Inferno” redirects here. ...


During the English Puritan period, Baal was either compared to Satan or considered his main lieutenant. According to Francis Barrett, he has the power to make those who invoke him invisible. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Francis Barrett (born probably in London around 1770-1780) was an English occultist. ...


While the Semitic high god Ba`al Hadad was depicted as a human, ram or a bull, the demon Bael was in grimoire tradition said to appear in the forms of a man, cat, toad, or combinations thereof. An illustration in Collin de Plancy's 1818 book Dictionnaire Infernal rather curiously placed the heads of the three creatures onto a set of spider legs. This design for an amulet comes from the Black Pullet grimoire. ... Collin de Plancy (1793-1887) was a French occultist, demonologist and writer; he published several works on occultism and demonology. ... The Dictionnaire Infernal is a book on demonology that includes the name and description of the lots of demons the demonology organised in hellish hierarchies. ... Diversity 111 families, 40,000 species Suborders Mesothelae Mygalomorphae Araneomorphae  See table of families Wikispecies has information related to: Spiders Spiders are predatory invertebrate animals that have two body segments, eight legs, no chewing mouth parts and no wings. ...


Ba`al Zebûb

Main article: Beelzebub
Beelzebub as depicted in Collin de Plancy's Dictionnaire Infernal (Paris, 1825).

Another version of the demon Baal is Beelzebub, or more accurately Ba‘al Zebûb or Ba‘al Zəbûb (Hebrew בעל-זבוב, Ba`al zvuv), who was originally the name of a deity worshipped in the Philistine city of Ekron. Ba‘al Zebûb might mean 'Lord of Zebûb', referring to an unknown place named Zebûb, a pun with 'Lord of flies', zebûb being a Hebrew collective noun meaning 'fly'. This may mean that the Hebrews were derogating the god of their enemy. Later, Christian writings referred to Ba‘al Zebûb as a demon or devil, often interchanged with Beelzebul. Either form may appear as an alternate name for Satan (or the Devil) or may appear to refer to the name of a lesser devil. As with several religions, the names of any earlier foreign or "pagan" deities often became synonymous with the concept of an adversarial entity. The demonization of Ba‘al Zebûb led to much of the modern religious personification of Satan as the adversary of the Abrahamic God. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (701x800, 114 KB) Summary Description: Beelzebub Source: Dictionnaire Infernal, scan downloaded from http://fantastic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (701x800, 114 KB) Summary Description: Beelzebub Source: Dictionnaire Infernal, scan downloaded from http://fantastic. ... Collin de Plancy (1793-1887) was a French occultist, demonologist and writer; he published several works on occultism and demonology. ... The Dictionnaire Infernal is a book on demonology that includes the name and description of the lots of demons the demonology organised in hellish hierarchies. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... A pun (also known as paronomasia) is a figure of speech, or word play which consists of a deliberate confusion of similar words within a phrase or phrases for rhetorical effect, whether humorous or serious. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Fiend” redirects here. ... Satan frozen at the center of Cocytus, the ninth circle of Hell in Dantes Inferno. ... Look up pagan, heathen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Demonization is the characterization of individuals, groups, or political bodies as evil or subhuman for purposes of justifying and making plausible an attack, whether in the form of character assassination, legal action, circumscribing of political liberties, or warfare. ... The three so-called Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam have in common many beliefs about God. ...


Some scholars have suggested that Ba`al Zebul which means 'lord prince' was deliberately changed by the worshippers of Yahweh to Ba`al Zebub ('lord of the flies') in order to ridicule and protest the worship of Ba`al Zebul. (NIV Study Bible published by Zondervan) For other uses, see Lord of the Flies (disambiguation). ...


Non-religious usage of Ba`al

Ba`al (Bet-Ayin-Lamed; בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʕal, Tiberian Hebrew Báʕal / Báʕal) is a northwest Semitic word signifying 'The Lord, master, owner (male), husband' cognate with Akkadian Bēl of the same meanings. The feminine form is Phoenician בעלת Baʕalat, Hebrew בַּעֲלָה Baʕalah signifying 'lady, mistress, owner (female), wife'.   Beth or Bet is the second letter of many Semetic alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... or Ayin is the sixteenth letter in many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew and Arabic (in abjadi order). ... Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter in many abjad alphabets, including Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... The Semitic languages are the northeastern subfamily of the Afro-Asiatic languages, and the only family of this group spoken in Asia. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal region of what is now Lebanon. ...


The words themselves had no exclusively religious connotation, just as "father" or "lord" are used in religious meaning today—but they were not used in reference between a superior and an inferior or of a master to a slave. The words were used as titles in reference to one or various gods and goddesses, either in declaration of the deity as the Lord or Lady of a particular place (or rite), or standing alone as a term of reverence. Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... The Oxford English Dictionary defines reverence as deep respect and veneration for some thing, place, or person regarded as having a sacred or exalted character. ...


In Wales, there are many Hebrew place names left over from a religious revival that happened a few centuries ago. There is a village called Bryn-y-Baal between Buckley and Mold in Flintshire in Wales. However the 'Baal' has no religious connection. Bryn-y-Baal takes its name from the a Middle English word 'bale' (rhymes with non-rhotic 'Carl') meaning small hill. It was then written in a Welsh form as 'bâl' with a tor bach ('little roof' or 'circumflex' in English) over the 'â'. This has the effect in Welsh of lengthening the 'a' rather than the usual short 'a' (as in cat) in Welsh. This form appears on early Ordnance Survey maps. Eventually it was written in the Anglised form 'Baal' - still correctly pronounced to rhyme with 'Carl' and not 'bale' (as in hay) or bail (as in 'get out of jail') !! For full details of the researched origins - see 'Flintshire Place Names' by Hwyl Wyn Owen ISBN 978-0-7083-1242-1 published in 1995. This article is about the country. ... A Revival is the apparent restoration of a living creature from a dead state to a living state. ... Mynydd Isa (pronounced Mun-ith Issah) is a village in Flintshire, in north-east Wales. ... Buckley (Welsh: ) is a town in Flintshire, Wales, United Kingdom. ... Mold (Welsh: ) is a town in Flintshire, Wales, on the River Alyn. ... Flintshire (Welsh: ) is a principal area and county in north-east Wales. ... Mynydd Isa (pronounced Mun-ith Issah) is a village in Flintshire, in north-east Wales. ... Rhotacism may refer to several phenomena related to the usage of the consonant r: the excessive or idiosyncratic use of the r; conversely, the inability or difficulty in pronouncing r. ...


Also, Ba'al is a Goa'uld portrayed by Cliff Simon in the television series Stargate SG-1 who makes appearances in seasons 5 to present. Baal (played by South African actor Cliff Simon) is a fictional character in the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1, a Goauld based on the Baal of Phoenician mythology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cliff Simon was born in Johannesburg, South Africa. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ...


Baal is the name of one of the three brother demons in the video game Diablo 2: Lord of Destruction.


Ba`al in Judaism

From the Tanach: Genesis 14:13 ba‘alê bərît-’Abrām 'lords of the covenant of Abram', i.e. 'holders of an agreement with Abram', i.e. 'confederates of Abram' or 'allies of Abram'; Genesis 20:3: bə‘ulat bā‘al 'lady of a lord', i.e. 'wife of a man'; Genesis 37:19: ba‘al haḥalōmôt 'lord of the dreams', i.e. 'the one who made himself important in his dreams' or simply 'the dreamer'; Exodus 21:3: ba‘al ’iššâ 'lord of a woman', i.e. 'married man'; Exodus 21:22: ba‘al hā’iššâ 'lord of the woman', i.e. 'husband of the woman'; Exodus 24:14: mî-ba‘al dəbārîm 'who (is) lord of matters', i.e. 'whoever possesses some matter', i.e. 'whoever has a problem'; Leviticus 21:4: ba‘al bə‘ēmmāyw 'lord in his people', i.e. 'man of importance among his people'; Deuteronomy 24:4: ba‘lāh hārišôn 'her lord the former', i.e. 'her former husband'; and so forth. But these should suffice to show the range of the words. 11th century Targum Tanakh [תנ״ך] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [תורה] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [חומש] (The...


In medieval Judaism, a rabbi versed in mysticism was called Ba‘al Shem 'Master of the Name' with no perception of any connection with Ba‘al as a title for a pagan god. Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (16781760) who founded the Hassidic movement, was commonly known during his later life as Ba‘al Shem Tov ("Good Master of the Name") and is still commonly called by that title today. Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbÄ«; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbÄ« is derived from a... Baal Shem in Hebrew translates as Master of the Name, and is almost always used in reference to Israel ben Eliezer, the Rabbi who founded Hasidic Judaism and was called the Baal Shem Tov. ... Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (רבי ישראל בן אליעזר, c. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia Israel ben Eliezer Rabbi Israel (Yisroel) ben Eliezer (about 1700 Okopy Świętej Tr jcy - May 22, 1760 Międzyborz) was a Jewish Orthodox mystical rabbi who is better known to most religious Jews as...


See also

Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... Canaanite religion was the group of belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. ... In the Tanach Baal Peor (Hebrew בעל פעור Ba‘al Pə‘ r), in the Septuagint Beelpheg r, was a god associated with Mount Pe‘or in Moab whom many Israelites began to worship under the influence of Moabite women as told... Ba‘al Shamîm Lord of Heaven is a northwest Semitic god or a title applied to different gods at different places or times found in various ancient Middle-eastern inscriptions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Bel, signifying lord or master, is a title rather than a genuine name, applied to various gods in Babylonian relgion. ... Melqart (less accurately Melkart, Melkarth or Melgart (Greek disposed of the letter Q (Qoppa), replacing it with additional use of K (Kappa) and G (Gamma)), Akkadian Milqartu, was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city of Tyre, as Eshmun protected Sidon. ... Molech Moloch, Molech or Molekh, representing Hebrew מלך mlk, (translated directly into king) is either the name of a god or the name of a particular kind of sacrifice associated historically with Phoenician and related cultures in north Africa and the Levant. ... Cover of the 1995 edition of the 1904 Goetia by S.L.M. Mathers and Aleister Crowley. ... The Ars Goetia (Greek, probably: The Art of Witchcraft), often simply called the Goetia, is the first section of the 17th century grimoire Lemegeton Clavicula Salomonis, or The Lesser Key of Solomon. ... Adon Adon is a character from the Street Fighter series of fighting games. ... Adonis is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity in Greek mythology, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Baal (played by South African actor Cliff Simon) is a fictional character in the science fiction television series Stargate SG-1, a Goauld based on the Baal of Phoenician mythology. ...

Notes

  1. ^ e.g., Numbers 25
  2. ^ "This mountain on the northern horizon of Ras Shamra, modern Jebel el-Aqra and Mount Kasios of the Greeks, was the seat of Baal, who was thus Baal-Saphon. Classical and archaeological evidence suggests that Baal Zephon mentioned in the Exodus from Egypt (Exod. xiv.2) was a shrine of the Canaanite Baal". J. Gray, "Texts from Ras Shamra" in D. Winton Thomas, Documents from Old Testament Times

External links

  • Article Baal, Baalim from The Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Article Baal by W. Robertson Smith and George F. Moore in Encyclopædia Biblica, edited T. K. Cheyne and J. Sutherland Black, MacMillan: London, 1899) (PDF format. Still quite accurate.)
  • Bartleby: American Heritage Dictionary: Semitic roots: bcl.
  • Scarce Punic images of Baal Hammon described.
  • Iconography of Baal (PDF-article)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Baal (demon) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (820 words)
In the Levant the idols were called "baals", each of which represented a local spirit-deity or "demon." Worship of all such spirits was rejected as wrong and many were in fact considered malevolent and dangerous.
While his Semitic predecessor was depicted as a human or a bull, the demon Baal was in grimoire tradition said to appear in the forms of a man, cat, toad, or combinations thereof.
Baal is also the name of a robot in Hardware, a stark film which depicts the hard life humanity faces while surviving in a post-apocalyptic Earth.
Baal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3027 words)
Baal (baʿal) is a Semitic title and honorific meaning lord that is used for various gods, spirits and demons particularly of the Levant.
The worship of Ba`al Hammon flourished in the Phoenician colony of Carthage.
Ba'al Hammon was the supreme god of the Carthaginians and is generally identified by modern scholars either with the northwest Semitic god El or with Dagon, and generally identified by the Greeks with Cronus and by the Romans with Saturn.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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