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Encyclopedia > Ba'ath Party
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The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. It functioned as a pan-Arab party with branches in different Arab countries, but was strongest in Syria and Iraq, coming to power in both countries in 1963. In 1966 the Syrian and Iraqi parties split into two rival organisations. Both Ba'th parties retained the same name and maintain parallel structures in the Arab world. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arabic (Arabic: العربية; transliterated: al-carabiyyah, less formally, عربي transliterated: carabÄ«) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ...


The Ba'th Party came to power in Syria on 8 March 1963 and has held a monopoly on political power since later that year; the Ba'thists ruled Iraq briefly in 1963, and then from July 1968 until 2003. After the de facto deposition of President Saddam Hussein's Ba'thist regime in the course of the 2003 Iraq war, the occupying authorities banned the Iraqi Ba'th Party in June 2003. Jump to: navigation, search March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Saddam Hussein Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīti, sometimes spelled Husayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture during the 2003 invasion... Jump to: navigation, search This article covers invasion specifics. ... Jump to: navigation, search June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with a length of 30 days The month is named after the Roman goddess Juno (mythology), wife of Jupiter and equivalent to the Greek goddess Hera. ... Jump to: navigation, search 2003 (MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Arabic word Ba'th means "resurrection" as in the party's founder Michel Aflaq's published works "On The Way Of Resurrection". Ba'thist beliefs combine Arab Socialism, nationalism, and Pan-Arabism. The mostly secular ideology often contrasts with that of other Arab governments in the Middle East, which sometimes tend to have leanings towards Islamism and theocracy. Jump to: navigation, search Arabic (Arabic: العربية; transliterated: al-carabiyyah, less formally, عربي transliterated: carabī) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arab Socialism (ar. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Nationalism is an ideology which holds that the nation, ethnicity or national identity is a fundamental unit of human social life, and makes certain political claims based on that belief, above all the claim that the nation is the only legitimate basis for the state and... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Jump to: navigation, search Islamism refers to a set of political ideologies derived from various conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalists, which hold that Islam is not only a religion, but also a political system that governs the legal, economic and social imperatives of the state. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term theocracy is used to describe a form of government in which a religion or faith plays a dominant role. ...


The motto of the Party is "Unity, Freedom, Socialism" (in Arabic wahda, hurriya, ishtirakiya). "Unity" refers to Arab unity, "freedom" emphasizes freedom from foreign control and interference in particular, and "socialism" refers to what has been termed Arab Socialism rather than to Marxism. Jump to: navigation, search Arabic (Arabic: العربية; transliterated: al-carabiyyah, less formally, عربي transliterated: carabī) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arab Socialism (ar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...

Contents


Origins

Ba'th Party symbol
Ba'th Party symbol

The Ba'th party originated with two separate nationalist groups in Syria. The first of these, initially known as harakat al-ihyaa al-'arabi (the Arab Resurrection Movement), was set up by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar in 1940s. It was a relatively small group of intellectuals and students, and Aflaq was its main theoretician. His ideology was essentially a form of romantic nationalism coupled with a vague socialism which rejected, however, the idea of class struggle. The second group formed around Zaki al-Arsuzi, a prominent figure in the resistance to French plans to annex the Syrian province of Iskandarun to Turkey. Al-Arsuzi's conception of the Arab nation was essentially a linguistic one, and historian Hanna Batatu also charges him with racialism and a mystical tendency influenced by his Alawite religion. According to some sources, in 1940 Arsuzi founded a group known as al-ba'th al-'arabi (the Arab Resurrection); in other sources, he only used this as the name of a bookshop he opened in Damascus. In any case, he seems to have been the first to adopt the name. Baath Party symbol This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Salah al-Din al-Bitar ( 1911), a Sunni Muslim, co-founder of the Bath Party in Syria. ... Zaki al-Arsuzi is a Syrian philosopher, and founder of the Baath Party. ... shows the Location of the Province Hatay Flag of the Republic of Hatay (1938-1939) Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and Syria to the south and east. ... Jump to: navigation, search Hanna Batatu (born 1926, Jerusalem – died 24 June 2000, Winsted, Connecticut) was a Palestinian historian specialising in the history of the modern Arab east. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Alawites form a Middle Eastern religious group prominent in Syria. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria and is the oldest inhabited city in the world. ...


Al-Bitar and Aflaq were from bourgeois Damascus families, the former a Muslim and the latter an Orthodox Christian. Both had both studied in Paris, coming under the influence of European nationalist and Marxist ideas. The two men, along with al-Arsuzi and another major proponent of early Ba'thist ideology, Shakeeb Dallal, had careers as middle-class educators. Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Eiffel Tower has become a symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... Shakeeb Dallal was born in Palestine in 1922. ...


These groups had formed in opposition to both French colonial rule and to the older generation of Syrian Arab nationalists, and advocated instead Pan-Arab unity and Arab nationalism. Their ideology blended non-Marxist socialism and nationalism. The early Syrian Ba'thists opposed the influence of Europe in their country's affairs, and used nationalism and the notion of unifying the Arab world as a platform. Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Jump to: navigation, search Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ...


Foundation of the Arab Ba'th Party

In 1944, al-Arsuzi was deserted by most of his supporters, the bulk of whom, led by Wahib al-Ghanim, joined the Aflaq-al-Bitar group in 1945. The Arab Ba'th Party came into existence the same year, when its first central committee was formed. Aflaq and al-Bitar were its leaders. The party was officially established two years later at its first party congress, held in Damascus on April 7, 1947. Jump to: navigation, search 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria and is the oldest inhabited city in the world. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


It remained a relatively small party, with a following essentially among intellectuals, until it merged with the Arab Socialist Party of Akram al-Hawrani in 1952. The party's name was changed to the Arab Socialist Ba'th Party, while the consitution and rules of Aflaq and al-Bitar's party were adopted unchanged. A new national command was elected, composed of Aflaq, al-Bitar, al-Hawrani, and Antun Maqdisi, a supporter of al-Hawrani. In 1954 the second party congress ratified the merger. Akram al-Hawrani (born Hama 1912, died Jordan 1996), was a Syrian politician who played a prominent role in the formation of a widespread populist, nationalist movement in Syria and in the rise of the Bath Party. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1952 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Al-Hawrani was a popular figure known for his campaigns against the feudal landlordism prevalent in Hama province and his participation in the Rashid Ali movement in Iraq and resistance to Zionism in Palestine. His support gave the Ba'th both a wider popular base and a foothold in the officer corps of the Syrian military. However, this was not an unmixed blessing: Batatu records that many of his followers retained a personal loyalty to him rather than becoming committed party men. The Orontes River and norias in Hama Hama (Arabic: حماه) is a city which is located on the Orontes river in central Syria, north of the city of Homs, and midway between Damascus and Aleppo. ... El-Gaylani Rashid Ali was the Pro-Axis leader of Iraq who fled to Iran when the Allies invaded Iraq. ... Jump to: navigation, search For other meanings, please see Zionism (disambiguation) Zionism is a political movement and an ideology that supports a Jewish homeland in the Land of Israel, where the Jewish nation originated and where Jewish kingdoms and self governing states existed at various times in history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


The Ba'th claimed to speak for the entire Arab nation and in the course of the 1950s its influence spread to other Arab countries, with branches forming in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon. It was soon to play a prominent role in the turbulent politics of both Syria and Iraq in the 1950s and 1960s, a role that by the end of the 1960s would lead it to power in both countries but also ultimately to its transformation from an competitive, ideological political party into an instrument of rule in one-party regimes in both countries. Jump to: navigation, search 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Ba'th in Syria, 1954 - 1963

Syrian politics took a dramatic turn in 1954 when the military regime of Adib al-Shishakli was overthrown and a democratic system restored. The Ba'th, now a large and popular organisation, gained representation in the parliamentary elections that year. Ideologically-based organisations appealing to the intelligentsia, the petty bourgeoisie and the working class were gaining ground in Syria, threatening to displace the old parties that represented the notables and bourgeoisie. The Ba'th was one of these new formations, but faced considerable competition from ideological enemies, notably the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP), which was intrinsically opposed to Arab nationalism and was seen as pro-Western, and the Syrian Communist Party (SCP), whose support for class struggle and internationalism was also anathema to the Ba'th. In addition to the parliamentary level, all these parties as well as Islamists competed in street-level activity and sought to recruit support among the military. Jump to: navigation, search 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search The intelligentsia (from Latin: intelligentia) is a social class of intellectuals and social groups close to them (e. ... Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that reffered to the members of the lower middle social-classes. ... SSNP flag The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (Arabic: al-Hizb al-Suri al-Qawmi al-Ijtimai, often referred to in French as Parti Populaire Syrien) is a nationalist political party that advocates the establishment of a Greater Syrian national state. ... The Syrian Communist Party evolved out of the Syrian-Lebanese Communist Party founded in 1924. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The assassination of Ba'thist colonel Adnan al-Malki by a member of the SSNP allowed the Ba'th and its allies to launch a crackdown on that party, thus eliminating one rival, but by the late 1950s the Ba'th itself was facing considerable problems, riven by factionalism and faced with ideological confusion among its base. The growth of the Communist Party was also a major threat. These considerations undoubtedly contributed to the party's decision to support unification with Nasser's Egypt in 1958, an extremely popular position in any case. In 1958 Syria merged with Egypt in the United Arab Republic. As political parties other than Nasser's Arab Socialist Union were not permitted to operate, the Ba'th along with Syria's other parties faced the choice of dissolution or suppression. Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital Cairo Created 1958 Dissolved 1961 Demonym Arab The United Arab Republic (Arabic: لجمهورية العربية المتحدة - al jumhuriya al-arabia al-muttahida) (UAR) was the state formed by the union between the republics of Egypt and Syria in 1958. ... The Arab Socialist Union (Arabic: , ; French: lUnion Socialiste Arabe) is one of a number of loosely related political parties based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism in a number of countries. ...


In August 1959 the Ba'th Party held a congress which, in line with Aflaq's views, approved of its liquidation into the Arab Socialist Union. This decision was not universally accepted in party ranks, however, and the following year a fourth party congress was convened which reversed it. Jump to: navigation, search 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Meanwhile, a small group of Syrian Ba'thist officers stationed in Egypt were observing with alarm the party's poor position and the increasing fragility of the union. They decided to form a secret military committee: its initial members were Lieutenant-Colonel Muhammad 'Umran, majors Salah Jadid and Ahmad al-Mir, and captains Hafiz al-Asad and 'Abd al-Karim al-Jundi Jump to: navigation, search Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... Hafez al-Assad (October 6, 1930 - June 10, 2000) was the President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. ...


The merger was not a happy experience for Syria, and in 1961 a military coup in Damascus brought it to an end. Sixteen prominent politicians signed a statement supporting the coup, among them al-Hurani and al-Bitar (although the latter soon retracted his signature). The party was in crisis: the secession was extremely controversial among Syrians in general and most unpopular among the radical nationalists who formed the Ba'th membership. A large section of the membership left in protest, setting up the Socialist Unity Vanguard and gaining considerable support. The leadership around Aflaq was bitterly contested for its timidity in opposing the separation. Al-Hawrani, now a determined opponent of reunification, left the Ba'th and re-established his Arab Socialist Party. Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic officially دمشق Dimashq, colloquially ash-Sham الشام) is the capital city of Syria and is the oldest inhabited city in the world. ... The Socialist Unionists (al-Wahdawiyyun al-Ishtirakiyyun) is a Nasserist political party in Syria. ...


Aflaq sought to reactivate the splintered party by calling a Fifth National Congress held in Homs in May 1962, from which both al-Hawrani's supporters and the Socialist Unity Vanguard were excluded. A compromise was reached between the pro-Nasser elements and the more cautious leadership. The leadership line was reflected in the position the congress adopted in favour of "considered unity" as opposed to the demands for "immediate unity" launched by the Socialist Unity Vanguard (later the Socialist Unity Movement), the Nasserists and the Arab Nationalist Movement. Meanwhile the Syrian party's secret Military Committee was also planning how to take power, having been granted considerable freedom of action by the civilian leadership in recognition of its need for secrecy. Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arab Nationalist Movement (Harakat al-Qaumiyeen al-Arabi), a radical pan-Arab nationalist organization. ...


The Ba'th takes power in Syria and Iraq, 1963

In February 1963, the Iraqi Ba'th took power after bloodily overthrowing Abd al-Karim Qasim and quashing communist-led resistance. Abdul Karim Qassim Abdul Karim Qassim (Arabic: عبد الكريم قاسم ) (also various other spellings; including Kassem, Quasim; popularly known as az-Za’im (Arabic: الزعيم ) the leader) (1914 - 9 February 1963) was an Iraqi military officer involved in the 1958 military coup détat. ...


That same year, the Syrian party's military committee succeeded in persuading Nasserist and independent officers to make common cause with it, and they successfully carried out a military coup on 8 March. A National Revolutionary Command Council took control and assigned itself legislative power; it appointed Salah al-Din al-Bitar as head of a "national front" government. The Ba'th participated in this government along with the Arab Nationalist Movement, the United Arab Front and the Socialist Unity Movement. Jump to: navigation, search March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ...


As historian Hanna Batatu notes, this took place without the fundamental disagreement over immediate or "considered" reunification having been resolved. The Ba'th moved to consolidate its power within the new regime, purging Nasserist officers in April. Subsequent disturbances led to the fall of the al-Bitar government, and in the aftermath of Jasim Alwan's failed Nasserist coup in July, the Ba'th monopolised power. Jump to: navigation, search Hanna Batatu (born 1926, Jerusalem – died 24 June 2000, Winsted, Connecticut) was a Palestinian historian specialising in the history of the modern Arab east. ...


Ideological transformation and division, 1963 - 1966

The challenges of building a Ba'thist state led to considerable ideological discussion and internal struggle in the party. The Iraqi party was increasingly dominated by Ali Salih al-Sa'di, an unsophisticated thinker according to Batatu, who took a hardline leftist approach, declaring himself a Marxist. He gained support in this from Syrian regional secretary Mahmud al-Shufi and from Yasin al-Hafiz, one of the party's few ideological theorists. Some members of the secret military committee also sympathised with this line.


The far-left tendency gained control at the party's Sixth National Congress of 1963, where hardliners from the dominant Syrian and Iraqi regional parties joined forces to impose a hard left line, calling for "socialist planning", "collective farms run by peasants", "workers' democratic control of the means of production", a party based on workers and peasants, and other demands reflecting a certain emulation of Soviet-style socialism. In a coded attack on Aflaq, the congress also condemned "ideological notability" within the party (Batatu, p. 1020). Aflaq, bitterly angry at this transformation of his party, retained a nominal leadership role, but the National Command as a whole came under the control of the radicals. Jump to: navigation, search 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The volte-face was received with anger by elements in the Iraqi party, which suffered considerable internal division. The Nationalist Guard, a paramilitary unit which had been extremely effective, and extremely brutal, in suppressing opposition to the new regime, supported al-Sa'di, as did the B'athist Federation of Students, the Union of Workers, and most party members. Most of its members among the military officer corps was opposed, as was President Abd al-Salam 'Arif. Coup and counter-coup ensued within the party, whose factions did not shrink from employing the military in settling their internal differences. This eventually allowed 'Arif to take control and eliminate Ba'thist power in Iraq for the time being. Abdul Salam Arif (1921, Baghdad - April 13, 1966), president of Iraq (1963-1966). ...


Ba'thist power in Syria

From 1963, the Ba'th functioned as the only legal Syrian political party, but factionalism and splintering within the party led to a succession of governments and new constitutions. On 23 February 1966 a military junta led by Salah Jadid took power, and set out on a more radical line. Although they had not been supporters of the victorious far-left line at the Sixth Party Congress, they had now moved to adopt its positions and displaced the more moderate wing in power, purging from the party its original founders, Aflaq and al-Bitar. February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Junta may refer to: The Concise Oxford English Dictionary defines a junta as a body of persons acting towards a common aim, especially political clique or faction after revolution or coup détat. ... Jump to: navigation, search Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ...


At this juncture the Syrian Ba'th party split into two factions: the "progressive" faction, led by Nureddin Atassi, which gave priority to neo-Marxist economic reform, and the so-called nationalist group, led by Hafiz al-Asad. Asad was unenthusiastic about the radical and increasingly unpopular socialist line the Ba'th was pursuing. He also favoured a more cautious approach in external affairs: he viewed a reconciliation with the conservative Arab states, notably Saudi Arabia, as essential for Syria's strategic position. Despite constant maneuvering and government changes, the two factions remained in an uneasy coalition of power until 1970, when, in another coup, Asad succeeded in ousting Atassi as prime minister. The Ba'th Party in Syria became virtually indistinguishable from the state, with membership numbers well over one million reflecting the fact that party membership was vital to advancement in many sectors. Other socialist parties accepting the basic orientation of the regime were permitted to operate again, and in 1973 the National Progressive Front was established as a coalition of the legal parties; the Ba'th remained firmly in control. Meanwhile, supporters of the far-left line formed the Democratic Arab Socialist Ba'th Party, which remains in existence to this day as an illegal opposition party in Syria and in exile. Jump to: navigation, search The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The National Progressive Front (NPF), established in 1972, is a political party created by former Syrian President Hafiz Al-Asad to give the impression of a democratic state. ...


The Syrian Ba'th and the Iraqi Ba'th were by now two separate parties, each maintaining that it was the genuine party and electing a National Command to take charge of the party across the Arab world. However, in Syria the Regional Command was the real centre of party power, and the membership of the National Command was a largely honorary position, often the destination of figures being eased out of the leadership.


Asad, one of the longest-ruling leaders of the modern Middle East, remained at Syria's political helm until his death in 2000, when his son Bashar al Assad succeeded him as President and as Regional Secretary of the party. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ... Bashar al_Assad Bashar al_Assad (بشار الاسد) (born September 11, 1965) is the current President of Syria and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...


The Ba'th holds 135 of the 250 seats in the Syrian parliament, a figure which is dictated by election regulations rather than by voting patterns.


The party outside Syria

The Syria-based Ba'th Party has branches in Lebanon, Yemen, Jordan, Sudan, Iraq (currently split into two factions), etc., although none of the non-Syrian branches have any major strength. Among the Palestinians, as-Sa'iqa, a member organization of the Palestine Liberation Organisation, is the Syrian Ba'th party branch. As-Saiqa (Arabic: الصاعقة meaning thunderbolt) is a Palestinian political and military faction supported by Syria. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ...


In Lebanon the party is led by Asem Qanso, a Shiite worker of Kurdish descent.


The Iraq-based Ba'th Party

Iraqi and Syrian Ba'thism today differ widely and partially oppose each other, though they only split a long time after their creation. They share one common feature in that under Saddam Hussein Iraq also moved away from Ba'thist principles.


History

In Iraq the Ba'th party remained a civilian group and lacked strong support within the military. The party had little impact, and the movement split into several factions after 1958 and again in 1966. It lacked strong popular support, but through the construction of a strong party apparatus the party succeeded in gaining power.


The Ba'thists first came to power in the coup of February, 1963, when Abd al-Salam 'Arif became president. Interference from the historic leadership around Aflaq and disputes between the moderates and extremists, culminating in an attempted coup by the latter in November, 1963, served to discredit the party. After Arif's takeover in November 1963, the moderate military Ba'thist officers initially retained some influence but were gradually eased out of power over the following months.


In July, 1968, a bloodless coup brought to power the Ba'thist general Ahmad Hassan al-Bakr. Wranglings within the party continued, and the government periodically purged its dissident members. Emerging as a party strongman, Saddam Hussein eventually used his growing power to push al-Bakr aside in 1979 and ruled Iraq until 2003. Although almost all the Ba'thist leadership had no military background, under Hussein the party changed dramatically and became heavily militarized, with its leading members frequently appearing in uniform. General Ahmed Hassan al_Bakr (July 1, 1914 _ October 4, 1982) was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... In history and political science, to purge is to remove undesirable people from a government, political party, profession, or from community/society as a whole, usually by violent means. ... Jump to: navigation, search Saddam Hussein Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīti, sometimes spelled Husayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture during the 2003 invasion...


Structure

The Party cell or circle, composed of three to seven members, constitutes the basic organisational unit of the Iraqi Ba'th Party. Cells functioned at the neighborhood or village level, where members would meet to discuss and execute party directives introduced from above. Since individual cells had little contact with one another, those higher up could vigorously enforce party loyalties from the top down. As the U.S. and its allies discovered in Iraq in 2003, cell organization also made the Party highly resilient.


A Party division comprised two to seven cells, controlled by a division commander. Such Ba'thist cells occurred throughout the bureaucracy and the military, where they functioned as the Party's watchdog, an effective form of covert surveillance within a public administration.


A Party section, which comprised two to five divisions, functioned at the level of a large city quarter, a town, or a rural district.


The branch came above the sections; it comprised at least two sections, and operated at the provincial level.


The Party congress, which combined all the branches, elected the regional command as the core of the Party leadership and top decision-making mechanism.


The national command of the Ba'th Party ranked over the regional command. It formed the highest policy-making and coordinating council for the Ba'th movement throughout the Arab world at large.


Post-Saddam

In June 2003, the multinational occupying forces in Iraq banned the Ba'th party. Some criticize the additional step the CPA took — of banning all members of the Ba'th party from the new government, as well as from public schools and colleges — as blocking too many skilled people from participation in the new government. Several teachers have lost their jobs, causing protests and demonstrations at schools and universities. Under the previous rule of the Ba'th party, one could not reach high positions in the government or in the schools without becoming a party member. This article deals with the post-invasion period in Iraq and its occupation. ... The Seal of the CPA in Iraq The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA) was established as a transitional government in Iraq following the invasion by the United States and the other members of the multinational coalition which was formed to oust the government of Saddam Hussein in 2003. ... Jump to: navigation, search The term public school has different meanings: In Scotland, Australia, the United States and most other English-speaking nations, a school which does not charge tuition fees but is financed and/or controlled by the state, in contrast to a private school (also known as an... The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... A school is most commonly a place designated for learning. ... Jump to: navigation, search A professor giving a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


Many members and supporters of the former Ba'th Party are involved in the Iraqi insurgency. They are most active and draw most of their support from within the Sunni Triangle. However after the capture of Saddam Hussein most Ba'thist groups have started to take up a more Islamist character in a bid to increase their support. Jump to: navigation, search Iraqi militants celebrating orders that the surrounding Coalition forces were given to stand-down. ... Map of the Sunni Triangle The Sunni Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad. ... Jump to: navigation, search Saddam Hussein Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīti, sometimes spelled Husayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture during the 2003 invasion... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


The party outside Iraq

The Iraq-based Ba'th Party had branches in various Arab countries, such as Lebanon, Mauritania and Jordan. After the fall of the Saddam government, many branches have distanced themselves from the central party, such as the branches in Yemen and Sudan.


In Lebanon, the party is led by Liberal Sunni MP for Tripoli Abdul-Majeed Al-Rafei and Nicola Y. Firzli, Beirut-based real estate entrepreneur and scion of a prominent Greek-Orthodox clan who had fought against Ottoman Turkish rule in the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The branch amongst the Palestinians bears the name of Jabhat al-Tahrir al-'Arabiyah (the Arab Liberation Front, or ALF). ALF formed the major Palestinian political faction in Iraq during the Saddam years. ALF symbol Sawt al-Jamahir Arab Liberation Front (in Arabic: جبهة التحريرالعربية, jabha at-tahrir al-arabia) is a minor Palestinian political movement. ...


In Bahrain, Rasul al-Jaishy leads the local pro-Saddam faction of the Ba'th Party, the Nationalist Democratic Rally Society (Jami'at al-Tajammu' al-Qawmi al-Dimuqrati), which in an alliance with radical Islamists opposes the Bahrain government's political reforms. Nationalist Democratic Rally Society (in Arabic: Jamiat al-Tajammu al-Qawmi al-Dimuqrati), a political group attached to the Iraqi-based Baath Party of Saddam Hussein in Bahrain. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ...


An Iraq-oriented Ba'th Party branch formerly existed in Syria, which the Syrian government severely repressed. It was led by former Sunni president Ameen-al-Hafiz who returned to Aleppo in 2003, after having lived in exile in Iraq for more than three decades. Jump to: navigation, search Old Town Aleppo viewed from the Citadel Aleppo is also the name of two townships in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


References

  • The Old Social Classes and New Revolutionary Movements of Iraq, Hanna Batatu, London, al-Saqi Books, 2000. ISBN 0863565204
  • The Iraq-Iran Conflict, NY Firzli, Paris, EMA, 1981. ISBN 2865840026
  • Al-Baath wa-Lubnân [Arabic only] ("The Baath and Lebanon"), NY Firzli, Beirut, Dar-al-Tali'a Books, 1973.
  • Syria: Politics and Society, Derek Hopwood, London, Unwin Hyman, 1988. ISBN 0044450397

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Syria - The Baath Party Apparatus | Syrian Information Resource (1436 words)
AllRefer.com - Syria - The Baath Party Apparatus
At the eighth Baath Party regional congress in January 1985, the Central Committee's membership was increased from seventy-five to ninety-five.
Baath Party presence in the armed forces was separate but parallel to that in the civilian apparatus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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